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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That psychrometer is 1. an instrument used for measuring relative humidity. the simplest sling psychrometers consist of two thermometers mounted on a rotating frame. one thermometer's bulb is kept moist, the other dry. by comparing the "wet bulb" and "dry bulb" readings of the two thermometers after they have been whirled in the air, one can determine the relative humidity. an electric fan is used to ventilate the wet bulb in many psychrometers [23]. 2. apparatus designed to measure relative humidity indirectly [16]. see also hygrometer.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for chlorophyta (Keyword) returned 10 results for the whole karstbase:
The microvegetation of a small Ice-cave in Hungary., 1964, Kol Erzsebet
The algal flora of a small, artificial, ice-cave located in Northern Hungary is described. In this cave 23 species of algae (see in Table 3) were found of which the Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta occurred with approximately equal number. (9 vers. 11) It was found that the primary limiting factor influencing the penetration of the algae into the cave is the low temperature and not the lack of light.

Data on the Algal Flora of Kolyuk cave close to Manfa (Hungary)., 1965, Claus George
The Kolyuk cave lies in the southern part of Hungary in the Mecsek Mountains, about 3 km. in distance from the village of Mnfa. The material accepted for investigation originated from a recently discovered and until now completely entombed part of the cave. It was collected by the geologist Gbor Magyari and consisted of material scraped from the walls and ceiling of a cavity in the cave, which could be reached only by underwater swimming. From these scrapings cultures were installed with sterile Knopp solution and after the algae present in the collection reproduced, a diversified flora developed which consisted of the following: Cyanophyta; 20 species, varietates and formae; Bacillariophyta; 2 species and varietas; Chlorophyta; 7 species. There was a total of 29 different taxa. Since the cave from which the collections were made was completely devoid of light, it is especially significant that a well developed blue-green algal flora was found. We thus have further evidence for our previously advanced theory (Claus, 1955, 1962 a, 1962b) that some algae were present in the caves at the time of their origin. They were able to survive in an actively assimilating vegetative state and not only in the form of cysts or arthrospores.

The world of plants in caves of Lillafured (Hungary)., 1965, Verseghy Klara
The vegetation of the Forrs and Istvn caves at Lillafured in Hungary is composed of algae, micro- and macrofungi and mosses. The algae in both caves are represented by unicellular Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta with small species numbers. The macrofungi are Coprinus and Polyporacea spp. while it was impossible to identify the microfungi. The moss flora is richly developed and it can be supposed to represent a secondary vegetation at the artificially illuminated places of the caves. In Forrs cave 7, and in Istvn cave 15 different mosses were found, only 3 of which proved to be common to both caves: Rhynchostegium murale, Eucladium verticillatum and Pohlia sp. A rare and interesting species: Fissidens minutulus occurred at several localities in Forrs cave.

Algae from the cave of Matyas Mount, Budapest, Hungary., 1966, Palik P.
Seven collections containing scrapings of speleoclay or samples from the cave waters were received from L. Hajdu and were cultured in light in a modified Knop's solution. The cultures yielded 21 different algal taxa, of which five species belong to the Cyanophyta four to the Bacillariophycaea class of the Chrysophyta and twelve to the Chlorophyta. From the species distribution the cave shows a similarity to the nearby cave of Plvolgy, namely both of them contained more than 50 per cent Chlorophyta. Among the Cyanophyta the occurrence of Baradlaia speluncaecola Palik is noteworthy. This species seems to be a true troglobitic alga, since the genus is known only from caves.

Algal growth experiments in the Baradla cave at Aggletek (Biospeleologica hungarica XXI)., 1967, Kol Erzsebet
The author kept 108 algal strains (Cyanophyta 53, Chlorophyta 35, Chrysophyta 20), of axenic cultures from the Kol-Algotheca in the Botanical Division of the Hungarian National Sciences Museum in the Baradla Cave, at Aggletek (Hungary) in darkness for 204-420 days under different environmental conditions. The experiments have proven that several algal strains can tolerate well the complete absence of light. Furthermore, that some algal strains show intensive development even under such conditions. These axenic cultures kept in the cave in metal boxes on inorganic medium have shown that the energy source used by these green coloured algae is not some by-product of chemotrophic bacteria, nor is it available organic material, but that it must be some kind of radiation which is able to penetrate even the metal boxes. The ability to adapt to the conditions existing in a cave is not a general characteristic of algal species, but is the capability of individual algal strains within that species. Most probably the algae living in the caves are aerophytes, terrestrial forms, and also some belonging to the edaphon. The cells were found to be smaller in the algae kept in the cave, there was almost no starch deposition in the cells, the pyrenoids were barely discernible, but the development of carotenes was more intense. Whether there are specific cave dwelling algal strains must be determined by future algological research conducted in caves. The composition of the algal floras of the caves may be equally dependent upon the chemical and physical characteristics of the biotope, as is the case in every other biotope.

