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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That unconfined flow is ground-water flow displaying a free surface [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Huntsville
Speleogenesis: Evolution of Karst Aquifers, 2000, p. 338-347
Genesis of a large cave system: the case study of the North of Lake Thun system (Canton Bern, Switzerland)
Abstract:
The genesis of the cave system in the region Hohgant-Sieben Hengste-Lake of Thun (more than 250 km of surveyed passage) has been reconstructed based on speleomorphological observations (mainly by observing where the morphology changes from vadose to phreatic). Eight flow systems (phases) and their respective conduit networks have been distinguished so far. The oldest had a phreatic level at an altitude of 1950 m a.s.l. The last corresponds to today's phreatic zone located at 658 m a.s.l. Between each system, the water table dropped several hundred meters. This appears to be a consequence of changes in boundary conditions, mainly the springis position, which moved down as a tectonic uplift and deepening of the nearby valleys occured. Observations demonstrate that phreatic conduits are sometimes developed close to the ancient water table, but often much deeper, down to 200 to 400 m below this level. The change from one phase to the next seems to have been quick. This stepwise evolution is compatible with the results of computer models which give durations of 10'000 to 30i000 years for conduits systems to develop. Analysis of the conduit networks of each flow system shows that their geometry is mainly influenced by the hydraulic gradients and the overall geometry of the aquifer. The orientation of discontinuity surfaces (fractures and bedding planes) and/or their intersections, play a subordinate role. This is also supported by numerical models found in the literature. As, despite a high fracture density, we observe deep rather than shallow phreatic loops, we assume that the heterogeneity of the discontinuity openings plays a more important role in the depth of karstification than the frequency of the discontinuities.