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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That basin characteristics is the physiographic, geologic, and ecologic characteristics of a basin [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for century (Keyword) returned 146 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 146
A Cave Description from the Middle of the 17th Century, 1956, Weber, Charles E.

The Discovery, Exploration and Scientific Investigation of the Wellington Caves, New South Wales, 1963, Lane Edward A. , Richards Aola M.

Although research has been unable to establish a definite date of discovery for the limestone caves at Wellington, New South Wales, documentary evidence has placed it as 1828. The actual discovery could have been made earlier by soldiers or convicts from the Wellington Settlement, which dated from 1823. Whether the aborigines knew of the cave's existence before 1828 is uncertain, but likely, as in 1830 they referred to them as "Mulwang". A number of very small limestone caves were also discovered about the same time in the nearby Molong area. The Bungonia Caves, in the Marulan district near Goulburn, were first written about a short time later. On all the evidence available at present, the Wellington Caves can be considered to be the first of any size discovered on the mainland of Australia. The Wellington Caves are situated in a low, limestone outcrop about six miles south by road from the present town of Wellington, and approximately 190 miles west-north-west of Sydney. They are at an altitude of 1000 feet, about half a mile from the present bed of the Bell River, a tributary of the Macquarie River. One large cave and several small caves exist in the outcrop, and range in size from simple shafts to passages 200 to 300 feet long. Mining for phosphate has been carried out, resulting in extensive galleries, often unstable, at several levels. Two caves have been lit by electricity for the tourist trades; the Cathedral Cave, 400 feet long, maximum width 100 feet, and up to 50 feet high; and the smaller Gaden Cave. The Cathedral Cave contains what is believed to be the largest stalagmite in the world, "The Altar", which stands on a flat floor, is 100 feet round the base and almost touches the roof about 40 feet above. It appears that the name Cathedral was not applied to the cave until this century. The original names were "The Great Cave", "The Large Cave" or "The Main Cave". The Altar was named by Thomas Mitchell in 1830. See map of cave and Plate. Extensive Pleistocene bone deposits - a veritable mine of bone fragments - were found in 1830, and have been studied by palaeontologists almost continually ever since. These bone deposits introduced to the world the extinct marsupials of Australia, and have a special importance in view of the peculiar features of the living fauna of the continent. The names of many famous explorers and scientists are associated with this history, among the most prominent being Sir Thomas Mitchell and Sir Richard Owen. Anderson (1933) gives a brief outline of why the Wellington Caves fossil bone beds so rapidly attracted world-wide interest. During the 18th and early 19th Century, the great palaeontologist, Baron Georges Cuvier, and others, supposed that the earth had suffered a series of catastrophic changes in prehistoric times. As a result of each of these, the animals living in a certain area were destroyed, the area being repopulated from isolated portions of the earth that had escaped the catastrophe. The Bilical Deluge was believed to have been the most recent. Darwin, during the voyage of the Beagle around the world (1832-37), was struck by the abundance of Pleistocene mammalian fossils in South America, and also by the fact that, while these differed from living forms, and were in part of gigantic dimensions, they were closely related to present-day forms in that continent. Darwin's theory of descent with modification did not reconcile with the ideas of Cuvier and others. As the living mammalian fauna of Australia was even more distinctive than that of South America, it was a matter of importance and excitement to discover the nature of the mammals which had lived in Australia in the late Tertiary and Pleistocene.


Evolution of the Wellington Caves Landscape, 1973, Francis, G.

Wellington Caves, New South Wales (figure 1), have attracted scientific attention for more than a century, largely through discoveries in the cave sediments of bones from extinct animals. These bone discoveries provided impetus for a number of early speculations about the geomorphology of the caves area and its relationship to the caves. Notable among these was the conjecture of Mitchell (1839) that the valley floor sediments of the Bell River and the cave fills had been deposited during a marine transgression about one million years ago. The first systematic geomorphological work was carried out by Colditz (1943), who argued for two distinct relict erosion levels in the Bell Valley; the older level was assigned to the Lower Pliocene and the younger to the Upper Pliocene. Colditz considered that these levels provided evidence for two phases of uplift in late Tertiary times. More recently Frank (1971) made detailed studies of the cave sediments, and devoted some attention to landscape evolution. He believed that the Bell River had been captured by Catombal Creek, during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.


