Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That boxwork is 1. a three-dimensional network of thin sheets of mineral projecting from a cave wall. the boxwork is vein fillings etched from the cave wall by dissolution of the host limestone and consists mostly of calcite and quartz. it is not common, but spectacular displays occur in ind cave, south dakota, usa [9]. 2. network of thin blades of calcite or gypsum etched out in relief on the limestone walls and ceiling of a cave [10].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for agriculture (Keyword) returned 47 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 47
The role of groundwater in eutropication of a lake in glacial outwash terrain., 1976, Lee David Robert
The nutrient contribution of groundwater in glacial outwash terrain was evaluated at Lake Sallie in north-central U.S.A. (4646' N., 95 54' W.). Groundwater entering the lake was collected with seepage meters consisting of bottomless cylinders vented to a thin membrane bag. A theoretical flow net and comparison of nutrient concentrations in well and seepage water indicated that seepage meters can be used in high velocity discharge areas to obtain site-specific water samples of groundwater for nutrient analyses. Based on an average value of 0.25 mg/l PO4, groundwater inflow along an 800 km segment of shoreline transported 37 kg of phosphorus per year into the lake. Groundwater inflow was nitrate rich along shoreline adjacent so land used for agriculture and lakeside septic tanks, but there was no apparent pattern regarding land use and phosphorus content of groundwater inflow. A nearby eutrophic lake was a suspected source of phosphorus in groundwater inflow. Because surface flow has carried large quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus into this lake, its present eutrophic condition cannot be attributed to nutrient influx by groundwater. However, groundwater nutrient influx could be highly significant in other lakes where surface nutrient influx is small.

WATER-BUDGET, FUNCTIONING AND PROTECTION OF THE FONTAINE-DE-VAUCLUSE KARST SYSTEM (SOUTHEASTERN FRANCE), 1992, Blavoux B, Mudry J, Puig Jm,
The karst aquifer of the well-known Fontaine de Vaucluse has been recently studied, results have been got about delimitation of the system and its working. Geological data (lithology and structure) have allowed to delimit an 1115 Km2 intake area including Ventoux-Lure north facing range (1,909-1,826 m) and the Plateau which is prolonging it southwards (Fig. 1 and 2). The average altitude of the whole area, obtained by balancing elevation belt surfaces, is about 870 m. This elevation squares with results of tracing tests (Fig. 3), environmental physical, chemical and isotopic tracings, that allow to value a 850 m average altitude for the intake area (Fig. 4). The moisture balance has been computed from an altitude belts climatic model, using local rain an temperature gradients (Fig. 5 and Table II), because the weather network is not representative. So, rainfalls rise of about 55 mm per 100 m elevation and temperature decreases of about 0.5-degrees-C per 100 m. The consequence of these two antagonist phenomena is the quasi constant value of actual evapotranspiration on each altitude belt. With the Fig. 7 organigram, curves of effective rainfalls and infiltration coefficient versus elevation can be plotted (Fig. 6). This computation shows that 3/4 of the total and the whole of dry season effective rainfalls are provided by the part of the intake area situated above the average altitude: on the lowest belt, effective rainfalls are only 120 mm per year and increase to 1380 mm on the upper section (Fig. 8 and Table 1). The weighted effective rainfalls are about 570 mm per year for the whole intake area. Hydrodynamical and physico-chemical studies show, despite its large size, the weak inertia of the system, so proves its good karstification, that confirms for the whole system the pin-point speleological observations. The discharge of the spring, which average value is 21 m3.s-1 (only 18 for the last ten years), can exceed 100 m3.s-1 and the minimum has never been lower than 3.7 m3.s-1 (Fig. 9). When it rains on the intake area, the increase of the discharge is very sudden in a rainy period : one to four days. This short delay is due to seepage through epikarst and unsaturated zone. During dry periods, the spring reaction is deadened, due to storage in the unsaturated zone. The silica content distribution was plotted during several hydrokinematical phases (Fig. 10). It shows: an almost unimodal distribution for the 8 km2 fissured limestone aquifer of Groseau; a multimodal one for the 1115 km2 karst aquifer of Fontaine de Vaucluse. This proves that karstification is more important than size in the response of the system. Weak summer rainfalls do not influence the discharge, nevertheless they influence chemistry of the spring water, and so interrupts the water depletion phasis. Then, the decrease of discharge can continue after the end of the chemical depletion phasis, water which is overflowing after summer rainfalls (in a dry period) is influenced hy the chemistry of seepage water : on the graph of a principal components analysis, done on chemical variables. an hysteresis phenomenon can be seen (Fig. 11). A discriminant analysis (Fig. 12) confirms that these autumn waters, with high ratio seepage tracers, are not reserve waters from the saturated zone. The ratio of reserve water in the total discharge, is preponderant: 3/4 and 2/3 respectively of the yearly runoff volumes for 1981 and 1982 (Fig. 13), but an important part of these reserves can be stored in the unsaturated zone. This storage capacity can be valued by different means: transposing to Vaucluse (1115 km2) the volume measured on another karst system in the Pyrenees (13 km2); it gives about 100 million m2; using setting parameters of Bezes model (1976) on the same aquifer: it gives 113 million m3; using depletion curves, that show, for instance during the 1989 summer and autumn dry period, a 80 million m3 volume. In all cases, we get a value of about one hundred million m3 for the storage capacity of the unsaturated zone. With a 20 m range of fluctuation for the water table and with a 10(-2) specific yield, on a 500 to 1,000 km2 saturated zone, the zone of fluctuation can release about 10 to 20 million m3. Then, the volume of water stored in the whole saturated zone, with a 300 m minimum thickness (depth of the waterlogged pit of the Fontaine), a 500 km2 minimum surface and a 10(-3) specific yield, is about 150 million m3, including 27 million m3 stored in the channels. So, the unsaturated zone represents a significant part of the whole storage capacity and most of the yearly renewable reserves. Paradoxically, the biggest french spring is not tapped at all; as its intake area is neither a regional nor a national park, no general protection covers it : because of its good karstification, the vulnerability of the system is important. Good quality of water is attributable to the low population and human activities density on the intake area (4 inh.km-2). A great part of the intake area is uncultivated (large forest and ''garrigues'' areas). Due to the lack of surface water and scantness of soils, agriculture is not intensive (lavender, thyme, sage and bulk wheat fields. meadowlands). On the mountainous zone, roads are salted in winter and snowmelt water can reach a significantly high chloride ratio than in a natural climatic functioning (for instance 25 mg.l-1 in Font d'Angiou where the ratio would have been 3 mg.l-1). As tourism is developing both on the mountain and on the plateau, the management of the highest intake area must be carefully held: its part is preponderant in the feeding of the system

