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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That chamber is (american.) 1. an enlargement in a cave passage or system, commonly formed at a junction of passages, or locally in a single passage, where erosion has been enhanced by collapse exposing more rock to dissolution. maximum chamber size is controlled by the strength and shape of the limestone ceiling. the largest chamber currently known, sarawak chamber in lubang nasib bagus, at mulu, sarawak, is over 700m long, up to 400m wide and nowhere less than 70m high. it has formed where a large stream eroded sideways as it cut obliquely across the included bedding in unusually massive limestone. it is doubtful whether a much larger chamber could exist without collapse of its roof [9]. 2. the largest order of cavity in a cave or cave system; it has considerable length and breadth but not necessarily great height. 3. (british.) a room in a cave [10]. synonyms: (french.) salle; (german.) halle, kammer, dom; (greek.) ypoyios aethousa; (italian.) sala; (russian.) zal; (spanish.) sala, salon; (turkish.) oda; (yugoslavian.) dvorana. see also room; passage.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
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Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for aquifer test (Keyword) returned 8 results for the whole karstbase:
Risk assessment methodology for karst aquifers .1. Estimating karst conduit-flow parameters, 1997, Field Ms, Nash Sg,
Quantitative ground-water tracing of conduit-dominated karst aquifers allows for reliable and practical interpretation of karst ground-water flow. Insights into the hydraulic geometry of the karst aquifer may be acquired that otherwise could not be obtained by such conventional methods as potentiometric-surface mapping and aquifer testing. Contamination of karst aquifers requires that a comprehensive tracer budget be performed so that karst conduit hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters be obtained. Acquisition of these parameters is necessary for estimating contaminant fate-and-transport. A FORTRAN computer program for estimating total tracer recovery from tracer-breakthrough curves is proposed as a standard method. Estimated hydraulic-flow parameters include mean residence time, mean flow velocity, longitudinal dispersivity, Peclet number, Reynolds number, and Froude number. Estimated geometric parameters include karst conduit sinuous distance, conduit volume, cross-sectional area, diameter, and hydraulic depth. These parameters may be used to (1) develop structural models of the aquifer, (2) improve aquifer resource management, (3) improve ground-water monitoring systems design, (4) improve aquifer remediation, and (5) assess contaminant fate-and-transport. A companion paper demonstrates the use of these hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters in a surface-water model for estimating contaminant fate-and-transport in a karst conduit. Two ground-water tracing studies demonstrate the utility of this program for reliable estimation of necessary karst conduit hydraulic-flow and geometric parameters

Determination of transmissivity from specific capacity tests in a karst aquifer, 1997, Mace R. E. ,
Specific capacity tests are useful for estimating transmissivity in aquifers that have few good-quality pump tests, In karst aquifers, this has been done by (1) correcting specific capacity for turbulent well loss and using analytical relationships between transmissivity and specific capacity, and (2) correcting specific capacity for well loss and deriving an empirical relationship between transmissivity and specific capacity. This study focuses on the uncertainties of estimating well loss and presents an empirical relationship between transmissivity and uncorrected specific capacity for a karst aquifer. Well loss is difficult to estimate without good-quality step-drawdown tests. Pipe-flow theory tends to underestimate well loss, and an empirical relationship between specific capacity and well-loss constant has a large prediction interval that leads to well loss exceeding measured drawdown, To overcome uncertainties of estimating web loss, transmissivity and uncorrected specific capacity were related for aquifer tests from the Edwards aquifer in Texas, The resulting best-fit line is T = 0.76(S-c)(1.08) for T and S-c in m(2) d(-1), with a coefficient of determination, R-2, Of 0.89 and a 95-percent prediction interval spanning approximately 1.4 log cycles, Though the prediction interval is large, approximate but useful estimates of transmissivity can be determined because the relationship extends over five orders of magnitude from 1 to 100,000 m(2) d(-1). The relationship is applicable in at least one other karst aquifer and therefore may be useful for others