Mayan Urbanism: Impact on a Tropical Karst Environment, 1979, Deevey Es, Rice Ds, Rice Pm, Vaughan Hh, Brenner M, Flannery Ms,
From the first millennium B.C. through the 9th-century A.D. Classic Maya collapse, nonurban populations grew exponentially, doubling every 408 years, in the twin-lake (Yaxha-Sacnab) basin that contained the Classic urban center of Yaxha. Pollen data show that forests were essentially cleared by Early Classic time. Sharply accelerated slopewash and colluviation, amplified in the Yaxha subbasin by urban construction, transferred nutrients plus calcareous, silty clay to both lakes. Except for the urban silt, colluvium appearing as lake sediments has a mean total phosphorus concentration close to that of basin soils. From this fact, from abundance and distribution of soil phosphorus, and from continuing post-Maya influxes (80 to 86 milligrams of phosphorus per square meter each year), which have no other apparent source, we conclude that riparian soils are anthrosols and that the mechanism of long-term phosphorus loading in lakes is mass transport of soil. Per capita deliveries of phosphorus match physiological outputs, approximately 0.5 kilogram of phosphorus per capita per year. Smaller apparent deliveries reflect the nonphosphatic composition of urban silt; larger societal outputs, expressing excess phosphorus from deforestation and from food waste and mortuary disposal, are probable but cannot be evaluated from our data. Eutrophication is not demonstrable and was probably impeded, even in less-impacted lakes, by suspended Maya silt. Environmental strain, the product of accelerating agroengineering demand and sequestering of nutrients in colluvium, developed too slowly to act as a servomechanism, damping population growth, at least until Late Classic time

Le Vercors : un massif de la moyenne montagne alpine, 1984, Delannoy, J. J.
THE VERCORS: A MASSIF OF MIDDLE ALPINE MOUNTAIN - The Vercors is a forested massif of middle mountain, in the French Northern Prealps. The characteristic of the Vercors massif is the thick and massif urgonian limestones, which underlines a folded structure. The Vercors quickly hold the attention of speleologists, who had put forward the density and diversity of karstic aspects since the beginning of the century. Landforms display glacial karstic landscapes more or less damaged in terms of bio-climatic levels of mounts and depressions landscapes and of deep water gaps, which main flows of the massif are flowing in. The notion of the morphoclimatic heritage applies to the underground karst for which glacial quaternary episodes have been determinant in the large systems genesis (gouffre Berger - Scialet de la Fromagre, Antre des Damns, Combe de Fer...). The study of underground deposits allows to bring up-to-date various period of karst development; a preglacial stage (e.g. upper levels of Cuves de Sassenage, Gournier, Coufin-Chevaline...). The study of the current dynamic shows that the Vercors as an important karstic ablation, between 120 to 170mm/ky. The karstic dynamic exerts mainly on the superficial slab of the massif (from 80 to 50% of the whole ablation). The Vercors can be considered as the best example of calcareous massif in temperate middle mountains, thanks to the combination of various favourable parameters: pure karst rocks, morpho-climatic episodes not constraining, and a high karstic dynamic.

Aspects of the Musical History of Jenolan Caves, 1986, Targett, Warren

The acoustic quality of caves has always led people to use them for the performance of sacred or secular music. The earliest record of music at Jenolan is that of J. C. Millard, who wrote that his party "camped in the largest cave, sang a few hymns... and early next morning arose and sang the doxology" (Millard, 1858). However music must have been performed there prior to that since the Bathurst Free Press reported in 1856 that a dancing platform had been erected in the Grand Arch. Trickett (1905) however gave the date of installation of the dance floor as 1869. This was in regular use until the end of the century (Harvard, 1936) when the improved amenities of the guest house rendered it redundant. A poster of 1898 gives evidence of 'Smoke Concerts' held in the Grand Arch, with local employees providing the entertainment. The Cathedral Cave was reputedly consecrated as a place of worship in the 1880s by Bishop Barry, Anglican Primate of the colony. Since then it has been used by various denominations for divine services. This cave was also sometimes used for live broadcasts of 'Radio Sunday School' on radio station 2GB in the 1930s and 1940s. Performers included Albert Boyd, a popular light baritone, and the Lithgow Brass Band. From about 1910 until the end of the 1940s musical performances were common at Caves House, with resident musicians employed on a permanent basis to play light music during meals and after dinner to provide dance music in the Ballroom. Many entertainments were organised which were attended by both staff and guests. This came to an end in the 1950s, and for 20 years live music became a rarity at Jenolan. Inspection parties visiting the Cathedral Cave had commonly been invited to sing, but in the 1950s this tradition was dropped, and instead a remote controlled record player was installed in the cavern. The recordings played were generally of a religious character. This equipment, in a state of disrepair, was finally removed in 1979. In the late 1960s the Smoke Concerts in the Grand Arch were revived, but were abandoned in 1974 after disruption by hooligan elements. However social concerts and dances continued in Caves House. In 1983 the regular engagement of musicians began again, and live music shows are now a regular feature on Saturday nights. Occasional concerts are once more taking place in the Grand Arch. Religious services and Masonic ceremonies have taken place in the caverns. Music is once again part of the Jenolan experience.