Further investigations into Bacterial and Algal populations of caves in South Wales., 1967, Williams Mary Ann Mason
Some physical data collected over a period of a year in seven locations of the Ogof Ffynnon Ddu cave system in South Wales are reported, including humidity, air and water temperature, pH of the water, as well as the organic oxygen demand of the water. It is shown that seasonal variations in the physical constant in this particular cave system are not well marked. Algae and bacteria were isolated from the soil samples and from calcareous deposits. A total of 30 algal species, of which 13 belong to the Cyanophyta, 22 to the Chlorophyta, and 7 to the Chrysophyta~Baccilariophyceae were found. Thirty-eight heterotrophic and 7 autotrophic bacteria were isolated. The thin films on water surfaces, besides diatoms, contained several flagellates and some ostracods, while some protozoa were found associated with the bacteria and algae in the soft calcite deposits.

Algal growth experiments in the Baradla cave at Aggletek (Biospeleologica hungarica XXI)., 1967, Kol Erzsebet
The author kept 108 algal strains (Cyanophyta 53, Chlorophyta 35, Chrysophyta 20), of axenic cultures from the Kol-Algotheca in the Botanical Division of the Hungarian National Sciences Museum in the Baradla Cave, at Aggletek (Hungary) in darkness for 204-420 days under different environmental conditions. The experiments have proven that several algal strains can tolerate well the complete absence of light. Furthermore, that some algal strains show intensive development even under such conditions. These axenic cultures kept in the cave in metal boxes on inorganic medium have shown that the energy source used by these green coloured algae is not some by-product of chemotrophic bacteria, nor is it available organic material, but that it must be some kind of radiation which is able to penetrate even the metal boxes. The ability to adapt to the conditions existing in a cave is not a general characteristic of algal species, but is the capability of individual algal strains within that species. Most probably the algae living in the caves are aerophytes, terrestrial forms, and also some belonging to the edaphon. The cells were found to be smaller in the algae kept in the cave, there was almost no starch deposition in the cells, the pyrenoids were barely discernible, but the development of carotenes was more intense. Whether there are specific cave dwelling algal strains must be determined by future algological research conducted in caves. The composition of the algal floras of the caves may be equally dependent upon the chemical and physical characteristics of the biotope, as is the case in every other biotope.

Exploring the secrets of the three-dimensional architecture of phototrophic biofilms in caves, 2009, Roldn M. And Hernndezmarin M.
Caves with dim natural light, and lighted hypogean environments, have been found to host phototrophic microorganisms from various taxonomic groups. These microorganisms group themselves into assemblies known as communities or biofilms, which are associated with rock surfaces. In this work, the phototrophic biofilms that colonise speleothems, walls and floors in three tourist caves (Spain) were studied. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study these organisms and acquire three-dimensional data on their biofilm structure. CLSM was used in a multi-channel mode whereby the different channels map individual biofilm components. Cyanobacteria, green microalgae, diatoms, mosses and lichens were found to be grouped as biofilms that differed according to the sampling sites. The biofilms were classified into six types regarding their environmental conditions. These types were defined by their constituent organisms, the thickness of their photosynthetic layers and their structure. Light-related stress is associated with lower biofilm thickness and species diversity, as is low humidity, and, in the case of artificially illuminated areas, the duration of light exposure

Exploring the secrets of the three-dimensional architecture of phototrophic biofilms in caves, 2009, Roldn M. , Hernndezmarin M.

Caves with dim natural light, and lighted hypogean environments, have been found to host phototrophic microorganisms from various taxonomic groups. These microorganisms group themselves into assemblies known as communities or biofilms, which are associated with rock surfaces. In this work, the phototrophic biofilms that colonise speleothems, walls and floors in three tourist caves (Spain) were studied. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study these organisms and acquire three-dimensional data on their biofilm structure. CLSM was used in a multi-channel mode whereby the different channels map individual biofilm components. Cyanobacteria, green microalgae, diatoms, mosses and lichens were found to be grouped as biofilms that differed according to the sampling sites. The biofilms were classified into six types regarding their environmental conditions. These types were defined by their constituent organisms, the thickness of their photosynthetic layers and their structure. Light-related stress is associated with lower biofilm thickness and species diversity, as is low humidity, and, in the case of artificially illuminated areas, the duration of light exposure.


Distribution of cyanobacteria at the Gelada Cave (Spain) by physical parameters, 2010, Martnez A. And Asencio A. D.
As part of an extensive study of the caves in the Province of Alicante (SE Spain), the distribution of cyanobacteria and physical data for the Gelada Cave are presented. This cave is 9.4 m deep, 0.9 to 5.0 m high, 1.2 m wide, and is located in a karst region. Photon flux density, relative humidity, and temperature were measured, and the environmental ranges of conditions where growth occurred fluctuated between 0.0008 0.06 mE.m22 s 21 , 55.095.0% and 5.418.0 uC, respectively. All the microorganisms determined from the Gelada Cave were cyanobacteria. Other frequently observed groups in caves, such as Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta, were not detected because the cave was too weakly illuminated and dry. Cyanobacteria were found to be grouped as blue, brown, green, or gray patina according to the sampling sites and their constituent organisms. The primary common stress factor on the distribution of algal communities in the Gelada Cave is light shortage, followed by humidity, lack of nutrients, and temperature. Twenty-two epilithic cyanobacteria were identified, ten of which have not been previously reported in caves. The species studied are included in the Chroococcales order (77.30%), followed by the Oscillatoriales order (13.60%) and by the Nostocales (4.55%) and Stigonematales (4.55%) orders. The extreme values of the environmental parameters are presented for each taxon in this cave.

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