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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That lamination is the layering or very thin bedding of sedimentary rocks [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for basel (Keyword) returned 42 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 42
Assessing the importance of conduit geometry and physical parameters in karst systems using the storm water management model (SWMM), , Peterson Eric W. , Wicks Carol M. ,
SummaryQuestions about the importance of conduit geometry and about the values of hydraulic parameters in controlling ground-water flow and solute transport through karstic aquifers have remained largely speculative. One goal of this project was to assess the role that the conduit geometry and the hydraulic parameters have on controlling transport dynamics within karstic aquifers. The storm water management model (SWMM) was applied to the Devil's Icebox-Connor's Cave System in central Missouri, USA. Simulations with incremental changes to conduit geometry or hydraulic parameters were performed with the output compared to a calibrated baseline model. Ten percent changes in the length or width of a conduit produced statistically significant different fluid flow responses. The model exhibited minimal sensitivity to slope and infiltration rates; however, slight changes in Manning's roughness coefficient can highly alter the simulated output.Traditionally, the difference in flow dynamics between karstified aquifers and porous media aquifers has led to the idea that modeling of karst aquifers is more difficult and less precise than modeling of porous media aquifers. When evaluated against models for porous media aquifers, SWMM produced results that were as accurate (10% error compared to basecase). In addition, SWMM has the advantage of providing data about local flow. While SWMM may be an appropriate modeling technique for some karstic aquifers, SWMM should not be viewed as a universal solution to modeling karst systems

Contribution on the study of European Bathynella: Bathynella natans Vejdovsky, a dilemma to resolve., 1966, Serban Eugne.
After a minute study of the structure of the 8th male pereiopod in some Bathynella populations from Romania and England, the structure differences which were found allowed to identify two well individualized kinds of pereiopods; they were named type natans and type stammen. Taking into account the striking differences between these two types, B. stammeri (Jakobi), which since 1954 is considered to be a subspecies of the natans species, was separated out of the species B. natans sensu Jakobi (1954). The populations understudied were collected in England and Romania, their minute study being the object of an other note, collaboration with T. Gledhill. The facts led to the conclusion that Jakobis opinion (1954), which dominated the taxonomy of this group, doesnt entirely correspond to the reality, the two taxonomical units being characterized as follows:; Bathynelta natans Vejdovsky, characterized by the 8th male pereiopod (fig. I A) with a triangular, well developed anterior plate (fig. 3 A-D-a; 7 A-D), of the same length with the exopodit, a cylindrical internal lobe (fig. 3 A-D-b,) and a little lobe (fig. 3 A-D-c) of a reduced size;; Bathynella stammeri (Jakobi) differing from the first with respect to the anterior pinte (fig. 2 A-D-a; 6A-C) which is rectangular in shape and has a prolongation in the distal outer angle, to the conelike internal lobe (fig. 2 AD-b), and to the little lobe (fig. 2 A-D-d) which is twolobed in this case. After discussion on the relationship between B. catena Vejd. and B. stammeri (Jakobi) it is shown that differences observed in the 8th male pereiopod structure give important indications about the above species to the effect that they are not very closely related. If one takes into account also their wide spreading area, and the individualisation of some populations due to important, characteristic traits; we are obliged to classify them into two different sub-genera. In the first one, the species catena is included; which will keep by this way the very name of the genus, and in the second, termed here Antrobathynella, the species stammeri. In conclusion, what was till now considered as Bathynella natans Vejdovsky sensu Jakobi, was divided into two distinct species each of them pertaining to two different sub-genera, that is: Bathynella (Bathynella) natans Vejdovsky and Bathynella (Antrobathynella) stammeri (Jakobi). It is demonstrated that the synonymy Jakobi made between B.chappuisi and B. natans is perfectly true under the new conditions too, because it was Delachaux (1919) who rediscovered B.natans Vejd., not Chappuis (1914). The material found by Chappuis in Basel (1914) appears to pertain to B. stammeri (Jakobi) differing both from the individuals from the Grotte de Ver (Delachaux, 1919) and from Prague (Vejdovsky, 1882).