Xu Xiake, A Chinese Traveller of the Seventeenth Century and his contribution to Karst Studies, 1991, Hu Bangbo

Mise en valeur et exploitation traditionnelle des ressources du monde souterrain : l'exemple du SE de la France, 1991, Gauchon, C.
TRADITIONAL EXPLOITATION 0F CAVES IN SOUTH-EASTERN France - In south-eastern France (Jura, Prealps and Provence), the karstic caves have long been used as dwellings and exploited for ice or as mines. The ice caves (or glacires) of the Jura and Prealps (Bauges, Chartreuse and Vercors) were used by local inhabitants from the Middle Ages onwards even though the actual trade of ice towards the big cities (Grenoble, Lyon and Paris) was only to begin in the 19 century. Phosphate deposits are used as fertilizer in local farming. Since the 17th century speleothems have been extracted for use as ornaments and some caves, of which the Aven du Plan, Alpes-Maritimes, is a typical example, have become stalactite mines. The Gouffre Maule in the Chartreuse area is a noteworthy example of a mining cave in which the exploitation of iron was begun before the 12 century by local monks. The complex tasks carried out in these caves (such as the setting up of scaffolding and the digging of galleries) provide clear evidence of the importance once given to local resources before the industrial age.

La craie, roche carbonate poreuse, et son karst, 1991, Rodet, J.
Chalk and its karst - Chalk is a calcareous rock liable to karstification. That is demonstrated by the work which researchers and planners have been carrying out for a century and half. However, to state that all chalks are the sites of karstic drainage is unfortunate. Chalk turns out to be a more or less porous, more or less marly, more or less calcareous rock. This great variety of forms of drainage can show, going from one extreme (omnipresent porosity) to another (exclusively karstic drainage), passing on way through all the variants permitted by the blending of physico-hydrological qualities.

RESOURCE USE IN THE TROPICAL KARSTLANDS OF CENTRAL BELIZE, 1993, Day M,
Rural tropical ecosystems are subject to many traditional land uses that employ the indigenous karst resources: rock, water, soil, vegetation, and wildlife. Individual resource pressures often arc subtle, but their combined impact can precipitate instability in the tropical karst environment, potentially resulting in disruption of food, water, and fuel supplies. The karst of central Belize was used intensively for some six centuries by Maya farmers. but between the 10th and 19th centuries AD most of it reverted to secondary forest. Commercial logging dominated the 19th and early 20th centuries, followed by the expansion of subsistence and commercial agriculture after 1945. In the 1980s resource use has accelerated as population and other pressures increase. Much karst remains forested, but there is increasing clearance for agricultural uses, particularly for citrus cultivation and small-scale mixed agriculture. Soil depletion has begun to occur, water resources are increasingly taxed, and some wildlife is threatened by habitat destruction and increased hunting. Lime production for the citrus industry has promoted quarrying, water extraction, and fuelwood use. Environmental stresses currently do not exceed the threshold of instability, but the rapidly developing rural economy warrants careful monitoring of resource pressures

STRESS ON TROPICAL KARST CULTIVATED WITH WET RICE - BOHOL, PHILIPPINES, 1993, Urich P. B. ,
Wet rice cultivation represents one of the most intensive uses of tropical karst. Under wet field conditions karstlands can be highly resilient, but nevertheless vulnerable to change. The karst environment in this study has been cultivated for at least five centuries. However, the post-World War II era has fostered a host of pressures that have altered the local ecology. Resulting stress in the irrigation systems and society threaten the maintenance of this viable karst-based agricultural economy