Derivation of effective hydraulic parameters of a karst aquifer from discharge hydrograph analysis, 2001, Baedke Sj, Krothe Nc,
In well-developed karst terrains, three or more distinct portions of the karst continuum can be identified from hydrographs of springs issuing from the karat aquifer. Hydrographs from mio karat springs within the same drainage basin at the Crane Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indiana, have been analyzed, and ratios of transmissivity and specific yield (T/S-y) have been established for the conduit and diffuse flow systems. These ratios have been compared with values of T derived from aquifer tests, so that independent values of S-y can be calculated for the diffuse system. Similarly, if the value of S-y is assumed to be 1.0 for a pure conduit, then independent values of T can be calculated for this end-member of the karst continuum. The values of T and S-y derived from this study are similar to values obtained from a dye trace of the conduit-dominated flow system and of values derived from aquifer tests of the diffuse flow system. Values of T for the conduit system of these springs may need to be established at a local scale, while the values for the diffuse flow system may be applicable at a regional scale. A hydrograph separation using isotopic data suggests that the intermediate-flow system represents a mix of water from the conduit and diffuse flow systems. If this portion of the hydrograph is a truly mixing phenomena, ratios of TIS cannot be determined from the hydrograph analysis presented herein. However. if instead, the intermediate-flow system represents water released from a third reservoir (such as small fractures), ratios of T/S, can be established for the intermediate-flow system

HJWFTAC: software for Hantush-Jacob analysis of variable-rate, multiple-extraction well pumping tests, 2002, Fleming Sw, Ruskauff Gj, Adams A,
Analytical well test solutions are a powerful approach to aquifer characterization and the parameterization of comprehensive numerical models. In addition, wellfield drawdown tests, which consist of coordinated pumping and data collection at a suite of monitoring and operating production wells, are of growing significance due to increasing pressures upon groundwater resources and the consequent management and planning requirement for superior hydrogeologic characterization of existing production wellfields. However. few pumping test analysis codes accommodate the multiple extraction wells involved, particularly for more sophisticated analytic aquifer test solutions. We present and demonstrate here a FORTRAN code for analysis of drawdown at a monitor well due to simultaneous variable-rate pumping at multiple independent production wells, which we developed in response to a need to refine an existing numerical, coupled groundwater/surface water resource management model, Spatial and temporal superposition are used to accommodate the typical operational properties of wellfield pumping tests, The software invokes the well-accepted Hantush-Jacob method for semiconfined or 'leaky' aquifers in a forward simulation procedure and effectively assumes homogeneity in applicable aquifer parameters (transmissivity, coefficient of storage, and leakance). Intended for both professionals and students, the code is widely applicable and straightforward to use as written. However, it can be modified with relative ease to use alternative well test solutions and/or formal inverse modeling techniques, or to accommodate spatial hydrogeologic variability. An application to a pumping test conducted in a karst limestone aquifer at the Cross Bar Ranch wellfield in Tampa Bay, Florida, demonstrates the utility of the software. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Modeling the hydraulical behavior of a fissured-karstic aquifer in exploitation conditions, 2002, Debieche Th, Guglielmi Y, Mudry J,
A 5-year daily measurement of the dynamic level in a borehole was plotted versus cumulative yield since the beginning of exploitation. Eighty percent of the experimental curve is explained by a linear function (h = aQ(c) h(0)) by intervals. Only floods, which follow heavy storms and non-pumping cannot be taken into account. The slopes of the straight lines are spread around two constant values of the slope: a(r) = .35 x 10(-3) m m(-3), which characterizes the part which is controlled by recharge, and a(p) = -0.14 x 10(-3) m m(-3), which characterizes the draining part of the aquifer fractures. This linear fitting demonstrates that the borehole -aquifer system can be considered as an equivalent continuous medium, where the linear relationship between dynamic head and pumped yield are defined by the values of ar and a, Thus the hydraulic behavior of the aquifer differs according to the pumping rate: equivalent continuous medium for a low rate, dual permeability for a high one. This work demonstrates that the long-term behavior of an exploited fissured aquifer can be described by a simple model, if the duration of the aquifer test is long enough (1-3 months). It also shows that the production phase must include repetitive head measurements in order to refine the exploitation yield and the management conditions. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Characterization of ground water flow from spring discharge in a crystalline rock environment, 2004, Gentry Wm, Burbey Tj,
Recent investigations describing the hydrogeology of the Blue Ridge Province of Virginia suggest the occurrence of multiple aquifers and flow paths that may be responsible for the variable flow behavior of springs and seeps appearing throughout the region. Deep, confined aquifers associated with ubiquitous faults and shallow, variably confined saprolite aquifers may contribute water to spring outlets resulting in significantly different quantities of discharge and water quality. Multiple analyses are required to adequately identify the flow paths to springs. In this investigation, hydrograph analyses, surface electrical resistivity surveys, aquifer tests, and nitrate concentrations are used in conjunction with previously reported analyses from borehole logs and age dating of ground water to identify two distinct flow paths. Results indicate that base flow occurs from a deep fault zone aquifer and such discharge can be maintained even during prolonged periods of drought, while increased discharge identified on hydrograph peaks suggests the occurrence of rapid flow through the saprolite aquifer within a radius of about 25 meters of the spring orifice. Springflow hydrograph analysis is suitable for rapid characterization of flow paths leading to spring outlets. Rapid characterization is important for evaluation of potential water quality problems arising from contamination of shallow and deep aquifers and for evaluation of water resource susceptibility to drought. The techniques evaluated here are suitable for use in other locations in fractured crystalline rock environments

