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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That heel-print karren is see trittkarren.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for adsorption (Keyword) returned 12 results for the whole karstbase:
Hydrogeological investigations into discharge of salt-containing water from a stream into an aquifer., 1976, Neuss Matthias
An aquifer in a horseshoe bend of the Weser river was investigated regarding the processes of the river water infiltration. The geology and geometry of the aquifer was ascertained by means of numerous borings. The hydraulic situation before and after infiltration was determined by water table maps. The intrusion of a salt-freshwater lens could be reconstructed from the beginning of infiltration until ten years later by means of previous results of chemical analysis. By new chemical analysis it was proved that river water infiltrates into the aquifer. Additionally it was established that the relatively high concentration of chloride is reduced during the passage of the groundwater both by mixing with recharged groundwater and by adsorption of the ground. Furthermore temperature measurements in the groundwater at selected stations confirm qualitatively the river water infiltration into the polder.

Presence of Rare-Earth Elements in Black Ferromanganese Coatings from V?ntului Cave (Romania), 1997, Onac, B. P. , Pedersen, R. B. , Tysseland, M.
This study examines the rare-earth elements (REEs) found in ferromanganese coatings covering both sandy alluvium and submerged boulders in an underground stream from V?ntului Cave, Romania. The black ferromanganese sediments are mainly composed of birnessite and other poorly-crystallized manganese oxide and hydroxides (pyrolusite, romanechite, todorokite, rhodochrosite) as well as goethite and kaolinite. Scanning electron microscope and EDX analyses performed on the black ferromanganese sediments show the material to have concentrated considerable amounts of REEs (La, Ce, Sm, Nd) in iron-rich spheres that build up botryoidal-like aggregates. The correlation of 143Nd/144Nd ratio for 6 different samples indicates that the REEs were concentrated in the cave environment after being leached from bauxitic and red residual clays from above the cave. Based on our observations, we conclude that an increase in pH resulted in adsorption of REE onto the surface of ferromanganese minerals. This study demonstrates the potential of using Nd isotopes as a tool for paleochemistry studies of the cave environment.

Highway stormwater runoff in karst areas - preliminary results of baseline monitoring and design of a treatment system for a sinkhole in Knoxville, Tennessee, 1999, Stephenson J. B. , Zhou W. F. , Beck B. F. , Green T. S. ,
Groundwater is vulnerable to contamination in karst areas where highway stormwater runoff may flow directly into karst aquifers with little or no natural attenuation and transport highway-derived contaminants rapidly from sinkholes to locations in the aquifer. The primary goal of this investigation is the development and evaluation of practical remedial measures for treating highway runoff draining into sinkholes. Field testing sites are located in Knoxville, TN, and Frederick, MD. This paper presents a summary of preliminary results of baseline monitoring in Knoxville. Quantitative dye tracing and hydrograph analyses have demonstrated that water draining into the I-40/I-640 sinkhole passes through a phreatic conduit and resurges at Holston Spring ca 128 m (420 ft) from the sinkhole. Stormwater quantity has been monitored continuously for more than 1.5 years, and runoff quality has been monitored during a storm event. For most of the contaminants analyzed, peak contaminant loading at Holston Spring lagged behind the peak at the sinkhole by approximately 1 hour. The movement of stormwater from other sinkholes in the drainage basin to Holston Spring is regulated by partial blockage of the conduit-dominated flow system. Urban development of the karst terrane in eastern Knoxville may be responsible for this observed phenomenon. A pilot-scale stormwater runoff treatment system has been designed using peat, sand, and rock to remove contaminants by sedimentation, filtration, and adsorption. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Organic geochemistry of paleokarst-hosted uranium deposits, South China, 2000, Min M. Z. , Meng Z. W. , Sheng G. Y. , Min Y. S. , Liu X. ,
The paleokarst-hosted uranium deposits in organic-matter, clay-rich Devonian-Carboniferous carbonates are an economically important, new type of uranium deposit in China. The organic matter intimately associated with the uranium mineralization in this type of deposit has been characterized by petrographic, isotopic, gas chromatographic, pyrolysis-gas chromatographic, infrared spectroscopic and elemental geochemical methods. Comparing genetic types of the organic matter in unmineralized and mineralized samples indicates that no fundamental differences are found. The organic matter is chiefly of marine origin and contains a minor terrestrial component. The immature nature of the indigenous organic matter in the unmineralized samples shows generally a low-temperature history (less than or equal to max. 65 degrees C), and geologic data show a shallow maximal burial depth. By combining the organic geochemistry with the geological data, U-Pb dating and temperature determinations, an overall formation process for this type of uranium deposit is deduced. The formation of the paleokarst-hosted uranium deposits in South China is the result of: (1) repeated paleokarstifications of the Devonian and Carboniferous organic, clay-rich carbonate along the faults and unconformities between different strata because of the Hercynian and Yanshanian regional tectonism, and extensive formation of solution-collapse, solution-fault breccias; (2) accumulation of organic matter and clays in the paleocaverns and matrix of the breccias, fixation and adsorption of uranium by the organic matter and clays from the paleokarst waterflows that leached metals from the uranium-bearing host carbonates during their passage towards the karst zones, (3) reduction of uranium by the organic matter and formation of protore and low-grade ore; (4) circulation of heated formational waters and deep circulating, uraniferous meteoric waters by tectonic pumping, reworking the uranium-rich, paleocave-fillings, protore and low-grade ore, reduction and formation of primary uranium minerals (uraninite and coffinite) because of the reducing environment resulting from organic matter and sulfide. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. Ail rights reserved

