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Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms
Based on "A Lexicon of Cave and Karst Terminology with Special to Environmental Karst Hydrology" EPA/600/R-02/003, 2002, EPA: Washington, DC., Speleogenesis Glossary includes 2699 cave & karst terms
The limiting value of sub-conduit size, below which water flow is essentially laminar and above which water flow includes a significant turbulent component. Sub-conduit diameters between 5mm and 15mm have been suggested as the minimum for turbulent flow, but the value depends upon a variety of factors, including the flow velocity; at low flow velocities laminar flow conditions may persist in tubes up to 500mm in diameter . See also laminar flow; Reynolds Number; turbulent flow.