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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That bank storage is 1. subsurface conduit water that has been driven back up into older, higher karst levels and into the surrounding rock matrix during a high flow period. 2. river water that has infiltrated river banks during a high flow period and being retained in temporary storage [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for cave formations (Keyword) returned 9 results for the whole karstbase:
C14 Dating of Cave Formations, 1959, Broecker W. S. , Olson E. Z.

Glacial causes of damage and difficulties to use speleothems as palaeoseismic indicators, 2004, Gilli E,
Fractures that affect cave speleothems have often been described as the result of earthquakes and their use in paleoseismic studies is more and more frequent. Nevertheless observations during and after earthquakes, modeling and laboratory experiments indicate that, except for some slender speleothems, the cave formations usually do not break during an earthquake. New observations in caves in France and Slovenia reveal other mechanisms as the creeping of ice or clay filling that easily explain most of the breaks. (C) 2004 Lavoisier SAS. All rights reserved

High-accuracy graphic representation of underground karst features and formations during cave mapping, 2004, Szunyogh Gá, Bor

We attempt to develop a new method of cave mapping, which would be superior in terms of the amount and quality of the documented information, relative to the "standard" methods of cave survey. The method envisages that everything that can be seen in the cave which is being surveyed, e.g., corrosional features, cave formations, water bodies, fallen rock blocks, fractures in cave walls, artificial (engineering) structures, etc., must be represented on the map. The method employs the traditional system of map symbols; the accuracy of the produced map, however, approaches the accuracy of the engineering survey maps. The maps accurately render positions, shapes and dimensions of cave features: for example all stalagmites with diameters greater than ca. 10 cm, and all rock blocks with linear sizes exceeding 0.5 m are shown on the maps individually. In the report we will elaborate on the most important aspects of this mapping method, including stages of survey and mapping, system of drawing, map symbols.


Evaluation of the effect of oven roasting at 340 gradC, bleach, 30% H2O2, and distilled/deionized water on the delta13C value of speleothem carbonate, 2006, Elkins J. T. , Railsback L. B.
Organic compounds derived from plants are found in many cave formations, which are collectively speleothem CaCO3 have distinct ratios of the stable isotopes of carbon (12C and 13C) that are expressed as ?13C values. Values of ?13C in the organic compounds are lower than ?13C values of speleothem calcium carbonate and could affect the ?13C values of speleothems with high organic conventionally used to destroy organic matter in carbonates prior to geochemical analysis were evaluated in this study. The treatments were oven roasting at 340 C, soaking in bleach, soaking in 30% H2O2, and soaking in distilled deionized water. There is no statistically significant difference between results from untreated and treated samples. These results suggest that the treatments do not affect the ?13C value of speleothems calcium carbonate. The treatments might be helpful in removing organic matter in speleothems that have high concentrations of organic matter. However, most speleothems have low organic carbon concentrations that do not affect the ?13C value of the speleothem, even if left untreated. Ultimately these treatments only need to be applied to speleothems with unusually high concentrations of organic matter.

Sails: a new gypsum speleothem from Naica, Chihuahua, Mexico., 2007, Forti Paolo, Bernabei Tullio, Villasuso Roberto
The caves of Naica (Chihuahua, Mexico) are perhaps the most famous mine caves of the world due to the presence of gigantic gypsum crystals. Nevertheless, very little research has been carried out on this karst area until now. A multidisciplinary investigation started in 2006 with the aim not only to define the genesis and the age of the Naica gypsum crystals, but also on other scientific aspects of these caves. This paper describes a completely new type of gypsum speleothem: the sails, observed only inside the Cueva de las Velas, one of the caves of the Naica system. This speleothem consists of extremely thin, elongated skeleton crystals that have grown epitaxially only on the tips of the gypsum crystals pointing upward. The genesis of sails is strictly related to the environmental conditions set up inside the cave just after the artificial lowering of the groundwater by mine dewatering (less than 20 yr ago). In a few years sail speleothems will disappear entirely and therefore this study is fundamental to preserve at least the memory of them.

Petrographic and geochemical study on cave pearls from Kanaan Cave (Lebanon), 2007, Nader Fadi. H.
The Kanaan cave is situated at the coastal zone, north of Beirut City (capital of Lebanon). The cave is located within the upper part of the Jurassic Kesrouane Formation (Liassic to Oxfordian) which consists mainly of micritic limestone. Twenty seven cave pearls were subjected to petrographic (conventional and scanning electron microscopy) and geochemical analyses (major/trace elements and stable isotopes). The cave pearls were found in an agitated splash-pool with low mud content. They are believed to have formed through chemical precipitation of calcite in water over-saturated with calcium. The nucleus and micritic laminae show ? 18OV-PDB values of about -5.0 and ? 13C V-PDB values of -11.8, while the surrounding calcite spar laminae resulted in ?18OV-PDB ranging between -5.3 and -5.2, and ? 13C V-PDB between -12.3 and -12.1. A genesis/diagenesis model for these speleothems is proposed involving recrystallization which has selectively affected the inner layers of the cave pearls. This is chiefly invoked by sparry calcite crystals invading the inner micrite cortical laminae and the nuclei (cross-cutting the pre-existing mud-envelopes), and the slight depletion in ? 18O values from inner to outer cortical layers. The calculated ? 18OV-SMOW of the water (-4.2) matches with data on meteoric water signature for the central eastern Mediterranean region.

Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology, 2007, Ford D. , Williams P.
Originally published in 1989, Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology became the leading textbook on karst studies. This new textbook has been substantially revised and updated. The first half of the book is a systematic presentation of the dissolution kinetics, chemical equilibria and physical flow laws relating to karst environments. It includes details of the many environmental factors that complicate their chemical evolution, with a critique of measurement of karst erosion rates. The second half of the book looks at the classification system for cave systems and the influence of climate and climatic change on karst development. The book ends with chapters on karst water resource management and a look at the important issues of environmental management, including environmental impact assessment, environmental rehabilitation, tourism impacts and conservation values. Practical applications of karst studies are explained throughout the text. Contents: CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO KARST. CHAPTER 2. THE KARST ROCKS. CHAPTER 3. DISSOLUTION: CHEMICAL AND KINETIC BEHAVIOUR OF THE KARST ROCKS. CHAPTER 4. DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF KARST DENUDATION. CHAPTER 5. KARST HYDROLOGY. CHAPTER 6. ANALYSIS OF KARST DRAINAGE SYSTEMS. CHAPTER 7. SPELEOGENESIS: THE DEVELOPMENT OF CAVE SYSTEMS. CHAPTER 8. CAVE INTERIOR DEPOSITS. CHAPTER 9. KARST LANDFORM DEVELOPMENT IN HUMID REGIONS. CHAPTER 10.THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE, CLIMATIC CHANGE AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON KARST DEVELOPMENT. CHAPTER 11. KARST WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT. CHAPTER 12. HUMAN IMPACTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION.

Mud stalagmite-like formations in caves of the Crimea, 2012, Samokhin, G. V.

The paper provides a brief review of the mud stalagmites in various regions of the World. Genetic groups of mud stalagme-like formations are characterized. Description of mud stalagmites in Crimean caves is given for the first time. Such speleothems are found in the V. Dublyansky Chamber in the Red Cave (Dolgorukovsky Massif).
 


Diatom flora in subterranean ecosystems: a review., 2014,

In scarcity of light and primary producers, subterranean ecosystems are generally extremely oligotrophic habitats, receiving poor supplies of degradable organic matter from the surface. Human direct impacts on cave ecosystems mainly derive from intensive tourism and recreational caving, causing important alterations to the whole subterranean environment. In particular, artificial lighting systems in show caves support the growth of autotrophic organisms (the so-called lampenflora), mainly composed of cyanobacteria, diatoms, chlorophytes, mosses and ferns producing exocellular polymeric substances (EPSs) made of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. This anionic EPSs matrix mediates to the intercellular communications and participates to the chemical exchanges with the substratum, inducing the adsorption of cations and dissolved organic molecules from the cave formations (speleothems). Coupled with the metabolic activities of heterotrophic microorganisms colonising such layer (biofilm), this phenomenon may lead to the corrosion of the mineral surfaces. In this review, we investigate the formation of biofilms, especially of diatom-dominated ones, as a consequence of artificial lighting and its impacts on speleothems. Whenever light reaches the subterranean habitat (both artificially and naturally) a relative high number of species of diatoms may indeed colonise it. Cave entrances, artificially illuminated walls and speleothems inside the cave are generally the preferred substrates. This review focuses on the diatom flora colonising subterranean habitats, summarizing the information contained in all the scientific papers published from 1900 up to date. In this review we provide a complete checklist of the diatom taxa recorded in subterranean habitats, including a total of 363 taxa, belonging to 82 genera. The most frequent and abundant species recorded in caves and other low light subterranean habitats are generally aerophilic and cosmopolitan. These are, in order of frequency: Hantzschia amphioxys, Diadesmis contenta, Orthoseira roeseana, Luticola nivalis, Pinnularia borealis, Diadesmis biceps and Luticola mutica. Due to the peculiarity of the subterranean habitats, the record of rare or new species is relatively common. The most important environmental factors driving species composition and morphological modifications observed in subterranean populations are analysed throughout the text and tables. In addition, suggestions to prevent and remove the corrosive biofilms in view of an environmentally sustainable cave management are discussed.


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