Seasonal variations in Sr, Mg and P in modern speleothems (Grotta di Ernesto, Italy), 2001, Huang Yiming, Fairchild Ian J. , Borsato Andrea, Frisia Silvia, Cassidy Nigel J. , Mcdermott Frank, Hawkesworth Chris J. ,
Sub-annual variations in trace element chemistry and luminescence have recently been demonstrated from speleothems and offer the potential of high-resolution palaeoclimatic proxies. However, no studies have yet examined microscopic trace element variations in relation to modern cave conditions. In this study, the spatial variations in trace element (Sr, Mg and P) concentrations in speleothems (a stalagmite and a soda straw stalactite) from the alpine Ernesto cave (temperature 6.60.1[deg]C) in a forested catchment in NE Italy have been studied using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and compared with environmental parameters and waters in the modern cave. An annual lamination exists in the stalagmite and soda straw stalactite in the form of clear calcite with narrow visible layers, which are UV-fluorescent and interpreted to contain soil-derived humic/fulvic acids washed into the cave during autumn rains. Microanalyses were undertaken of seven annual laminae, probably deposited during the 1960s in the stalagmite, and seven laminae in the 1990s for the stalactite.The analysis results show that Sr consistently has a trough and P, a peak centred on the inclusion-rich layer. Mg shows mainly a negative covariation with Sr in laminae formed in the 1990s, but a positive covariation in the stalagmite formed in 1960s. The spatial scale of the main geochemical variations is the same as that of annual laminae of inclusion-poor and inclusion-rich couplets. Mass balance arguments are used to show that the P is inorganic in form and presumably occurs as individual phosphate ions within the calcite.Most drip waters show limited chemical variations, but a summer peak in trace elements in 1995 and a decrease in Mg/Ca in the following winter are notable. More pronounced covariations in Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca are shown by a site with highly variable drip rates where ratios increase at slow drip rates. The strongest seasonal variations are found in pool waters, where ratios increase reflecting significant Ca removal from the water into the calcite during the winter in response to seasonal PCO2 variations in cave air. Thus, the cave waters' compositions tend to reflect climate conditions, such that Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca are tentatively interpreted to be higher when climate conditions are dry.Combining results from the speleothems and cave water along with the behaviour of each trace species, Mg/Ca variations in the speleothems are considered to reflect their variation in the cave waters, whereas, Sr incorporation is also dependent on precipitation rate, in this case, mainly controlled by temporal variations in PCO2 in the cave (and conceivably, also by inhibitors such as phosphate). P adsorption (a fraction of which is subsequently incorporated within calcite) depends on aqueous phosphate concentration and water flux, both of which should increase during the autumn. Therefore, multiple trace element profiles in speleothems reflect multiple aspects of environment seasonality and conditions, and hence, a calibration against weather records is desirable to establish their palaeoclimatological meaning. The strong annual variation of trace elements, and particularly P, can provide chronological markers for high-resolution studies of other climate proxies, such as stable isotopes

