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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That underflow spring is see spring, underflow.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for central italy (Keyword) returned 35 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 35
Microflora and activity of functional groups in the sediments of three caves of Central Italy., 1978, Fumanti B. , Pasqualini A. , Vison L.
A comparative study is presented of the microflora of sediments in three caves with different trophic characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative variations of microflora were investigated for one year by studying the total microflora and the activity of the nitrogen cycle functional groups. Data were compared with those of other works of previous authors. Results show that the quantity and kind of organic matter of sediment are most important factors regulating the abundance and activity of cavernicolous microflora. The experimental part of this paper is prefaced by a digest of investigations previously carried out on cavernicolous microflora and by a report of topographic, geomorphologic, hydrologic and trophic characteristics of the caves examined.

Absolute Population Censuses of Cave-Dwelling Crickets: congruence between mark-recapture and plot density estimates., 1982, Carchini Gianmaria, Rampini Mauro, Sbordoni Valerio
The absolute size, N, of a Dolichopoda geniculata population was estimated both by the Lincoln-Petersen index and the total count on sample plot methods in a natural cave in Central Italy. 19 pairs of estimates, obtained over 2 years, exhibit a seasonal pattern and a mean value of N ? 430. Differences between estimates obtained with the 2 methods are not significant (P > 0.8). These results, and data from the literature enable most of the major factors influencing the two types of estimates to be identified. Respective cases where methods may be preferably applied are suggested.

New records for Salentinella Ruffo (Crustacea Amphipoda) from phreatic waters of Italy and Greece., 1985, Pesce Giuseppe L.
New localities for the subterranean amphipod Salentinella Ruffo from central-eastern Mediterranean are reported. New collecting localities are listed for Italy, continental Greece and islands of Cephalonie and Zante. Furthermore, some remarks are made about the systematics, the variability and the ecology of the genus. Moreover, the Author refers to the main characteristics of a Salentinella sp. from central Italy, showing intermediate features between S. angelieri and S. franciscoloi. A map of the distribution of the genus Salentinella in Italy and in the Balkan-Dalmatian Peninsula is enclosed.

Relationships between the internal and external evolution of the Monte Cucco Karst Complex. Umbria, Central Italy., 1987, Guzzetti Fausto
The relationships between the internal and external evolution of the Mt. Cucco karst complex are studied. A classic set of equations, involving the oxidation of hydrogen sulphide, originated at depth in an evaporitic formation, is used to explain the presence of massive gypsum deposits in the Mt. Cucco and the Faggeto Tondo caves. The distribution and the morphology of more than 30 caves in the system, the presence of gypsum, always located along faults, and the presence of broken stalactites and columns, suggest that the evolution of the karst system has been controlled by tectonic movements. Relationships between the development of the caves and the geomorphic evolution of the area are proposed.

Palaeoseismicity from karst sediments: the “Grotta del Cervo” cave case study (Central Italy), 1991, Postpischl D. , Agostini S. , Forti P. , Quinif Y. ,
Karst speleothems can be used for tectonic and palaeoseismic analyses; in particular, stalagmites can be treated as the records of a natural pendulum.Samples of stalagmites from the “Grotta del Cervo” and the “Grotta a Male” caves (Central Italy) have been dated using 14C and U/Th radiometric methods. The present paper shows the limits and validity of such methods for dating strong earthquakes of the past.In particular, radiometric 14C dating shows that the youngest general stalagmitic collapse observed inside the “Grotta del Cervo” cave must be related to the December 1456 earthquake of Central Italy

Activity od the scientific commission of ''Grotta Grande del Vento'' (Genga, Ancona, Central Italy)., 1994, Bertolani Mario, Cigna Arrigo A.
The Grotta Grande del Vento (the Great Wind Cave) was discovered in 1971. An administrative body (the "Consorzio Frasassi") under the control of some local authorities took care of its development and the cave was opened to tourists in 1974. A Scientific Commission formed by some experts (choosen by the Consorzio Frasassi) of different disciplines was established in 1975. During these 15 years the Commission acted as an advisory committee for the Consorzio in order to guarantee the protection of the cave environment. In particular the Commission set up a monitoring network of the most important environmental parameters (air and water temperature. air currents, relative humidity and CO2 concentration) in some suitable locations and studied the best solutions to avoid algae and other plants proliferation in the vicinity of light sources. The Commission promoted and directed researches in the karst system under a strict co-operation with the Consorzio Frasassi which funded most of them. Some scientific papers resulted from these researches.

