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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That parting is the separation of sedimentary rock along bedding planes [16]. synonyms: bedding-plane; bedding-plane parting. see also bedding plane.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for aquifer systems (Keyword) returned 37 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 37
Major geochemical processes in the evolution of carbonate-aquifer systems., 1979, Hanshaw B. B. , Back W

Evaluation of recession hydrographs, from four karst springs in Europe, provides important information concerning the flow process operating in karst aquifer systems. Three analytic equations are used to evaluate the hydrographs: Mangin's equation, that assumes the recession is composed of both quickflow and baseflow; Coutagne's equation which considers the recession to be the response of a single reservoir; and a new function, H(t) (which is derived from Coutagne's equation), that refers to the whole recession curve. Using Mangin's equation it is apparent that the saturated zone and thus baseflow exerts nearly complete control over the discharge of La Villa spring and is fairly important at Fuente Mayor and Baget springs, but is much less significant at Aliou spring. The saturated zone accounts for 100%, 90%, 91%, and 40% respectively for these springs. Using Coutagne's equation and H(t) it is concluded that for Aliou and Baget springs, water flows freely in the high transmissive zones, but in the poorly transmissive zones, there is little continuity of connection in the system. At Fuente Mayor spring the differences in these zones are not so apparent and a gradual transition occurs. However, at La Villa spring, the karst aquifer is evidently much more homogeneous and the discharge is similar to that of a porous intergranular aquifer

We collected 43 km of high resolution seismic reflection profiles from a 14.5-hectare lake in the central Florida sinkhole district and data from three adjacent boreholes to determine the relationship between falling lake levels and the underlying karst stratigraphy. The lake is separated from karstified Paleogene to early Neogene carbonates by 65-80 m of siliciclastic sands and clays. The carbonate and clastic strata include three aquifer systems separated by clay-confining units: a surficial aquifer system (fine to medium quartz sand in the upper 20-30 m), the 25-35 m thick intermediate aquifer system (in Neogene siliciclastics), and the highly permeable upper Floridan aquifer system in Paleogene to early Neogene limestones. Hydraulic connection between these aquifer systems is indicated by superjacent karst structures throughout the section. Collapse zones of up to 1000 m in diameter and > 50 m depth extend downward from a prominent Middle Miocene unconformity into Oligocene and Upper Eocene limestones. Smaller sinkholes (30-100 m diameter, 10-25 m depth) are present in Middle to Late Neogene clays, sands, and carbonates and extend downward to or below the Middle Miocene unconformity. Filled and open shafts (30-40 m diameter; 10-25 m depth) ring the lake margin and overlie subsurface karst features. The large collapse zones are localized along a northeast-southwest line in the northern ponds and disrupt or deform Neogene to Quaternary strata and at least 50 m of the underlying Paleogene carbonate rocks. The timing and vertical distribution of karst structures are used to formulate a four-stage model that emphasizes stratigraphic and hydrogeologic co-evolution. (1) Fracture-selective shallow karst features formed on Paleogene/early Neogene carbonates. (2) Widespread karstification was limited by deposition of Middle Miocene clays, but vertical karst propagation continued and was focused because of the topographic effects of antecedent karst. (3) Groundwater heads, increase with the deposition of thick sequences of clastics over the semipermeable clays during Middle and Late Neogene time. The higher water table and groundwater heads allowed the accumulation of acidic, organic-rich soils and chemically aggressive waters that percolated down to Paleogene carbonates via localized karst features. (4) After sufficient subsurface dissolution, the Paleogene carbonates collapsed, causing disruption and deformation of overlying strata. The seismic profiles document an episodic, vertically progressive karst that allows localized vertical leakage through the clay-confining units. The spatial and temporal karst distribution is a result of deposition of sediments with different permeabilities during high sea levels and enhanced karst dissolution during low sea levels. Recent decreases in the potentiometric elevation of the Floridan Aquifer System simulates a sea-level lowstand, suggesting that karst dissolution will increase in frequency and magnitude

