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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That photogrammetry is the preparation of maps and measurements from stereoscopic aerial photographs [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for bat guano (Keyword) returned 29 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 29
Diversity and dynamics of microarthropods from different biotopes of Las Sardinas cave (Mexico) , , Jos Palaciosvargas, Gabriela Castaomeneses, Daniel A. Estrada

An ecological study of the microarthropod communities from Las Sardinas cave was undertaken. Four different biotopes were studied over the course of a year: bat guano, litter, soil under the chemoautotrophic bacteria colonies and as a control, plain soil without litter or guano. A total of 27,913 specimens of a total of 169 species were collected. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that there is a significant effect of biotope on the recorded density, and the post hoc Tukey’s test showed that guano is the most different biotope with the highest value of density recorded. The interaction between season and biotope variables was not significant. In the most extreme case, 99 percent of the microarthropods in soil under chemoautotrophic bacteria were mites, mainly in the family Histiostomidae.

Bat Guano Ecosystems, 1972, Poulson, Thomas L.

Biology and ecology of the El Convento cave-spring system (Puerto Rico)., 1974, Nicholas Brother G.
The El Convento Cave-Spring System is located at the head of the Quebrada de Los Cedros, approximately 20 km. west of Ponce, southwestern Puerto Rico. Although situated in an arid environment, the gorge receives sufficient moisture from the cave-spring system to support an abundant flora, with Bucida buceras and Bursera simaruba as the dominant trees. The cave is frequently flooded and possesses a rich nutrient substrate in the form of bat guano. Numerous orthopterans (Aspiduchus cavernicola and Amphiacusta annulipes), decapoda (Macrobrachium carcinus and Epilobocera sinuatifrons), and chiroptera (Brachyphylla cavernarum and Artebius jamaicensis) are present. In addition, approximately a dozen other species of invertebrates are found in lesser abundance throughout the system. None of the forms collected demonstrated specific cavernicolous adaptations. Because of the numerous entrances and frequent flooding the possibility of the presence of troglobites is minimal.

Geochemical evolution of a karst stream in Devils Icebox Cave, Missouri, USA, 1997, Wicks Carol M. , Engeln Joseph F. ,
A 3.7 km flowpath along the main stream channel in Devils Icebox Cave, Boone County, Missouri, was sampled on 23 January, 23 March and 18 September 1994. In January 1994, the water was oversaturated with respect to both calcite and dolomite, and only minor compositional changes were observed along the flowpath. In March 1994, the water was oversaturated with respect to calcite but undersaturated with respect to dolomite. Using a mass-balance approach, the composition of the stream water at downstream locations was predicted by dissolution of dolomite (a maximum of 0.16 mmol s-1) and by a minor amount of calcite precipitation (a maximum of 0.03 mmol s-1). In September 1994, there were increases in the Mg, Ca, and total inorganic carbon (TIC) mass fluxes that were due to the dissolution of dolomite (SIdolomiteSI is saturation index) and calcite (SIcalcite2 of the water should decrease downstream; however, we found an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 along the stream. The source of this additional CO2 is thought to be microbial degradation of bat guano. The decomposition of bat guano appeared to change the composition of the stream water during the period the bats are in the cave, and this change was reflected in the composition of the stream water collected in September 1994. Based on the length of the flowpath and on the average velocity of the water along the flowpath, the travel time of water in this karst stream is less than 4 days. The reactions that control the chemistry of the karst water must be those with equally short characteristic times: the dissolution of dolomite and calcite, CO2 exchange, and microbial degradation of organic matter

History of the Guano Mining Industry, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico, 1998, Frank, E. F.
Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico is ringed by hundreds of flank margin caves (Frank 1993; Mylroie et al. 1995). In the late 1800s and early 1900s, ~150,000 metric tons of phosphorite, altered bat guano, were mined from the caves. A high phosphate content made the phosphorite a valuable fertilizer (Wadsworth 1973). Briggs (1974) indicates the guano deposits have been exhausted from seven of the eight largest known cave systems on the island. Many relics from the guano mining days are still present in the caves and surrounding areas today.

Vertebrate Paleontology of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico, 1998, Frank, E. F. , Benson, R.
Vertebrate fossil materials were collected from over a dozen cave localities on Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico. Guano deposits at these localities were excavated and sifted to recover bone materials. The predominant vertebrate fossils recovered at every sifting site were Audubons shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri) bones. Fragmentary undifferentiated lizard bones were also found sporadically in the sifted material. Fossil skeletal bones and fresh bones from other bird species were found on the surface of the cave floors at several localities. Extensive fossil guano deposits on the island are interpreted to be of mixed origin with deposits near entrances primarily derived from bird guano, and deposits from the darker interiors of the caves derived from bat guano.