SOUTHERN AFRICA AND MODERN HUMAN ORIGINS, 1992, Deacon Hj,
This paper argues that southern Africa was a remote part of the Old World in the late Pleistocene (125-10 ka ago). Because of this isolated position there was continuity without significant replacement in the resident population. Isolation and the relatively recent spread of agriculture to the region has allowed a section of this population to survive into the present. They are the Bushmen (San). Studies of geographic patterning in conventional genetic markers and mitochrondrial DNA indicate that the Bushman clade has a long evolutionary history in southern Africa. Estimates of more than 100 ka for the continued presence of this population in the region are supported in archaeological investigations of sites with long sequences such as Klasies River main site and Border Cave. Human remains dating to the earlier part of the late Pleistocene have been recovered from these sites and the samples form a morphological series with the Klasies River remains possibly 20 ka older than those from Border Cave. There is no fossil record for the later Pleistocene, however, at a period when selection for a gracile morphology may have been pronounced. The cultural associations in the earlier late Pleistocene are with the Middle Stone Age. Expressions of cultural 'style' and the occurrence of similar artefact design types in the Middle and Later Stone Ages can be interpreted with reference to the ethnographic present. Temporal continuity can be shown in the geographical distribution of stylistic markers and this suggests participation in a shared cognitive system. The inference is that the people in the earlier late Pleistocene had cognitive abilities that are comparable to those shown by their Holocene and modern descendants. The presence of the ancestors of a modern population in the earlier late Pleistocene in this region is perhaps expected if modern people had their origins in Africa

RESOURCE USE IN THE TROPICAL KARSTLANDS OF CENTRAL BELIZE, 1993, Day M,
Rural tropical ecosystems are subject to many traditional land uses that employ the indigenous karst resources: rock, water, soil, vegetation, and wildlife. Individual resource pressures often arc subtle, but their combined impact can precipitate instability in the tropical karst environment, potentially resulting in disruption of food, water, and fuel supplies. The karst of central Belize was used intensively for some six centuries by Maya farmers. but between the 10th and 19th centuries AD most of it reverted to secondary forest. Commercial logging dominated the 19th and early 20th centuries, followed by the expansion of subsistence and commercial agriculture after 1945. In the 1980s resource use has accelerated as population and other pressures increase. Much karst remains forested, but there is increasing clearance for agricultural uses, particularly for citrus cultivation and small-scale mixed agriculture. Soil depletion has begun to occur, water resources are increasingly taxed, and some wildlife is threatened by habitat destruction and increased hunting. Lime production for the citrus industry has promoted quarrying, water extraction, and fuelwood use. Environmental stresses currently do not exceed the threshold of instability, but the rapidly developing rural economy warrants careful monitoring of resource pressures

Thesis Abstract: The impact of Agriculture on limestone caves; with special reference to the Castleton catchment, Derbyshire, 1995, Hardwick P.

