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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That elutriation is a washing process by decantation with water [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for branchwork caves (Keyword) returned 5 results for the whole karstbase:
The initiation of hypogene caves in fractured limestone by rising thermal water: investigation of a parallel series of competing fractures, 1999, Dumont K. A. , Rajaram H. , Budd D. A.
Integrated cave systems can either form at or near the surface of the earth (epigenic) or at some depth below the earth's surface (hypogenic)For caves that form in fractured limestone, the two most common types of cave-system morphologies are branchwork and mazeworkBranchwork caves are composed of tributaries that coalesce in the downstream direction, similar to surface streamsMazework caves exhibit two or more sets of parallel passages intersecting in a grid-like patternThe majority of epigenic caves exhibit branchwork morphologies, which represent the dominance of individual flow pathsIn contrast, mazework caves develop when dissolution occurs along numerous flow pathsWhereas most epigenic caves are related to surficial meteoric flow systems, some mazework caves are thought to have formed in hypogene environments where rising thermal water cools in response to the geothermal gradientOur objective is to examine the fundamental cause for the difference in morphology between epigenic and thermal hypogenic cave systems using numerical modelsIn particular, we are examining the competition between different flow paths in fractured limestone undergoing dissolutional enlargementAs noted in previous numerical studies, epigenic systems are characterized by the dominance of a single flow path, which is consistent with the structure of epigenic cavesSo, in order to explain the structure of maze caves, one has to explain why no single flow path attains dominanceThe retrograde solubility of calcite coupled with heat transfer from the fluid to the rock is hypothesized to provide the mechanism by which dissolutional power is distributed among all competing flow pathsNumerical models of fluid flow, heat transfer, and calcite dissolution chemistry are integrated to develop a model of hypogene cave initiation in fractured limestoneFlow is assumed to occur in the presence of a spatially variable rock temperature field that is constant through timePreliminary numerical modeling results for a system of parallel fractures demonstrate the differences in the nature of competition between flow paths in epigenic (constant temperature) and hypogenic systems (flow in the presence of a negative thermal gradient)Differences in results using various kinetic models for calcite dissolution are also presentedThe role of aperture variation and distribution in a parallel set of fractures is also examined

Hydrogeologic control of cave patterns, 2000, Palmer A. N.
Cave patterns are controlled by a hierarchy of hydrogeologic factors. The location and overall trend of a cave depends on the distribution of recharge and discharge points within the karst aquifer. Specific cave patterns, i.e. branchwork vs. maze patterns, are controlled mainly by the nature of the groundwater recharge. Individual passage configurations are determined by the structural nature of the bedrock and by the geomorphic evolution of the aquifer. The origin of branchwork caves is favored by point recharge sources of limited catchment area. Floodwater recharge, especially through sinking streams, tends to produce maze caves or local mazes superimposed on branchwork caves. Through floodwater activity, anastomotic mazes form in prominently bedded aquifers, network mazes in prominently fractured aquifers, and spongework mazes in highly porous or brecciated rocks. Epikarst, network caves, and spongework caves are also produced by diffuse or dispersed infiltration into the karst aquifer, and network and spongework caves can be the product of mixing of two waters of contrasting chemistry. Ramiform caves are produced most often by rising water rich in hydrogen sulfide, which oxidizes to sulfuric acid. Deep-seated processes that help to initiate cave development include the interaction between carbonates and sulfates, which can greatly increase the solubility of dolomite, gypsum, and anhydrite, while calcite precipitates. Although tightly confined artesian conditions have long been associated with the origin of maze caves, they actually have no inherent tendency to form mazes. The slow movement of groundwater close to equilibrium with dissolved bedrock, typical of tightly confined artesian aquifers, is the least favorable setting for maze development.