Cadmium and zinc adsorption maxima of geochemically anomalous soils (Oxisols) in Jamaica, 2003, Davies Be, Vaughan J, Lalor Gc, Vutchkov M,
Soil samples were collected from a Miocene limestone area of Jamaica (Manchester Parish) where unusual accumulations of Cd and other metals have been described previously. The source of the metals is natural (geological). The soils are aluminous Oxisols and, geochemically, are closely similar to local karst bauxite deposits. For comparison a karst bauxite sample was collected from Alabama (USA) and an Ultisol sample from South Carolina (USA). All the Jamaican soils were in the pH range neutral to slightly alkaline and CaCO3 contents ranged from 1.3 to 23.1 %. Mean total Cd = 102.5 mg/kg (range 13.6-191.8 mg/kg) and mean Zn = 362.6 (range = 125.8-683.3) mg/kg. These values are higher than world averages. The mean readily exchangeable Cd was 0.05 (range 0.01-0.15) mmol/kg and for Zn mean = 0.02 (range 0.01-0.02) mmol/kg. Adsorption data were obtained experimentally and modelled using the Langmuir isotherm. For the Manchester soils the mean Cd adsorption maximum was 9.15 (range 2.26-32.0) mmol/kg; the values were higher than the karst bauxite sample (0.08 mmol/kg) or the Ultisol (0.08 mmol/kg). Reliable Zn isotherms were not obtained for all soils; for three Manchester soils the mean Zn sorption maximum was 2.99 mmol/kg compared with 3.13 mmol/kg for Cd in the same three soils. Mean Al and Fe values are 38.7% Al2O3 and 17.7% Fe2O3 compared with the Ultisol (14.5% Al2O3,11.3% Fe2O3) and the bauxite (52.6% Al2O3, 0.7%Fe2O3). Interpretation of the major element values and the known mineralogy of the soils implies that the high adsorption maxima of the Manchester soils can best be explained by their calcareous nature. It is concluded that the Manchester soils have ample adsorption capacity to trap any incoming Cd or Zn solutes

Metal transport to karst springs during storm flow: an example from Fort Campbell, Kentucky/Tennessee, USA, 2003, Vesper D. J. , White W. B. ,
Low levels of heavy metals were investigated in a series of springs discharging from the Mississippian limestone aquifer underlying the Fort Campbell Army Base in western Kentucky/Tennessee. Springs were sampled at short time intervals through periods of storm discharge. Unfiltered samples were digested and analysed by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Metals detected at the mug/l level included As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb. Metal concentrations exhibited a pronounced maximum coincident with the peak of the storm hydrograph in contrast to carbonate species (Ca, Mg) which dipped to a minimum at the peak of the storm hydrograph. Metal concentrations track with aluminium and iron suggesting that the metal transport is mainly by adsorption onto suspended particulates which are mobilized during storm flow.

X-ray standing wave study of the Sr/Si(001)-(2 x 3) surface, 2003, Goodner D. M. , Marasco D. L. , Escuadro A. A. , Cao L. , Tinkham B. P. , Bedzyk M. J. ,
Sub-monolayer surface phases of Sr on Si(0 0 1) have been studied with low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and X-ray standing waves (XSW). A (3 x 1) phase was observed after depositing 0.6-0.8 ML Sr on room-temperature Si(0 0 1). Annealing at 750-800degreesC caused a portion of the Sr to desorb and resulted in a sharp (2 x 3) LEED pattern. Normal Si(0 0 4) and off-normal Si(0 2 2) and Si(1 11) XSW measurements made on the (2 x 3) phase indicate that Sr atoms must sit at either cave or bridge sites. The XSW results also suggest that if a sufficiently low anneal temperature is used. the (2 x 3) phase co-exists with short-range ordered regions of Sr atoms located at valley-bridge sites. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Study of soil leachates in doline above the Beke Cave, Hungary, 2004, Tatar E. , Mihucz V. G. , Tompa K. , Poppl L. , Zaray G. , Zambo L. ,
Fulvic acid, Ca and Mg concentrations as well as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and electric conductivity values of soil solutions which resulted from injecting bidistilled water onto glass columns filled with different soils (black rendzina, brown rendzina, red clayey rendzina, red clay) characteristic of the Aggtelek karst system (NE Hungary), were determined. Identification and determination of fulvic acid were achieved by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and adsorption chromatography, respectively, with fluorescent spectrometric detection. The Ca and Mg concentration of the samples was determined by applying an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) method. DIC-expressed in CO2 concentration values-was determined by using a CO2 selective electrode. According to the SEC analysis, the apparent molecular weight of the fulvic acids of the samples were between 500 and 1600 Da. The fulvic acid concentration values of the percolated water samples decreased in function of the soils investigated as follows: black rendzina>brown rendzina>red clayey rendzina>red clay, which is in concordance with the organic matter content of these types of soils. The results obtained for fulvic acid, Ca and Mg concentrations as well as for DIC, pH and electric conductivity of the water samples collected from the column filled with red clay were in good agreement with those of a seepage water sample collected from an observation station built in red clay above the Beke Cave (Aggtelek). Since the artificially prepared red clay column was exposed to the same temperature and humidity conditions like red clay of the sampling site, this method seems to be suitable for modelling infiltration of fulvic acid and metals from red clay into seepage water under laboratory conditions. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

