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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That aquifer, artesian is a confined aquifer where the potentiometric surface rises above the top of the aquifer bed [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Your search for brine flow (Keyword) returned 2 results for the whole karstbase:
HALITE SALTERN IN THE CANNING BASIN, WESTERN-AUSTRALIA - A SEDIMENTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF DRILL CORE FROM THE ORDOVICIAN-SILURIAN MALLOWA SALT, 1992, Cathro Dl, Warren Jk, Williams Ge,
The Late Ordovician-Early Silurian Mallowa Salt of the Carribuddy Group, Canning Basin, north-west Australia, is the largest halite deposit known in Australia, attaining thicknesses of 800 m or more within an area of approximately 200 000 km2. Study of 675 m of drill core from BHP-Utah Minerals' Brooke No. 1 well in the Willara Sub-basin indicates that the Mallowa Salt accumulated within a saltern (dominantly subaqueous evaporite water body) that was subject to recurrent freshening, desiccation and exposure. Textures and bromine signatures imply a shallow water to ephemeral hypersaline environment typified by increasing salinity and shallowing into evaporitic mudflat conditions toward the top of halite-mudstone cycles (Type 2) and the less common dolomite/anhydrite-halite-mudstone cycles (Type 1). The borate mineral priceite occurs in the capping mudstones of some cycles, reinforcing the idea of an increasing continental influence toward the top of mudstone-capped halite cycles. The rock salt in both Type 1 and Type 2 cycles typically comprises a mosaic of large, randomly orientated, interlocking halite crystals that formed during early diagenesis. It only partially preserves a primary sedimentary fabric of vertically elongate crystals, some with remnant aligned chevrons. Intraformational hiati, halite karst tubes and solution pits attest to episodic dissolution. Stacked Type 2 cycles dominate; occasional major recharges of less saline, perhaps marine, waters in the same area produced Type 1 cycles. The envisaged saltern conditions were comparable in many ways to those prevailing during the deposition of halite cycles of the Permian Salado Formation in New Mexico and the Permian San Andres Formation of the Palo Duro Basin area in Texas. However, in the Canning Basin the cycles are characterized by a much lower proportion of anhydrite, implying perhaps a greater degree of continental restriction to the basin. The moderately high level of bromine in the Mallowa Salt (156.5 43.5 ppm Br for primary halite, 146.1 54.7 ppm Br for secondary halite) accords with evolved continental brines, although highly evaporative minerals such as polyhalite and magnesite are absent. The bromine levels suggest little or no dissolution/reprecipitation of primary halite and yet, paradoxically, there is little preservation of the primary depositional fabric. The preservation of early halite cements and replacement textures supports the idea of an early shutdown of brine flow paths, probably at burial depths of no more than a few metres, and the resultant preservation of primary bromine values in the secondary halite

Conceptual modelling of brine flow into aquifers adjacent to the Konarsiah salt diapir, Iran, 2010, Zarei Mehdi, Raeisi Ezzat

The Konarsiah salt diapir is located in the Simply Folded Zone of the Zagros Mountain, south Iran. Salt,extruding from two vents along a fault, spreads downslope as a salt glacier over the adjacent formations. Eight small permanent brine springs emerge from the Konarsiah salt body, with average total dissolved solids of 327.3 g/L. The diapir is in direct contact with several aquifers, namely, the karstic Eastern and Western Sarvak, karstic Eastern Asmari, Firouzabad, Konarsiah Plain and Shour. It is also surrounded by a number of impermeable formations. The springs and seepage sections emerging from the aquifers adjacent to the diapir are unexpectedly saline or brackish. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, flow rate, temperature and major ion concentrations were measured monthly from September 2007 to August 2008 at 37 sampling sites, including springs, surface waters, boreholes and wells.
The study indicates that the source of salinity of the adjacent aquifers is halite dissolution of the diapir. Conceptual models of groundwater flow are proposed for the adjacent karst aquifers based on the geological setting, water budget, local base of erosion, isotope data and the profile of the water table. The share of the diapir brine in the Eastern Sarvak aquifer, the Western aquifers (Sarvak, Asmari and Shour) and Konarsiah Plain are 1.8 L/s, 0.8 L/s and 9.1 L/s, respectively. Most of this brine ultimately releases into the Firouzabad River and changes the TDS of this river from 9.21 g/L to 11.61 g/L.
To drain the brine flowing into the Eastern Sarvak aquifer and hence reduce the aquifer's salinity it might be feasible to construct a qanat (a man-made underground gallery transferring groundwater to the surface by gravity) at the aquifer's contact with the Konarsiah diapir. To exploit the fresh karst water of the Western Sarvak aquifer before it is contaminated by the Konarsiah brine, several wells could be constructed well away from the diapir.


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