Underground solution canyons in the Central Kentucky karst, U.S.A., 1967, Watson Richard A.
Solution canyons are underground voids 1 to 15 + meters wide, 3 to 45 + meters high, and 30 to 300 + meters long. Floors are stepped, ceilings level. Size increases downstream. Their course is sinuous, with some angularity. They occur parallel to and directly under or slightly offset from the thalwegs of re-entrant valleys tributary to major karst valleys. A section across a re-entrant and underlying solution canyon shows a rough hour-glass shape. Solution canyons are related genetically to solutional vertical shafts, forming where removal of the impermeable sandstone caprock permits the vertical descent of water through jointed limestone. Surface runoff concentrates along re-entrant thalwegs where a largo quantity of water goes underground. This water, plus subsurface water flowing over the caprock breached by the valleys, follows the easiest route to baselevel down major vertical joints oriented parallel to the thalwegs. Solution by water seeping down these joint planes forms solution canyons.

Tagung der Hugo Obermaier-Gesellschaft zur Erforschung des Eiszeitalters und der Steinzeit in Basel (1977)., 1977, Trimmel, H.

Tagung der Hugo Obermaier-Gesellschaft zur Erforschung des Eiszeitalters und der Steinzeit in Basel (1977), 1977, Trimmel, H.

Mineralogical and sedimentological investigations were carried out on a karst filling located in the Cotencher cave (Neuchatel, Jura mountains, Switzerland). Radiometric and archeological dating give evidence for a rather incomplete record of the climatic history of the last glacial period. The major hiatus is situated in the younger Wurmian Pleniglacial age. Following the mineralogical and sedimentological results, it is possible to divide this profile in three parts. Late glacial and holocene sediments are characterized by fine morainic material, redeposited due to karst activity. The middle part (C-14: > 40 Ky BP), directly located below this hiatus shows a typical mineralogical association with the appearance of kaolinite and the persistance of the amphibole. This association is thought to be of eolian origin, older than the one described on the Jura mountains actual soils. This eolian sediment component was deposited after the early Wurmian Pleniglacial period. on the soils in the vicinity of the cave, and resedimented into the cave during the Wurmian Interpleniglacial. The lower part of the sediment column is characterized by a mineralogical association of kaolinite, mixed-layers and mica. Especially high amounts of kaolinite, possibly derived from old, probably Eemian mature soils give evidence for relatively warm climate with strong seasonal variations

Bats of Kartchner Caverns State Park, Arizona, 1999, Buecher, D. C. , Sidner, R. M.
Kartchner Caverns, in southeastern Arizona, is a summer maternity roost for approximately 1000-2000 cave myotis (Myotis velifer). The pregnant females first arrive at the cave in late April, give birth in June, and have left by mid- September. These bats are an important element in the cave ecosystem because their excrement introduces nutrients, which support a complex invertebrate cave fauna. Bat population densities and emergence behavior was monitored between 1988-1991. Other bat species seen using the entrance areas of the cave include Corynorhinus townsendi and Choeronycteris mexicana. Because bats are easily disturbed by human intrusion into the roost, the baseline study was accomplished using low-disturbance techniques in an effort to provide the greatest amount of data with the least disturbance to the bat colony. These techniques included limited visual observations in the roost and netting bats only on the surface at a nearby water tank. During the baseline study, an episode of predation by a carnivore (Bassariscus astutus) caused the bats to abandon the site for a short time. Carbon-14 dating of guano from the Throne and Rotunda Rooms suggests that Myotis velifer used the Back Section of Kartchner Caverns 50-45 years Ka.

Discovery and History of Kartchner Caverns, Arizona, 1999, Tufts, R. , Tenen, G.
Efforts to give Kartchner Caverns protective park status required over 13 years to complete following the caves discovery by Gary Tenen and Randy Tufts in 1974. These efforts involved the discoverers, selected cavers, the Kartchner family, the Nature Conservancy, and the Arizona State governmentespecially Arizona State Parks. Throughout that period, the cave and the efforts to conserve it were kept secret from the wider caving community and the public. Once in State Parks hands, extensive baseline testing was conducted before development began to help ensure that the cave environment is preserved. Cave environmental and show-cave experts have been involved in development planning and implementation. Surface facilities and a major part of the cave are set to open to the public in late 1999. The continuing support of cavers, the public, and Arizona government will be necessary to ensure that Kartchner Caverns is preserved in excellent condition.