Life cycle and population ecology of the cave cricket Dolichopoda geniculata (Costa) from Valmarino cave (Central Italy), 1994, Carchini Gianmaria, Rampini Mauro, Sbordoni Valerio
A D. geniculata population inhabiting a natural cave at low altitude near seashore was followed during two years. The population size, distribution in three age classes, spatial distribution, feeding habits were recorded. The life-cycle was found semivoltine, with overlaps between next choorts in each age class. A comparison to other Dolichopoda showed that the population of Valmarino cave is one of the best adapted to cave life, and this may be related with both historical and present geographical and ecological conditions of the cave.

The sinkhole of Doganella (Pontina Plain, central Italy), 1995, Bono P,

Occurrence of hypogenic caves in a karst region: examples from central Italy., 1995, Galdenzi S. , Menichetti M.

OCCURRENCE OF HYPOGENIC CAVES IN A KARST REGION - EXAMPLES FROM CENTRAL ITALY, 1995, Galdenzi S, Menichetti M,
The caves of the Umbria and Marche regions in central Italy are made up of three-dimensional maze systems that display different general morphologies due to the various geological and structural contexts. At the same time, the internal morphologies of the passages, galleries, and shafts present some similarity, with solutional galleries characterized by cupolas and blind pits, anastamotic passages, roof pendants, and phreatic passages situated at different levels. Some of these caves are still active, as is the case for Frassassi Gorge, Parrano Gorge, and Acquasanta Terme, with galleries that reach the phreatic zone, where there is a rising of highly mineralized water, rich in hydrosulfydric acid, and with erosion of limestone walls and the formation of gypsum. Elsewhere there are fossil caves, such as Monte Cucco and Pozzi della Piana, where large speleothems of gypsum are present 500 m or more above the regional water table. In all of these important karst systems it is possible to recognize basal input points through fracture and intergranular porosity networks at the base of the oxidizing zone in the core of the anticline, where mineralized water rises up from the Triassic evaporitic layers in small hydrogeological circuits. Different underground morphologies can derive from the presence of a water table related to an external stream or from the confined setting of the carbonate rocks, underlying low permeable sedimentary cover, where artesian conditions can occur

ELECTROMAGNETIC AND SEISMOACOUSTIC SIGNALS REVEALED IN KARST CAVES (CENTRAL ITALY), 1995, Bella F, Biagi Pf, Caputo M, Dellamonica G, Ermini A, Plastino W, Sgrigna V, Zilpimiani D,
Since 1988-89 equipment for detecting electric, magnetic and seismoacoustic signals has been running inside the Amare cave. The Amare cave is placed on the southern slope of the Gran Sasso chain, that is one of the largest karst areas of the Italian Apennines. In 1992, a similar equipment was installed inside the Cervo cave. This cave is located in another karst area of the Central Apennines, at about 50 km southwestwards of the Amare cave. In both these measurements sites, the signals are recorded every ten minutes in a digital form; the equipment is able to record signals, the frequency of which ranges from some hundred Hz to some hundred kHz. The data collected up to now seem to identify two different states that we call ''quiet'' and ''perturbed'' state. In the quiet state only electric and magnetic signals with the highest frequencies appear. These signals are connected with radio broadcastings and with the general lightnings activity of the Earth. A perturbed state is characterized by the sudden appearance of seismoacoustic signals coupled with electric and magnetic ones. This phenomenology is connected with local processes. Rainfall, atmospheric-pressure variations and some thermal effects are responsible for these local processes. A possible model is proposed to justify the observed phenomenology: micromovements of the limestone blocks that constitute the roof of the caves are invoked for the production of seismoacoustic signals. The electrification generated by these movements is invoked for the production of electric and magnetic signals