Cave Geology, 2007, Palmer A. N.
Cave Geology is the definitive book on the subject by an internationally recognized authority. It can be easily understood by non-scientists but also covers a wide range of topics in enough detail to be used by advanced researchers. Illustrated with more than 500 black-and-white photographs and 250 diagrams and maps, this book is dedicated to anyone with an interest in caves and their origin. Topics include: CONTENTS Preface 1 Speleology the science of caves Cave types Cave exploring Nationwide speleological organizations Searching for caves Cave mapping Preparation of a cave map Cave science Underground photography Show caves Cave preservation and stewardship 2 Cave country Geologic time Landscape development Surface karst features Paleoleokarst Pseudokarst The scale of karst features Distribution of karst and caves The longest and deepest known caves 3 Cavernous rocks Rock types Soils and sediments Stratigraphy Highly soluble rocks Rock structure Rock and mineral analysis A brief guide to rock identification 4 Underground water in karst Types of underground water Vadose flow patterns Phreatic flow patterns Aquifers Nature of the karst water table The freshwater-seawater interface Groundwater hydraulics Flow measurements Use of flow equations in cave interpretation Measuring the flow of springs and streams Groundwater tracing Interpreting groundwater character from tracer tests and flood pulses Quantitative dye tracing 5 Chemistry of karst water Simple dissolution Dissoltion of limestone and dolomite How much rock has dissolved? pH Undersaturation and supersaturation Epigenic and hypogenic acids Chemical interactions Dissolution rates Dissolution of poorly soluble rocks Microbial effects on chemistry Isotopes and their use Analysis of spring chemistry A chemical cave tour Chemical field studies 6 Characteristics of solution caves Cave entrances Passage types Passage terminations Cave rooms Cave levels Cave patterns Minor solution features in caves Interpreting flow from scallops Cave sediments Bedrock collapse Cave biology 7 Speleogenesis: the origin of caves Basic concepts Development of ideas about cave origin Comprehensive views of cave origin Rates of cave enlargement Insight from computer modeling Life cycle of a solution cave 8 Control of cave patterns by groundwater recharge Sinkhole recharge: branchwork caves The problem of maze caves Floodwater caves Caves formed by diffuse flow Hypogenic caves Polygenetic caves Influence of climate 9 Influence of geology on cave patterns Distribution of soluble rocks Influence of rock type Influence of geologic structure Relation of caves to landscape evolution A guide to cave patterns 10 Cave minerals Origin and growth of cave minerals Origin of common cave minerals Speleothem types Speleothem growth rates Speleothem decay 11 Caves in volcanic rocks Volcanic processes and landscapes Types of lava caves Origin and character of lava-tube caves Speleogens and speleothems in lava caves Time scale of lava caves 12 Cave meteorology and internal weathering Composition of cave air Cave temperatures Air movement Evaporation and condensation Weathering in the cave atmosphere Chemical zones in air-filled caves 13 Caves and time Relative and numerical ages Determining cave ages Studies of past climates Caves through the ages 14 Geologic studies of caves Field mapping Calibrating survey instruments Geologic interpretions Testing interpretations for validity Detailed analysis of a cave Further goals 15 Application of cave geology to other geosciences The problem of sampling bias Water supply Engineering applications Land management Interpretation of geologic processes Petroleum geology Mining Scientific frontiers The limits of discovery Glossary References Index Conversion between U.S. and metric units

Passage Growth and Development, 2012, Palmer, Arthur N.

Of all cave types, solution caves have the most complex developmental histories. They are formed by the dissolving action of underground water as it flows through fractures, partings, and pores in bedrock. Such caves must grow rapidly enough to reach traversable size before the rock material that contains them is destroyed by surface erosion. Because of their sensitivity to local landscapes and patterns of water flow, solution caves contain clues to the entire geomorphic, hydrologic, and climatic history of the region in which they are located. At the land surface most of this evidence is rapidly lost to weathering and erosion; but in caves these clues can remain intact for millions of years.


Speleogenesis, Telogenetic, 2012, Gabrovek, Franci

Speleogenesis refers to the processes by which caves are formed. Telogenetic speleogenesis is the formation of caves in compacted, fractured, soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum by circulating meteoric water. The kinetics of the known chemical reactions can be used to construct models that describe cave development as a function of time and the chemical and geological properties of the system. The common cave patterns of branchworks and mazes can be accounted for by hydraulic gradients and recharge rates.


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