Strategic ground water management for the reduction of karst land collapse hazard in Tangshan, China, 1997, Wang H. T. , Li Y. X. , Wang E. Z. , Zhao Z. Z. ,
Karst land collapse is a geological hazard caused mainly by human activities such as the pumping of ground water. The present study is aimed at determining a management strategy to minimize the risk of karst land collapse in the urban area of Tangshan, China. A method of groundwater management for multi-aquifer systems with groundwater confined and unconfined interchange properties has been developed. A groundwater simulation model and a management model are constructed for the studied area. The data used by the simulation and management models include the geometry of the aquifer systems, the parameters of hydrogeology, the distribution of recharge, and discharge in the simulation period and the historical water table elevations. The results of the model calculations show that the total balance between recharge and discharge for both Quaternary and bedrock aquifers is 4.7 x 106 m(3) in the period from November 1989 to October 1990. The optimal annual average pumping rate from the underlying bedrock aquifer is some 25.8 x 10(6) m(3), which is 54.4% of that which was pumped out of the aquifer in the hydrological year of 1990. If the management plan is carried out, the groundwater level in the bedrock aquifer will recover its confined state in most of the areas at risk of land collapse. This is the most resistant state to collapse in terms of groundwater flow.

Modelling the genesis of karst aquifer systems using a coupled reactive network model., 1997, Clemens T. , Huckinghaus D. , Sauter M. , Liedl R. , Teutsch G.

Environmental isotope study of the major karst springs in Damascus limestone aquifer systems: Case of the Figeh and Barada springs, 1997, Kattan Z. ,
The groundwaters of major karst springs and several piezometers and wells in the Damascus limestone aquifer systems (Syria) have been investigated using chemical and environmental isotope techniques. The groundwater bodies of major karat springs mainly originate from direct infiltration of atmospheric water. The groundwaters emerging from the Figeh main spring have lower stable isotope concentrations than those emerging from the Barada spring. Stable isotopes show that the elevation of the recharge zones of the Figeh main spring (1750 m above sea level) is higher than those for the Figeh side spring (1500 m) and the Harouch spring (1300 m). The groundwater in the Barada spring seems to be recharged in a catchment area with a mean elevation of about 1250 m. The temporal evolution of stable isotope concentrations, tritium content and hydrochemistry show the existence of an interconnection between the aquifers of the Figeh main spring and the Figeh side spring, especially during flood periods. The distinct independent isotopic composition of Harouch spring from those of Figeh main and side springs suggests no interconnection with the Figeh aquifers. Adopting a model with exponential time distribution, the mean turnover time (residence time) of groundwater in Figeh main spring was evaluated to be 50 years. On the basis of this evaluation, a value of about 3.9 billion m(3) was obtained for the maximum groundwater reservoir size. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V

The Chalk as a karstified aquifer: closed circuit television images of macrobiota, 1997, Waters A. , Banks D. ,
The use of closed circuit television (CCTV) imaging in the Chalk aquifer of the Thames catchment of southern England, has shed much light on the aquifer's flow mechanisms. CCTV images indicate that flow to a Chalk abstraction borehole is typically via a limited number of highly transmissive solutionenhanced fracture features. These bear some similarities to conduits found in true karstic aquifer systems, and have implications for the modelling of mass transport in the Chalk aquifer. Another feature, typical of karst aquifers, noted during CCTV surveys is the occasional presence of macroscopic biota, arthropods and annelids, apparently inhabiting the Chalk aquifer system

Controls on bacterial sulphate reduction in a dual porosity aquifer system: the Lincolnshire Limestone aquifer, England, 2000, Bottrell Sh, Moncaster Sj, Tellam Jh, Lloyd Jw, Fisher Qj, Newton Rj,
Chemical and sulphur isotopic analyses are presented of fissure-waters and pore-waters in the deep confined zone of a dual porosity carbonate aquifer. Some of the fissure-waters show good evidence for bacterial sulphate reduction, with low concentrations of sulphide present which is strongly to moderately depleted in 34S relative to sulphate. The sulphur geochemistry is best interpreted as mixing between: (i) a reduced water with sulphide ~60[per mille sign] depleted in 34S relative to sulphate; and (ii) a sulphate-rich water from up-dip in the aquifer. In addition, sulphide oxidation occurs where sufficiently oxidizing water is drawn in by abstractions. The large isotope fractionation factor associated with the sulphidic waters is probably the result of redox cycling of sulphur with little net reduction, rather than a true kinetic fractionation factor. By contrast, pore-waters in the 'sulphate reducing zone' show little or no evidence for the effects of sulphate reduction, despite the fact that the pore-waters represent a significant reservoir of sulphate for reduction. Some pore-waters have been modified recognizably by diffusional exchange with the fissure-waters, but the aquifer matrix has not been colonized by sulphate reducing bacteria, probably because porethroats in the limestone are too small for bacteria to pass. Physical exclusion of bacteria from the aquifer matrix and limited diffusional exchange are likely to exert fundamental controls on bacterial redox processes in dual porosity aquifer systems and other systems with low permeability due to small pore interconnections

