Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms
Based on "A Lexicon of Cave and Karst Terminology with Special to Environmental Karst Hydrology" EPA/600/R-02/003, 2002, EPA: Washington, DC., Speleogenesis Glossary includes 2699 cave & karst terms
1. A karst landscape dominated by low conical (or hemispherical) hills that forms only in wet tropical climates. The type example is Gunung Sewu in Java. Individual hills are remarkably uniform, each some few hundred meters in diameter and around 50m high. Between them lie broken valleys, dolines or cockpits, draining into sinkholes. Erosion that seems to be initiated in valley systems develops in such a way that the valleys break up into dolines, but the mechanisms leading to uniform shaping of the hills are not fully understood. The widespread cone karst in China is mostly known as fengcong, and its hills are generally more conical than hemispherical in profile . 2. A type of karst topography, common in the tropics, characterized by star-shaped depressions or dolines at the feet of many steep-sided cone-shaped hills; narrow steeply-walled valleys may be present [10, 20]. A variety of Kegelkarst. Synonyms: (French.) karst a pitons; (German.) Kegelkarst, Turmkarst; (Greek.) konoethes karst; (Italian.) carso di torri, carsismo con forme residuali coniche; (Russian.) karst s koniceskimi ostantsami; (Spanish.) karst de conos; (Turkish.) konili karst; (Yugoslavia.) stozasti krs,okasti kras stozcsti, kras. See also cockpit karst. Compare: cupola karst, pinnacle karst, and tower karst.