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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That dam is a structure across a watercourse that impounds water; may be natural or artificial [16].?

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Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Ukrainian Institute of Speleology and Karstology, Simferopol
Hypogene speleogenesis and karst hydrogeology of artesian basins, 2009, p. 137-149
ACTIVE HYPOGENE SPELEOGENESIS AND THE GROUNDWATER SYSTEMSAROUND THE EDGES OF ANTICLINAL RIDGES
Abstract:

It has been recently acknowledged that hypogenic caves are common in limestone terranes (e.g. KLIMCHOUK, 2000; AUDRA et al., 2002, 2007; AULER AND SMART, 2003; FORD AND WILLIAMS, 2007), with an extensive review by KLIMCHOUK (2007). Anticlinal ridges provide large recharge areas through which meteoric water may flow into confined zones around the peripheries during their history of uplift and associated denudation. The spatially varying stratal dips may create preferred flow routes within the confined zone and consequently promote hypogene speleogenesis at the most suitable sites for the water to rise again and discharge. Active speleogenetic sites thus may be found around the edges of anticlinal ridges where the potentiometric levels in the con?ned zone are high enough to promote the rising, transverse ?ow. Further away towards the adjoining synclinal basin, impermeable cover may be too thick to allow rising flow. The preferred sites for speleogenesis may migrate away from the anticlinal axis during the uplift process and associated lowering of groundwater levels. The common occurence of relict isolated hypogene caves in the Judean anticlinorium (FRUMKIN AND FISCHHENDLER, 2005) have led to the discovery of similar caves actively forming today. The Yarkon-Taninim regional aquifer is divided into lower and upper sub-aquifers, of which the lower one becomes (partly) con?ned near the anticlinal axis, while the upper sub- aquifer becomes con?ned at the western foothills. Upward flow is evident at the Ayalon Salinity Anomaly (ASA) where the upper sub-aquifer is still uncon?ned, so that rising water has much larger free space to ?ll in comparison with the nearby confined zone (FRUMKIN AND GVIRTZMAN, 2006). Approaching the watertable, the emerging rising flow can easily travel laterally along the highly permeable karstified zone. The rising ASA water is comparable to artesian springs, which discharge in the zone of lowest head of the upper aquifer. In the case of the ASA, however, the upward ?ow does not reach the open land surface but instead disperses laterally near the watertable. It may thus be considered an “underground delta”. The conceptual model consists of four-segment flow route: (1) rainwater recharge through outcrops on the anticlinal ridge; (2) lateral confined flow down to a depth of ~-700 m; (3) pressurized upward flow through discrete sub-vertical conduits; and (4) multidirectional pervasive flow close to the water table, with restricted output in which the rising water mingles with the ‘normal’ water of the upper aquifer. Maze caves fed by vertical conduits are typical for such an “underground delta”, as they disperse the flow laterally in many similar routes. Dense cave formation is observed to be associated with the upward flow of aggressive water. Within the “underground delta” the aggressiveness is consumed over short distances laterally away from the sub-vertical feeders. Such formation of large voids by dissolution far from the recharge zone implies renewed hydrochemical aggressiveness. The spatial location of the ASA is determined by three conditions that allow upward leakage from the deep sub-aquifer: (1) the location of the westernmost unconfined zone of the upper sub-aquifer, and its association with nearby confined regions; (2) the large upward head gradient; (3) spatial heterogeneities in the vertical permeability that are associated with tectonically disturbed zones.