Flow dynamics and erosion rate of a representative karst basin (Upper Aniene River, Central Italy), 1996, Bono P, Percopo C,

Geographic variation and genetic relationships in populations of the Androniscus dentiger complex from Central Italy (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Trichoniscidae), 1997, Allegrucci Giuliana, Gentile Gabriele
Androniscus dentiger is a terrestrial isopod distributed from Great Britain to North Africa, inhabiting humid edafic environments, superficial underground compartments and both natural and artificial caves. In this study allozyme data have been used to investigate the geographic variation and the genetic relationships of several populations of A. dentiger from Central Italy, using as outgroups populations from four congeneric species, A. calcivagus, A. cfr. subterraneus, A. spelaeorum, and A. degener. Multivariate analysis of A. dentiger allele frequencies indicates the existence of a group of populations (group A) distributed in a wide geographic area which are genetically slightly differentiated, and several populations (arbitrarily defined as group B) which show differentiation levels comparable to those observed between the morphologically well differentiated species. The low valley of the river Tiber seems to act as an effective geographic barrier between the populations from group A and the remaining ones. The genetic divergence between populations within the group A seems to have a recent origin. This is suggested by the low genetic distances and heterozygosity values within the group A, and by the very low number of private alleles occurring in this group. The high degree of intraspecific and interspecific genetic differentiation is not consistent with the levels of morphological differentiation traditionally used to distinguish different species within this genus. On the whole, these data suggest that A. dentiger might be considered as a complex of cryptic/sibling species.

Long term stability of a terrestrial cave community, 1997, Carchini Gianmaria, Di Russo Claudio, Luccarelli Marco, Rampini Mauro, Sbordoni Valerio
We report data on the spatial structure and seasonal variation of the community of Valmarino cave, a medium sized sandstone cave, located a few kilometres from the coast line, in Central Italy. Due to both its habitat features and its relatively recent geological history, Valmarino cave is only inhabited by terrestrial, troglophilic elements, i.e facultative cave dwellers. By means of monthly censuses and density plot estimates we have investigated species abundance, diversity and their spatial organization, by considering separately samples from different cave sectors. Homogeneous sampling design allowed to compare series of samplings performed in 1974 and 1994. On the whole 21 arthropods and one snail species constitute the cave community. Ordination plots resulting from correspondence analyses of monthly samples outline a distinct spatial and temporal structure. Two main sub-communities can be identified: a inner subcommunity, mainly represented by eu-troglophilic species, showing a remarkable stability throughout the year and an outer sub-community, mainly represented by sub-troglophilic species, showing strong seasonal variation. Both spatial and temporal vectors show similar importance in shaping the community structure. An interesting result of this study is the long term stability of both spatial and seasonal components of the community structure which remained almost identical after 20 years, as shown by the comparison of ordination plots obtained from 1974 and 1994 sampling series. Therefore this study provides empirical evidence of a frequently hypothesised, albeit never demonstrated feature of the cave ecosystem.

The problem of modeling limestone springs: The case of Bagnara (north Apennines, Italy), 1997, Angelini P, Dragoni W,
The Bagnara spring (Central Italy), fed by a fractured, carbonate, and, in some areas, karstic aquifer, was examined. The available information is derived from geological mapping and daily flows over a period of 20 consecutive years. There are no data on the hydrogeological parameters nor on the aquifer hydraulic head, which is known only at the elevation of the spring. The objective of the work was to construct an appropriate mathematical model for the spring despite the scarcity of available information. The MODFLOW code was used to simulate the system following the equivalent porous media approach. The hydraulic conductivity and the specific yield equivalents were estimated by calibrating the model on the master depletion curve and taking into consideration the topographic elevation of the system's surface. The size of the protection area around the spring was investigated on the basis of the isochrons constructed from the results of the model

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