On Ra-226 and Rn-222 concentrations in the brackish waters of coastal aquifers: lab-investigations and confirmation in the carbonate aquifer of Brindisi (Italy), 2005, Spizzico M. , Sciannamblo D. ,
The ground waters circulating in the Apulian mesozoic carbonate aquifer, of coastal type, show high concentrations of Rn-222 everywhere. Considering their variation during the different phases of a hydrological year, such high concentration values can reach activity of 20 Bq/L, in the more internal zones of the aquifer. Moreover, it is often observed that, in correspondence of wells and springs nearest the coast, the concentrations of radioactive gas reach values greater than 400 Bq/L and vary considerably during the course of a day and with withdrawals. The research carried out over the last few years, has confirmed that Ra-226 and Rn-222 concentrations in the karst groundwater of Apulia, are mainly related to the occurrence of 'Terra Rossa' inside the aquifer and the capacity of these paleosols to fix the salts of Ra-226 coming from the dissolution of the calcareous and calcareous-dolomitic rocks. This paper shows the results of the analysis performed to define Rn-222 increase in the brackish waters that come in contact with carbonate rocks and 'terra rossa'. It also indicates the results of surveys performed in a coastal zone with well-known hydrogeological features. The controls performed during one hydrological year, have confirmed the relationships between the salt content of the ground waters and the enrichment of Rn-222 and have highlighted that the manner of increase of this radioisotope is related to cases of ionic exchange and adsorption regulated by the dynamics of marine intrusion

Bench-scale models of dye breakthrough curves, 2013, Anger Cale T. , Alexander Jr. E. Calvin

Fluorescent dye tracer breakthrough curves (TBCs) obtained from quantitative traces in karst flow systems record multiple processes, including advection, dispersion, diffusion, mixing, adsorption, and chemical reaction. In this study, TBCs were recorded from small, bench-scale physical models in an attempt to isolate, understand, and quantify some of these processes under full-pipe flow conditions. Dye traces were conducted through a suite of geometries constructed out of Pyrex glass. These geometries consisted of (1) linear conduits, of varying length and diameter, (2) single and dual mixing chambers, and (3) a single chamber with an immobile region. Each glass system was connected to a constant flow apparatus. Dye was then injected with a syringe, allowed to flow through the system, and be naturally or artificially mixed in the process. Solute breakthrough was recorded in a scanning spectrofluorophotometer and the resulting TBC was analyzed. Independent variables examined in each of the three settings were discharge (Q) and dye concentration (Co). Artificial mixing rates (RM), induced by magnetic stirrers in settings (2) and (3), were also considered. Initial runs varied Q from 0.75 to 1.25 mL/s, with constant RM ranging from 0 to 360 revolutions per minute (rpm). Preliminary data yield realistic-looking breakthrough curves with steeply rising leading edges, a peak, and an asymmetric, exponential tail. Analysis of laboratory variables with respect to hydraulic parameters extracted from each TBC suggests that discharge and mixing rate alone can differentiate conduit complexity at the laboratory scale.

 


Diatom flora in subterranean ecosystems: a review., 2014,

In scarcity of light and primary producers, subterranean ecosystems are generally extremely oligotrophic habitats, receiving poor supplies of degradable organic matter from the surface. Human direct impacts on cave ecosystems mainly derive from intensive tourism and recreational caving, causing important alterations to the whole subterranean environment. In particular, artificial lighting systems in show caves support the growth of autotrophic organisms (the so-called lampenflora), mainly composed of cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, mosses and ferns producing exocellular polymeric substances (EPSs) made of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This anionic EPSs matrix mediates to the intercellular communications and participates to the chemical exchanges with the substratum, inducing the adsorption of cations and dissolved organic molecules from the cave formations (speleothems). Coupled with the metabolic activities of heterotrophic microorganisms colonising such layer (biofilm), this phenomenon may lead to the corrosion of the mineral surfaces. In this review, we investigate the formation of biofilms, especially of diatom-dominated ones, as a consequence of artificial lighting and its impacts on speleothems. Whenever light reaches the subterranean habitat (both artificially and naturally) a relative high number of species of diatoms may indeed colonise it. Cave entrances, artificially illuminated walls and speleothems inside the cave are generally the preferred substrates. This review focuses on the diatom flora colonising subterranean habitats, summarizing the information contained in all the scientific papers published from 1900 up to date. In this review we provide a complete checklist of the diatom taxa recorded in subterranean habitats, including a total of 363 taxa, belonging to 82 genera. The most frequent and abundant species recorded in caves and other low light subterranean habitats are generally aerophilic and cosmopolitan. These are, in order of frequency: Hantzschia amphioxys, Diadesmis contenta, Orthoseira roeseana, Luticola nivalis, Pinnularia borealis, Diadesmis biceps and Luticola mutica. Due to the peculiarity of the subterranean habitats, the record of rare or new species is relatively common. The most important environmental factors driving species composition and morphological modifications observed in subterranean populations are analysed throughout the text and tables. In addition, suggestions to prevent and remove the corrosive biofilms in view of an environmentally sustainable cave management are discussed.


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