The Treasure Cave, Rincn de la Victoria (Malaga, Spain), 1994, Gutirrez Jos Lus, Guzmn Antonio, Mendoza Fernando
La Cueva del Tesoro (The Treasure Cave) is located on the East, 10 kilometres from the city of Malaga, in a coastal promontory called El Cantal (a small steep), which is situated in the municipality of Rincn de la Victoria. The composition of land in this zone El Cantal is made up of limestone and there are many caves which are located within a radius of 2 kilometres, although some of them have already disappeared: la Cueva dei Tesoro, la cueva del Hoyo de la Mina, Cuevas de Navarro, Cuevas de la Cantera, Cueva de los Molinos, Cueva de la Raja del Humo, etc. The best known of these caves and the only one who can be visited is the Cueva del Tesoro. It has been also known by some other names, such as the Cueva del Higuern or the Cueva del Suizo. The Cueva del Tesoro has its origin in the sea coast depths; that is why its morphology is made up of halls, gorges and columns. Then, and because of the upheaval of El Cantal the cave emerged out of the sea. Finally, fresh water percolation resulted in the formation of some stalactites and stalagmites, although they are of less importance within the whole cave This cave. which was already used as shelter for 8 months by Marcus Crassus (according to a legend) in 86 B.C. when he was prosecuted, it was also used, according to another tradition, to hide the Almoravid treasure in the l2th century. This treasure has been searched for by some people in the last two hundred years. One of them was the Swiss, Antonio de la Nari, who died because of an explosion inside the cave in 1847. Professor Manuel Laza Palacios from Malaga, owner of the cave, has been the best specialist and treasure searcher. He was an exceptional person, has knew how to keep alive hopefully the old legend throughout his whole life. Besides, the cave has provided some important archaeological discoveries: Father Breuil found out some cave paintings in 1918 and excavations have been recently carried out by Mr. Manuel Laza. A rather interesting material appeared, such as Neolithic pottery, lithic industry (the most important object is an Upper Paleolithic arrow-head), human and animal remains. According to these discoveries, the presence of human beings in this cave is proved since the Paleolithic. There are also a series of legends and traditions related to the Cueva del Tesoro. So, in this frame, it has been given for sure and for a very long time that the ghost of the Swiss still appears in El Cantal to look for the treasure. Another tradition, studied by Mr. Laza, places the sanctuary of the old goddess Noctiluce inside a hall of the cave.

Rgulation romaine et drainage moderne du Fucino, lac karstique de lAbruzze (Italie centrale), 1995, Burri E. , Leveau P. , Nicod J.
The closed basin (polje-like) of Lake Fucino (+660 m) in Abruzzo is of tectonic origin with very considerable plio-pleistocene filling. The underground drainage by the south-west ponors is insufficient. Thereby the lake is subject to continual oscilla-tions, particularly in keeping with the cli-matic fluctuations studied for the holocene period and historic times. The drainage was carried out in 1st century A.D. under Emperor Claudius, by the dig-ging of a 5640m tunnel, and continued by Traianus and Adrianus, for the stabili-zation of the lake level, and land reclama-tion. By the 5/6th century, for lack of repair, this canal had ceased to function and the lake returned to its original dimension. In mid 19th century, a Company founded by a rich Roman ban-ker, A. Torionia, had a new canal built utilising the original Roman one. This led to the complete draining out of the lake by a canal system, and the full land reclama-tion renewed after the agrarian reform (1951) by a public society, the E.R.S.A.

Early Accounts of Caves in Mauritius, 1995, Middleton, Greg

A survey is attempted of published accounts of lava caves on the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius up to the early 20th century. A number of writers mentioned caves as part of the natural curiosities of the island, though there was a high level of information recycling. The earliest written cave account dates from 1769; the cave it relates to is also the most written-about and, on current knowledge, is the oldest on the island. On neighbouring Rodrigues the earliest record is thought to date from 1789.


Karst et mines en France et en Europe : gtes, grottes-mines et gotechnique, 1996, Nicod, J.
Many ores have been extracted in the karst areas since the proto-historic times. The ores have been trapped in the paleokarsts, according to various processes whose origin is still much debated. Certain metal-rich minerals have been excavated in caves or "mine-caves". Many polymetallic ores in paleokarstic deposits were in exploitation in SW Sardinia, Sierra of Carthagena, Montagne Noire, Peak District, and Upper Silesia... The mercury mines of Idrija (Slovenia) and the uranium deposits of Tyuya Muyun (Kirgizia) are of particular interest. Recent studies have clearly shown the historic importance of numerous pockets of pisolitic iron (Siderolithic, Bohnerz) in the European steel metallurgy, since the Celts and Romans and up to the middle of the 19th century. The siderite ores raise special problems. Most bauxite deposits were found in karstic pockets and paleo-poljes (mediterranean type of bauxites). The studies of the old mines give a better insight into paleokarsts. Both the ancient and modern mines have created artificial karsts, and raise many geotechnical and environmental problems.

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