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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That topographic map is a map representing the land surface via the use of contour lines which are lines of equal elevation on the earth's surface. synonym: topo map.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

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Huntsville
Speleogenesis: Evolution of Karst Aquifers, 2000, p. 319-324
Speleogenesis under unconfined settings
Abstract:
It is estimated that 90% or more of the longer caves that speleologists have explored and mapped were created by meteoric water circulating underground without important artesian confinement. These are unconfined or common caves. They are often three-dimensionally complex systems of galleries and shafts that, for ease of analysis, may be divided into plan patterns (the dimensions of length and breadth) and long sections (length and depth). Plan patterns are dominantly branchworks in their form, being angular where joints and faults are dominant controls and curvilinear where bedding planes are more important. Irregular networks and anastomotic mazes are common subsidiary components. Modeling has determined the controls of the pattern building to a significant extent. The geometry of cave long sections may be divided into deep phreatic, multi-loop, mixed loop and water table, and ideal water table types, with drawdown vadose caves or invasion vadose caves above them. Many large systems display a mixture of the types. Most of the longer and deeper common caves that are known are of multi-phase origin, displaying two or more different levels of principal passages that are related to the past and present elevations of the springs. The reconstruction that occurs when new passages develop below older ones is responsible for much of the complexity seen on plans of caves. The case studies presented in Chapter 5.3 illustrate many of these features of cave genesis.