Evidence for hydraulic heterogeneity and anisotropy in the mostly carbonate Prairie du Chien Group, southeastern Minnesota, USA, 2006, Tipping Robert G. , Runkel Anthony C. , Alexander Jr. E. Calvin, Alexander Scott C. , Green Jeffery A. ,
In southeastern Minnesota, Paleozoic bedrock aquifers have typically been represented in groundwater flow simulations as isotropic, porous media. To obtain a more accurate hydrogeologic characterization of the Ordovician Prairie du Chien Group, a new approach was tested, combining detailed geologic observations, particularly of secondary porosity, with hydraulic data. Lithologic observations of the depositional and erosional history of the carbonate-dominated bedrock unit constrained characterization of both primary (matrix) and secondary porosity from outcrops and core. Hydrostratigraphic data include outcrop and core observations along with core plug permeability tests. Hydrogeologic data include discrete interval aquifer tests, borehole geophysics, water chemistry and isotope data, and dye trace studies. Results indicate that the Prairie du Chien Group can be subdivided into the Shakopee aquifer at the top, consisting of interbedded dolostone, sandstone and shale, and the underlying Oneota confining unit consisting of thickly bedded dolostone. The boundary between these two hydrogeologic units does not correspond to lithostratigraphic boundaries, as commonly presumed. Groundwater flow in the Shakopee aquifer is primarily through secondary porosity features, most commonly solution-enlarged bedding planes and sub-horizontal and vertical fractures. Regional scale preferential development of cavernous porosity and permeability along specific stratigraphic intervals that correspond to paleokarst were also identified, along with a general depiction of the distribution of vertical and horizontal fractures. The combination of outcrop and core investigations, along with borehole geophysics, discrete interval aquifer tests, water chemistry and isotope data and dye trace studies show that the Prairie du Chien Group is best represented hydrogeologically as heterogeneous and anisotropic. Furthermore, heterogeneity and anisotropy within the Prairie du Chien Group is mappable at a regional scale (> 15,000 km2)

Cave exploration as a guide to geologic research in the Appalachians, 2009, Palmer, A. N.

Cave exploration and mapping can provide considerable insight into the nature of groundwater flow and geologic processes in soluble rocks. The Appalachian Mountains provide an ideal setting for this exchange of information because their geology varies greatly over short distances. Caves reveal the way in which groundwater flow is guided by geologic structure, and they help to clarify aquifer test data, well yield, and contaminant dispersion. Well tests in karst aquifers often reveal confined or unconfined conditions that make little sense stratigraphically, but which can be explained with the aid of cave mapping. With regard to geologic mapping, many caves reveal structures that are not visible at the surface. Caves also show evidence for underground geochemical processes that cannot be detected from well data. Subtle mineralogical clues are generally erased by weathering and erosion at the surface, but persist in many caves. The information that caves have provided about subsurface geology and water flow is now being used by explorers, even those with no geologic background, to help them find new caves.


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