Highway stormwater runoff in karst areas - preliminary results of baseline monitoring and design of a treatment system for a sinkhole in Knoxville, Tennessee, 1999, Stephenson J. B. , Zhou W. F. , Beck B. F. , Green T. S. ,
Groundwater is vulnerable to contamination in karst areas where highway stormwater runoff may flow directly into karst aquifers with little or no natural attenuation and transport highway-derived contaminants rapidly from sinkholes to locations in the aquifer. The primary goal of this investigation is the development and evaluation of practical remedial measures for treating highway runoff draining into sinkholes. Field testing sites are located in Knoxville, TN, and Frederick, MD. This paper presents a summary of preliminary results of baseline monitoring in Knoxville. Quantitative dye tracing and hydrograph analyses have demonstrated that water draining into the I-40/I-640 sinkhole passes through a phreatic conduit and resurges at Holston Spring ca 128 m (420 ft) from the sinkhole. Stormwater quantity has been monitored continuously for more than 1.5 years, and runoff quality has been monitored during a storm event. For most of the contaminants analyzed, peak contaminant loading at Holston Spring lagged behind the peak at the sinkhole by approximately 1 hour. The movement of stormwater from other sinkholes in the drainage basin to Holston Spring is regulated by partial blockage of the conduit-dominated flow system. Urban development of the karst terrane in eastern Knoxville may be responsible for this observed phenomenon. A pilot-scale stormwater runoff treatment system has been designed using peat, sand, and rock to remove contaminants by sedimentation, filtration, and adsorption. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Geology and evolution of lakes in north-central Florida, 1999, Kindinger J. L. , Davis J. B. , Flocks J. G. ,
Fluid exchange between surficial waters and groundwater in karst environments, and the processes that control exchange, are of critical concern to water management districts and planners, High-resolution seismic data were collected from 30 lakes of north-central Florida. In each case study, lake structure and geomorphology were controlled by solution and/or mechanical processes. Processes that control lake development are twofold: (1) karstification or dissolution of the underlying limestone, and (2) the collapse, subsidence, or slumping of overburden to form sinkholes. Initial lake formation is directly related to the karst topography of the underlying host limestone. Case studies have shown that lakes can be divided by geomorphic types into progressive developmental phases: (1) active subsidence or collapse phase (young); (2) transitional phase (middle age); (3) baselevel phase (mature); and (4) polje (drowned prairie) - broad flat-bottom that have one or all phases of sinkhole. Using these criteria, Florida lakes can be classified by size, fill, subsurface features, and geomorphology

Co-seismic ruptures and deformations recorded by speleothems in the epicentral zone of the Basel earthquake, 1999, Lemeille Francis, Cushing Marc, Carbon David, Grellet Bertrand, Bitterli Thomas, Flehoc Christine, Innocent Christophe,
The study of growth anomalies of speleothems in a karstic environment can provide potential evidence for palaeoearthquakes. These data are used to study the recurrence times of major earthquakes in areas where evidence for historic seismicity is lacking. A study has been carried out in the epicentral area of the 1356 Basel earthquake (epicentral intensity = VII-VIII, macroseismic magnitude = 6.2). The Battlerloch and Dieboldslochli caves, situated in the area of greatest damage, show growth anomalies of speleothems possibly related to a seismic event (several breaks of speleothems and offsets of the axis of the regrowths). The first U/Th disequilibrum measurements by alpha spectrometry show recent ages (less than several tens of thousands of years and probably historic). 14C dating by AMS of carbonate laminations taken on both sides of the anomalies confirm the evidence of a seismic event around 1300 AD. More accurate darings by U/Th TIMS are carried out in order to compare the information provided by the two different dating methods.ResumeL'etude des anomalies de developpement des speleothemes en milieu endokarstique peut permettre de retrouver la trace de paleoseismes. Ces donnees sont utilisees pour etudier les periodes de retour des seismes majeurs dans les regions ou la sismicite historique n'est pas suffisante. Une etude a ete menee dans la zone epicentrale du seisme de Bale de 1356 (intensite epicentrale = VII-VIII, magnitude macrosismique = 6,2). Dans l'aire de degats majeurs, les grottes du Battierloch et du Dieboldslochli ont montre l'existence d'anomalies de croissance des speleothemes pour lesquelles une origine sismique est possible (nombreuses ruptures de speleothemes et decalage de l'axe de croissance des repousses). Les premieres mesures de desequilibres U/Th par spectrometrie alpha indiquent des ages recents (inferieurs a quelques dizaines de milliers d'annees et probablement historiques). Les datations 14C par AMS de carbonates des lamines preleves de part et d'autre de ces anomalies confirment l'empreinte d'un evenement destructif brutal vers 1300 AD. Des datations plus precises par U/Th TIMS sont en cours de realisation afin de confronter les informations apportees par ces deux chronometres