The Cave-inhabiting Beetles of Cuba (Insecta: Coleoptera): Diversity, Distribution and Ecology, 1998, Peck, S. B. , Ruizbali, A. E. , Gonzalez, G. F. G.
The known cave-inhabiting beetle fauna of Cuba is summarized. Fifty-three species have been found in 70 low elevation caves in 11 provinces. Distribution of species by family is: Carabidae, 10; Dytiscidae, 4; Gyrinidae, 2; Hydrophilidae, 2; Histeridae, 5; Leiodidae, 2; Ptiliidae, 3; Staphylinidae, 1; Scarabaeidae, 4; Elateridae, 2; Lampyridae, 1; Nitidulidae, 1; Cerylonidae, 1; Tenebrionidae, 12; and Curculionidae, 3. Twenty-four of the species are judged to be accidental cave inhabitants. The remaining 29 species can be placed in the following ecological-evolutionary categories: trogloxenes, 3 species; first-level troglophiles, 21 species; second-level troglophiles (=unmodified neotroglobites), 5 species. No true troglobites are known (i.e., none of the species is morphologically specialized for cave life). About 59% of the non-accidental inhabitants are endemic to Cuba. The taxonomic composition is similar to that in caves in other West Indian Islands, and impoverished when compared to Neotropical continental caves. The abundance of food (bat guano) seems a prime factor preventing selection for cave-specialization in lowland West Indian and continental Neotropical cave beetles.

Blue Lagon, Afrique du Sud, une grotte remplissage palokarstique permien et concrtions daragonite, 1998, Martini J. E. J. , Moen H. F. G.
The authors de scribe a 7 km long phreatic maze they discovered and explored during the last decade of the 2Oth century in South Africa, developed in the late Archean dolostone in the Malmani Subgroup. This cave is of interest mainly for two aspects. Firstly the cave intersects paleokarst channels filled with bleached kaolinic residuals of Permian age. This paleokarst is most likely to have developed relatively shortly after the Gondwana glaciation in a cool, humid climate. Secondly the cave is remarkable by the abundance of aragonite speleothems. Particularly interesting are subaquatic aragonite formations: rafts, cones, volcanoes, sea urchins and pool floor crust. Aragonite rafts are always associated with more or less calcite, which seems to have formed first and was apparently essential in the initial formation of this speleothem. In the pool floor crust, a cyclical calcite-aragonite deposition seems to correspond to alternation of humid and dry periods, calcite representing wet years. The amplitude of this cycle is possibly in the order of a few decades. Phosphate minerals which developed on cave soil, rock and carbonate speleothems in contact with bat guano, have been identified, in particular the rare mineral collinsite

Guano mining in Kenyan lava tunnel caves., 1998, Simons Jim W.
Commercial mining of bat guano for agricultural fertilizer only became possible in Kenya through discovery of major deposits in the lava tunnel caves of Mt. Suswa and the North Chyulu Hills in the early 1960's. This paper provides historical information leading up to the guano mining, describes the cave deposits, outlines the mining under-takings, and provides information on the guano producing bats and insect faunas. The results of guano analyses, details of the tonnages extracted and sold to recipients between 1966 to 1984, and some benefits which resulted from its use on crops are given. A brief outline of attempts to conserve the areas and caves is also included.

Datations d'un depot de guano holocene dans les Carpates meridionales (Roumanie). Implications tectoniques, 1999, Carbonnel Jp, Olive P, Decu Vg, Klein D,
Two 14C datings in a 2.5 m thick bat guano deposit indicate the Boreal period for the beginning of the deposit. The bat colony of the cave of Adam (Pestera lui Adam, Baile Herculane, south Carpathian Mountains) is one of the oldest permanent bat colonies in Europe, probably established just after the last Ice Age. Evidence of palaeo-seismic activity inside the guano deposit allow a chronology of regional seismic events during the Holocene Period to be drawn up.ResumeDeux datations par le radiocarbone d'un depot de guano de 2,5 m d'epaisseur permet d'en fixer le debut pendant la phase boreale. La grotte d'Adam (Pestera lui Adam, Baile Herculane, Carpates meridionales) heberge une des plus anciennes colonies permanentes de chiropteres d'Europe, qui s'y serait peut-etre etablie des la fin du dernier episode glaciaire. Des temoins de paleo-tremblements de terre au sein du guano permettent de fournir une premiere chronologie des evenements sismiques regionaux au cours de l'Holocene