Climate-change impacts in a regional karst aquifer, Texas, USA, 2000, Loaiciga H. A. , Maidment D. R. , Valdes J. B. ,
Climate-change scenarios were created from scaling factors derived from several general circulation models to assess the likely impacts of aquifer pumping on the water resources of the Edwards Balcones Fault Zone (BFZ) aquifer, Texas, one of the largest aquifer systems in the United States. Historical climatic time series in periods of extreme water shortage (1947-1959), near-average recharge (1978-1989), and above-average recharge (1975-1990) were scaled to 2 x CO2 conditions to create aquifer recharge scenarios in a wanner climate. Several pumping scenarios were combined with 2 x CO2 climate scenarios to assess the sensitivity of water resources impacts to human-induced stresses on the Edwards BFZ aquifer. The 2 x CO2 climate change scenarios were linked to surface hydrology and used to drive aquifer dynamics with alternative numerical simulation models calibrated to the Edwards BFZ aquifer, Aquifer simulations indicate that, given the predicted growth and water demand in the Edwards BFZ aquifer region, the aquifer's ground water resources appear threatened under 2 x CO2 climate scenarios. Our simulations indicate that 2 x CO2 climatic conditions could exacerbate negative impacts and water shortages in the Edwards BFZ aquifer even if pumping does not increase above its present average level. The historical evidence and the results of this article indicate that without proper consideration to variations in aquifer recharge and sound pumping strategies, the water resources of the Edwards BFZ aquifer could be severely impacted under a warmer climate. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Groundwater modelling in aquifers with highly karstic and heterogeneous characteristics (KHC) in Palestine, 2002, Froukh Lj,
Groundwater modelling is hindered by the lack of adequate information about the groundwater system and hence the need for an interactive and efficient system for data preparation and results analysis. Such a lack of information usually necessitates the use of tedious iterative methodology within a sensitivity analysis scheme. The heterogeneous aquifer systems complicate the issue since more data is required to simulate the system. This study demonstrates the integrated approach to bridge the gap between data handling and modelling. The karst cretaceous aquifer system (complex aquifer system) of the Eastern Basin in the West Bank is used to illustrate this approach. The groundwater modelling approach integrates the outputs from different programs for data preparation and analysis. These include (1) Groundwater Database (GWW) (2) Geographic Information System (GIS) (3) Groundwater Modelling System (GMS). In addition, the paper will summarize the data collection efforts, problems faced and experience gained working with heterogeneous media. This involves linking the results from various field investigations for groundwater development programs in the West Bank

Geological, structural and geochemical aspects of the main aquifer systems in Kuwait, 2004, Alsulaimi Js, Alruwaih Fm,
The paper summarizes the lithology, structure and the geometry of the main aquifer systems in Kuwait (the Dammam Formation and the Kuwait Group) along with the hydrochemical characteristics of the aquifers. Kuwait lies between the Arabian Shield and Zagros fold belt at the periphery of the Arabian platform. Structures associated with the Kuwait Arch noticeably control the subsurface configuration of the Dammam Formations and, hence regulate the distribution of the overlying Kuwait Group sediments. For the broad setting, the paleogeography of the Eocene has been constructed. The main lithologies of concern, both in the surface and subsurface, are the recent and subrecent sediments. The Kuwait Group includes the Dibdibba Formation, and the undifferentiated Ghar and Fars Formations, as well as the Hasa Group comprising the Dammam, Rus and Umm Er-Radhuma Formations. Subsurface geological cross-sections were constructed for the Dammam Formation, showing its structures, configuration, unconformity, and zones of uplift. Potential sites of karst formation in the Dammam limestone have been identified in the cross-sections. The structural study enables the reconstruction of the paleomorphostructural sections of the Dammam Formation. The chemical investigation indicates that the Kuwait Group aquifer is occupied by Na2SO4 and NaCl water types. In addition, the Kuwait Group aquifer is supersaturated with respect to calcite and is undersaturated with respect to halite, gypsum, anhydrite and dolomite. The Dammam Formation aquifer has Na2SO4, CaSO4 and NaCl water types. Moreover, the Dammam Formation is supersaturated with calcite and dolomite and is undersaturated with respect to halite, gypsum, and anhydrite. The calculated mean values of the PCO2 of the Kuwait Group and the Dammam Formation aquifers are 3.8 x 10(-3) atm. and 2.99 x 10(-3) atm. respectively, which are significantly above the PCO2 of the Earth's atmosphere. This may suggest a deep closed environment