Evaluation of terra rossa geochemical baselines from Croatian karst regions, 1999, Miko S. , Durn G. , Prohic E. ,
In karst regions of Croatia, regolith is the only favourable medium for geochemical mapping. Mediterranean climate and good drainage due to hard, fissured, permeable limestones and dolomites result in a spacious distribution of terra rossa (FAO-luvisols and cambisols) - a polygenetic type of soil. Samples of terra rossa from coastal and inland Croatian Dinaric karst terrains were collected during the initial studies for the Geochemical Map of Croatia at a density of 1 site/25 km(2). A total of 87 terra rossa soil samples taken from a depth of 5-25 cm together with 27 samples from deeper profiles (down to 850 cm) were analysed for total Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, La, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Na, Sr, Ti, V and Zn concentrations. A stoichiometric approach was applied by modeling of terra rossa baselines on the basis of Linear regressions of metals on Al and the calculation of enrichment factors (EF and CEFs) on the basis of soil standards. A noticeable enrichment of Pb was found in surface samples compared to the terra rossa deeper in the soil profile. Using these baseline relationships, an attempt is made to partition terra rossa metal concentrations into natural and anthropogenic fractions. Also, the models from both polluted and less polluted (uninhabited) karstic terrains improve the comparability of element contents through correction of variable background concentrations. A comparison of elemental concentrations revealed that due to contributions of bauxite debris, a number of studied samples is enriched in Cr and Ni (also with variable amounts of boehmite). The corrections will serve to reduce data variability and to increase the detection of spatial and temporal differences presented on the geochemical maps. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Evaluation of terra rossa geochemical baselines from Croatian karst regions., 2000, Miko S.

Particle transport in a karst aquifer: natural and artificial tracer experiments with bacteria, bacteriophages and microspheres, 2002, Auckenthaler A, Raso G, Huggenberger P,
Fast changes in spring water quality in karst areas are a major concern for production of drinking water and require detailed knowledge of the complex interaction between karst aquifer, transport behavior of microorganisms and water treatment We have conducted artificial and natural particle transport experiments at a karst spring with bacteria, bacteriophages, microspheres, and pathogens Transport of the investigated microorganisms, turbid matter and chemical pullutants as well as increase in discharge are strongly related to precipitation and the heterogeneity of the aquifer The indicator bacteria E cob revealed a significant correlation to verotoxin-producing E cob and Cryptosporidium spp We conclude that artificial particle tracers can help identify 'hot spots' for microbial recharge and that system parameters in spring water such as turbidity, UV-extinction and increase in discharge can be key parameters for efficient raw water management


A comprehensive study of Modrić cave was undertaken to evaluate the baseline conditions before its utilization for tourism. Silty loams with guano contain abundant quartz, illite and taranakite and minor vivianite and high concentrations of Cu (2869 mg/kg), Zn (951 mg/kg) and Cd (28 mg/kg). Also sediments mixed with guano are enriched with light REE as well as elevated concentrations of U, Th, Rb and Hg. Sediments with bone fragments contain abundant quartz, illite, calcite and hydroxylapatite and minor carndallite and lower contents of heavy metals. All sediments analysed showed various degrees of contamination by Cu and Zn from dispersed guano. Most of the Zn and Cu in cave sediments and the hydroxyl-apatite crusts are mainly controlled by the iron and manganese hydroxide and the organic fractions, the organic fraction plays an important role in sediment samples with direct influence of guano and in hydroxylapatite crusts while in samples with bone fragments the hydroxide control is dominant. Guano influence on the percolating waters was observed in two cases in the left channel where due to the higher content of orthophosphates saturation in respect to hydroxyl-apatite is present.

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