La grotte et le karst de Cango (Afrique du Sud), 2000, Martini, J. E. J.
The author describes a small karst area in the extreme south of the African Continent, with special reference to the Cango Cave, which is a major tourist attraction. Compared with the other karsts of Southern Africa, this area is unique. The karst is typically exogenic, with caves forming by stream disappearance into swallow holes, where the thalweg intersects steeply dipping Precambrian limestone. Wet caves are vadose, with only short phreatic segments and exhibit rectilinear, longitudinal sections. Passages are low, but wide with bevelled ceilings, often terraced. This peculiar morphology is typical of the caves developing exactly on the water-table and seems to be controlled by the abundance of sediments introduced from the swallow holes. If one excepts a short active lower level, Cango is a dry cave of the same type than the wet ones. It is practically linear in plan and in profile, with a length of 2.6 km from entrance to end for a total of 5.2 km of passages. The age of the speleogenesis has been estimated as early Pleistocene from the entrance elevation, which is in between the altitude of the actual thalweg and the one of the Post African I erosion surface, which started to be eroded during the Upper Pliocene. This relatively young age is in contrast with a Miocene model, which was accepted by most of the previous authors. Cango is well adorned with speleothems, in particular with outstanding abundant shields, monocrystalline stalagmites and pools coated with calcite crystals. In the first chambers from entrance, the speleothems have been deeply corroded by bat guano, with deposition of hydroxylapatite. Previously this corrosion was attributed to resolution due to several rises of the paleowater-table. The meteorology is discussed, in particular the high carbon dioxide, which indicates that the cave is poorly ventilated and which constitutes a problem for management and conservation.

A Late Quaternary Paleoecological Record from Caves of Southern Jamaica, West Indies, 2002, Mcfarlane, D. A. , Lundberg, J. , Fincham, A. G.
Studies of an unusual and diverse system of caves in coastal southern Jamaica have yielded a paleoclimatic record associated with a fossil vertebrate record that provides useful insights into the poorly documented paleoecology of latest Wisconsinan and Holocene Jamaica. Episodes of significantly increased precipitation during the Holocene have left characteristic deposits of speleothems, and have supported both faunal and archaeological communities that were dependent on these mesic conditions. Deposits of fossil bat guano preserved in the caves provide a d13C record of alternating mesic and xeric climatic episodes that supports the interpretation of the faunal and archaeological record.

Vulcanospeleology in Saudi Arabia., 2006, Pint, J. J.
Saudi Arabia has over 80,000 km2 of lava fields, locally known as harrats. However, only a few studies of lava caves in Saudi Arabia have been published internationally. This article summarizes the published and unpublished findings of all known expeditions to lava caves in the kingdom. Prior to 2001, reports of such caves were mostly limited to sightings of collapse holes by vulcanologists surveying the lava fields. Few caves were entered and no cave maps were produced. In 2001 and 2002, expeditions were organized to Harrat Kishb, located northeast of Makkah (Mecca). Three lava caves measuring 22 m, 150 m and 320 m in length were surveyed and the collapse features of a fourth cavepossibly over 3 km longwere studied. Two throwing sticks, a plant-fiber rope and the remains of stone walls were found in some of these caves. In 2003, lava tubes measuring 530 m and 208 m were surveyed in Harrat Ithnayn and Harrat Khaybar, respectively. Animal bones and coprolites were found in both caves. In 2003 and 2004, studies were carried out in Hibashi Cave, located in Harrat Nawasif/Al Buqum, 245 km southeast of Makkah. The cave was surveyed (length: 689.5 m) and found to contain two layers of burnt bat guano overlying a bed of redeposited loess up to 1.5 meters deep and up to 5800 years old. At least 19 different minerals were found, three being extremely rare organic compounds related to the guano combustion. Bones, horns, coprolites, ruins of a wall and a human skull ca. 425 years old were also found. There is evidence of many more lava caves in Saudi Arabia, particularly in Harrat Khaybar. Formal archeological and biological studies have not yet been carried out in Saudi lava caves but may produce interesting results.

The first Australian record of subterranean guano-collecting ants, 2006, Moulds Timothy
An arthropod community was found in guano of the inland cave bat (Vespadelus findlaysoni) roosting in the abandoned Eregunda mine, a 25 m adit located east of Blinman in the central Flinders Ranges, South Australia. This guano community is remarkable because meat ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus Smith) were observed to enter the mine, collect fresh guano, and carry it back to the nest. This opportunistic behaviour has not previously been reported in Australian or overseas hypogean guano communities. Bat guano is eaten directly by many guanobitic and guanophilic invertebrates as high nitrate food, or, more commonly the more readily digested glycogen rich bacteria and fungus are eaten. Although not strictly a cave, the lack of suitable bat roosts in nearby caves, and the stable environmental conditions present, make this site locally important as a representative hypogean guano arthropod community.

Old bat guano in Slaughter Canyon Cave, 2006, Polyak V. J. , Asmerom Y. , Rasmussen J. ?. ?.

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