Contrle structural et tectonique sur lhydrogologie karstique du plateau Mahafaly (domaine littoral semi-aride, sud-ouest de Madagascar), 2005, Andr Grgoire, Bergeron Gilles, Guyot Luc
Structural and tectonic control on karstic hydrogeology of the plateau Mahafaly (semiarid coastal area, South-West of Madagascar) - The southwestern coast of Madagascar is characterized by a semiarid climate and low fresh water resources, which slow down the economic development. The studied area, located south of Toliara, is separated into a western coast of aeolian dunes and sandstones, where most of the people live, and the eastern, almost unoccupied, calcareous Mahafaly plateau. The coastal aquifer is dominated by salty water. The conductivity, close to 6000S/cm in the north, decreases to 3000S/cm in the south. The coastal plain is bordered to the East by highly karstified Cenozoic limestone, separated by a north-south cliff corresponding to the Toliara fault scarp. Surveys in coastal wells and in karstic aquifers clearly point out tidal influence on piezometric level and conductivity. In the north, the limestone cliff is directly in contact with the sea, whose water contaminates the karstic aquifer according to tidal variations. In the south, fresh water flows out on the beach by resurgences in the Quaternary sandstones, probably connected to the Eocene limestones, 5 km to the east. Drillings and exploration of some shafts on the plateau permitted access to the ground water table. It displays various conductivities ranging between 1500S/cm and 5000S/cm, unusually high for a karstic aquifer far away from the coast. The mapping of such conductivities suggests more complex phenomena than only marine intrusions into the different aquifer systems. Chemical and isotopic analyses show an obvious seawater intrusion and evaporation influence for the coastal aquifer. Iin the karstic aquifer, however, trace element analyses evoke contamination by upwelling of deep mineralized water. Salty water is frequent eastward on the basement and in the Mesozic formations. Today, fracture zones in both the coastal sandstones and in the Cenozoic limestone units control ground water circulations. Such fractures result from extensional phases in the past. The surface joint directions N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE reflect the deep-seated horst and graben structures. Microtectonic analyses give evidence of a post-Eocene WNW-ESE extension, and recent seismic data define an E-W extensional regime. The underground flowpaths are mostly on fractures oriented along the present stress field. The tectonic history in the area and the chemical composition of the waters suggest a connection of the karst aquifer with circulations from deep formations through deep-seated faults belonging to the Toliara fault system. This could explain abnormal salinities in the karstic system, far away from the coast.

Persistence of 17 {beta}-Estradiol in Water and Sediment-Pore Water from Cave Streams in Central Missouri, 2005, Peterson Eric W. , Wicks Carol M. , Kelley Cheryl A. ,
Concentrations less than 10 ng/L of 17 {beta}-estradiol (E2), a natural estrogen, have been linked to adverse health effects in fish, including skewed sex distributions, reproductive failure, and organ impairment. The persistence of E2 in carbonate aquifer systems is not well documented. Water and sediment from cave streams within the Ozark Plateau of Missouri, USA, were collected and analyzed for E2. The persistence of E2 in the water was examined in two separate experiments, in which the holding temperatures (20{degrees}C vs. 4{degrees}C), bottle type, exposure to light, and filtration were varied. During two trials, no statistical difference was observed in the concentration of E2, suggesting that E2 is stable within the water. The fate of E2 was also examined in sediment-pore water collected from the cave streams in two independent trials. In trial 1, a significant decrease in E2 was noted over the 29 days of the experiment. However, in trial 2, no change in E2 concentration was observed. The results indicate that E2 is relatively stable in cave stream water and may persist in the sediment

VURAAS - vulnerability and risk analysis in Alpine aquifer systems, 2005, Chicocki G. , Zojer H.

Slovene karst sources are of great national importance for drinking water supply. Since karst aquifer systems are very susceptible to contamination, these sources require appropriate and careful managing. Unfortunately, in the acts of Slovene legislation, the special characteristics of water flow within karst regions are not very seriously taken into consideration in determining the criteria for karst water sources protection. In contrast, in some other countries, the concept of groundwater vulnerability mapping has been successfully used for protection zoning and land use planning in karst. Regarding the differences between particular karst aquifer systems, data availability and economic resources, different methods of karst water vulnerability assessment and mapping have already been developed. Already these methods have been many times tested and implemented in different test sites worldwide. However, experience in application using different methodologies for vulnerability mapping of karst aquifers is very modest in Slovenia. The present paper deals with potential methodological problems that might arise while applying the most commonly used methods for karst water vulnerability assessment to Slovene karst regions.

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