NITRATE CONCENTRATIONS IN KARST SPRINGS IN AN EXTENSIVELY GRAZED AREA, 1995, Boyer Dg, Pasquarell Gc,
The impact on water quality by agricultural activity in karst terrain is an important consideration for resource management within the Appalachian Region. Karst areas comprise about 18 percent of the Region's land area. An estimated one-third of the Region's farms, cattle, and agricultural market value are located on karat terrain. Nitrate concentrations were measured in several karat springs in Southeastern West Virginia in order to determine the impact of animal agriculture on nitrate pollution of the karst ground water system. Karst basins with 79, 51, 16, and 0 percent agriculture had mean nitrate concentrations of 15.8, 12.2, 2.7, and 0.4 mg/l, respectively. A strong linear relationship between nitrate concentration and percent agricultural land was shown. Median nitrate concentration increased about 0.19 mg l(-1) per percent increase in agricultural land. Weather patterns were also found to significantly affect the median nitrate concentrations and the temporal variability of those concentrations. Lower nitrate concentrations and lower temporal variability were observed during a severe drought period. It was concluded that agriculture was significantly affecting nitrate concentrations in the karst aquifer. Best management practices may be one way to protect the ground water resource

Excavations in Buried Cave Deposits: Implications for Interpretation, 1996, Brady, J. E. , Scott, A.
Karst areas in Belize are coming under increasing pressure from agriculture and other commerce. Opportunely protected karst areas are incorporated within forest reserves, national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, nature reserves, archaeological reserves, private conservation and management areas, and special development areas. The total area of karst afforded nominal protection is about 3400 km, or about 68% of the total. Incorporating special development areas, the protected karst area is about 4300 km, or 86% of the total. Even the more conservative percentage is unparalleled in Central America and the Caribbean, and perhaps the world. Significant protected karst areas include the Chiquibul, Blue Hole and Five Blues Lake national parks, the Bladen, Aquas Turbias and Tapir Mountain nature reserves, the Monkey Bay Wildlife Sanctuary, the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, and the Caracol, Xunantunich, Cahal Pech and El Pilar archaeological reserves. Extensive karst areas are located within the Vaca, Columbia River, Sibun, and Manatee forest reserves. The Manatee and Cayo West special development areas have considerable karstic components.

Conservation of Karst in Belize, 1996, Day, M.
Karst areas in Belize are coming under increasing pressure from agriculture and other commerce. Opportunely protected karst areas are incorporated within forest reserves, national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, nature reserves, archaeological reserves, private conservation and management areas, and special development areas. The total area of karst afforded nominal protection is about 3400 km, or about 68% of the total. Incorporating special development areas, the protected karst area is about 4300 km, or 86% of the total. Even the more conservative percentage is unparalleled in Central America and the Caribbean, and perhaps the world. Significant protected karst areas include the Chiquibul, Blue Hole and Five Blues Lake national parks, the Bladen, Aquas Turbias and Tapir Mountain nature reserves, the Monkey Bay Wildlife Sanctuary, the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area, and the Caracol, Xunantunich, Cahal Pech and El Pilar archaeological reserves. Extensive karst areas are located within the Vaca, Columbia River, Sibun, and Manatee forest reserves. The Manatee and Cayo West special development areas have considerable karstic components.

The Chronology of Early Agriculture and Intensive Mineral Mining in the Salts Cave and Mammoth Cave Region, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, 1996, Kennedy, M. C. , Watson, P. Jo.
Thermography was used to locate hydrological features in karst watersheds. The approach was demonstrated by flying a thermal camera over the Keel Mountain area of north Alabama. Known features were identified and features not on United State Geological Survey topographic maps and unknown to the authors were discovered. Springs with flow rates less than 3 liters/sec and a region of strong infiltration in a losing stream were easily identified.

Agricultural land use effects on nitrate concentrations in a mature karst aquifer, 1996, Boyer Dg, Pasquarell Gc,
The impact on water quality by agricultural activity in karst terrain is an important consideration for resource management within the Appalachian Region. Karst areas comprise about 18 percent of the Region's land area. An estimated one-third of the Region's farms, cattle, and agricultural market value are on karst terrain. Nitrate concentrations were measured in cave streams draining two primary land management areas. The first area was pasture serving a beef cow-calf operation. The second area was a dairy. Nitrate-N concentrations were highest in cave streams draining the daily and a cave stream draining an area of pasture where cattle congregate for shade and water. The dairy contributed about 60 to 70 percent of the nitrogen load increase in the study section of the cave system. It was concluded that agriculture was significantly affecting nitrate concentrations in the karst aquifer. Best management practices may be one way to protect the ground water resource

Symposium Abstract: The impacts of Agriculture on Nitrate and Phosphate concentrations in UK cave recharge waters with special reference to the P8 cave, Derbyshire, 1998, Hardwick P.

Forest recovery in the karst region of Puerto Rico, 1998, Rivera L. W. , Aide T. M. ,
Widespread deforestation has led to an increase in secondary forest in the tropics. During the late 1940s in Puerto Rico, forest covered only 6% of the island, but a shift from agriculture to industry has led to the increase of secondary forest. This study focuses on the regeneration of forest following the abandonment of pastures and coffee plantations located in the karst region of Puerto Rico. Alluvial terraces and sinkholes were the principal features used for pastures, shifting agriculture, and coffee plantations, whereas mogotes (limestone hills of conical shape) were burned periodically or cut for charcoal or wood production. Abandoned pasture sites had a greater woody species diversity in comparison with coffee sites. The density of woody stems was greater in the abandoned pasture sites and Spathodea campanulata was the dominant species. In coffee sites Guarea guidonia was the most abundant species. There was no difference in basal area between the two land uses. Canonical Correspondence Analysis applied separately to adults and seedlings clearly separated each community according to land use. Seedling composition in coffee sites indicates a resistance to change in terms of the dominant species while in the pasture sites the composition will change as the dominant species S. campanulata is replaced with more shade tolerant species. Patches of forest that remained on the steep sides of mogotes and the presence of bats appears to have enhanced forest recovery, but the land use history of these sites has affected the pattern of regeneration and will continue to affect forest dynamics for many years. The karst area is a critical environment for water resources and biodiversity and its conservation and restoration is essential. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Role and evaluation of settlements on karst in Slovenia , 1998, Kladnik, Drago

The article discusses demographic, social, economic and infrastructural indicators of Slovenian settlements. It focuses on reciprocal comparison of different types of settlements on karstic land, and on their comparison to other settlements that are also divided into characteristic types. The main criterion for their enlistment as karstic is not their position on carbonate minerals but the stony surface and the minute karstic dissection of the land in individual settlements that enables machine cultivation and adaptation of the landownership structure to modern agro-technical principles.


Influence of modern farming on karstic landscapes , 1998, Rejec Brancelj, Irena

This article is focused upon the present characteristics of farming in karstic landscapes Bela krajina, Dobrepolje and the Valley of Ribnica with Kočevje, mainly from the point of view of environment pollution. In all of them limestone with underground drainage prevails. Regarding its characteristics, we cannot define farming in the discussed karstic regions as extensive. The most important agricultural branch is cattle-breeding. All the data used for the estimation of the ecological influences of farming were collected through proper field work by making inquiries. Cultivated land was being fertilised mostly with stable manure and mineral fertilisers. The ecological awareness of farmers is actually at its starting point, and in all these delicate karstic regions it can be defined as definitely too low.


Environmental vulnerability and agriculture in the karstic domain: landscape indicators and cases in the Atlas Highlands, Morocco, 1999, Akdim Brahim, Amyay Mohammed
After the brief presentation of the major karstic areas in Morocco, the article focused essentially on the Atlas mountains to investigate the impact of the agriculture on the natural systems equilibrium. Socio-economic changes (demographic pressure, escalation of the landscape use, utilisation of new techniques in water harvesting, etc...) have sometimes fathered mechanisms of degradation. Many indicators seem to reflect these mechanisms. The pedologic indicators, soil erosion, the hydrologic and geomorphic indicators, are apprehended to demonstrate existent correlation between different variables and the often negative impacts of land over-use in the karstic domain of the Middle Atlas.

Results 1 to 15 of 47
You probably didn't submit anything to search for