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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That dome is 1. a high shaft in a room or passage formed by solution [13]. 2. a large hemispheroidal hollow in the roof of a cave,formed by the breakdown and/or salt weathering, generally in mechanically weak rocks, which prevents bedding and joints dominating the form [25]. see also dome pit.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for coalfield (Keyword) returned 12 results for the whole karstbase:
Subsidence problems in route design and construction, 1972, Malkin Alexander Bernard, Wood John Charles,
The paper reviews the main causes of ground subsidence as it affects route design and construction in the United Kingdom. Investigation techniques and remedial measures are discussed in relation to both natural and mining subsidence. In addition to the common occurrence of subsidence problems in the coalfields, emphasis is placed on their presence elsewhere in the country. Natural subsidence problems are associated mainly with carbonate and saliferous rocks but mining activity has taken place at various times at numerous geological horizons for a variety of minerals. Future mining activity is likely to involve fewer minerals but will still be dominated by the coal industry. Experience has shown that the conflicting interests of route planners and mineral operators can usually be resolved by negotiation, accompanied in some cases by compensation

Summaries of papers read at The Engineering Group Regional Meeting-Cardiff 1977: Engineering Geology of Soluble Rocks, 1978,
Engineering Geology of the South Wales Coalfield and its margins--with particular reference to the Carboniferous Limestone. By J. G. C. Anderson. The stratigraphical succession of the Cardiff district ranges from Silurian to Lower Jurassic, while structurally the rocks have been affected by Caledonian, Hercynian and Alpine movements. Caledonian folding is relatively weak but powerful Hercynian (Asturian) folding and faulting took place about the end of the Westphalian; the elongate South Wales Coalfield Basin being formed at this time. Mesozoic strata, up to the Liassic, are also folded and faulted by movements which may have been as late as the Miocene. Silurian rocks which occur in the Usk and Rumney Inliers consist of sandstones, siltstones and shales (often calcareous) as well as some limestones. The argillaceous rocks often weather deeply and degenerate to clay with rock lithorelicts, consequently they pose problems in foundations and cuttings, e.g. on the east side of Cardiff. The Old Red Sandstone, both Lower and Upper divisions are present, is made up of marls, sandstones and conglomerates. Some of the sandstones are aquifers and provide water in commercial quantities. The marls, especially where steeply inclined are liable to slipping, as happened for example, in the Brynglas (M4) Tunnel at Newport. The Carboniferous Limestone surrounds the coalfield and consists mainly of limestone and dolomite (see also below). The Millstone Grit does not contain the gritty sandstones of the Pennines and is made up mainly of strong siliceous sandstones and shales. The Coal Measures show the usual lithology; a ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Speleogenesis in the Limestone Outcrop North of the South Wales Coalfield : The Role of Micro-organisms in the Oxidation of Sulphides and Hydrocarbons, 1990, Ball T. K. , Jones J. C.

Gypsum karst in China., 1996, Cooper Anthony, Yaoru Lu
The Peoples Republic of China has the largest gypsum resources in the world and a long history of their exploitation. The gypsum deposits range in age from Pre-Cambrian to Quaternary and their genesis includes marine, lacustrine, thermal (volcanic and metasomatic), metamorphic and secondary deposits. The gypsum is commonly associated with other soluble rocks such as carbonates and salt. These geological conditions, regional climate differences and tectonic setting strongly influence the karstification process resulting in several karst types in China. Well developed gypsum palaeokarst and some modem gypsum karst is present in the Fengfeng Formation (Ordovician) gypsum of the Shanxi and Hebei Provinces. Collapse columns filled with breccia emanate upwards from this karst and affect the overlying coalfields causing difficult and hazardous mining conditions. Gypsum karst is also recorded in the middle Cambrian strata of Guizhou Province and the Triassic strata of Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces. Gypsum-salt lake karst has developed in the Pleistocene to Recent enclosed basin deposits within the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau.


China has the worlds largest proven gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) resources in the world. The gypsum ranges from pre-Cambrian to Quaternary in age and occurs in varied geological environments. The rapid dissolution rate of gypsum means that gypsum karst development can be very fast, resulting in progressively worsening geohazards. This paper reviews the characteristics of the gypsum deposits and their associated geohazards in China.Three kinds of gypsum karst are discussed. These include karst in massive thick beds of gypsum, karst in thin-bedded gypsum and compound karst in gypsum and carbonate rocks. Some site-specific problems are also examined. In the Shanxi coalfield, breccia pipes, or collapse columns, caused by the dissolution of Ordovician gypsum, penetrate the overlying Carboniferous and Permian coal-bearing sequences resulting in difficult coal mining conditions. In Guizhou Province re-activated gypsum karst is associated with leakage of water through the gypsum from a reservoir. Remedial engineering works have been carried out, but leakage still occurs. Groundwater abstraction from gypsiferous sequences is also problematical. It can yield sulphate-polluted water and cause subsidence problems both through gypsum dissolution and groundwater drawdown.

Geochemical modeling of groundwater in karst area and its application at Pingdingshan coalfield, 1998, Wang G. C. , Tao S. , Shen Z. L. , Zhong Z. X. ,
Several approaches including hydrogeochemistry and isotope hydrogeology have been used to investigate the karst groundwater systems at Pingdingshan coalfield in recent years. The results of the modeling and evaluation of groundwater chemistry, as parts of recent research progress at the area, are presented. The characteristics of Cambrian karst groundwater flow was analyzed in terms of tritium distribution of groundwater based on the fact that the Guodishan fault, the largest one within the coalfield, is divided into permeable (southern and northern) and impermeable (middle) sections. The evolution of groundwater chemistry, the suitability of geothermometers and the feature of karst development were deduced and discussed using the speciation modeling and mass balance approach

Groundwater in the Celtic regions, 2000, Robins N. S. , Misstear B. D. R. ,
The Celtic regions of Britain and Ireland have a complex and diverse geology which supports a range of regionally and locally important bedrock aquifers and unconsolidated Quaternary aquifers. In bedrock, aquifer units are often small and groundwater flow paths short and largely reliant on fracture flow. Groundwater has fulfilled an important social role throughout history, and is now enjoying renewed interest. Groundwater quality is generally favourable and suitable for drinking with minimal treatment. However, many wells are vulnerable to microbiological and chemical pollutants from point sources such as farmyards and septic tank systems, and nitrate concentrations from diffuse agricultural sources are causing concern in certain areas. Contamination by rising minewaters in abandoned coalfields and in the vicinity of abandoned metal mines is also a problem in some of the Celtic lands

Geological barrier - a natural rock stratum for preventing confined karst water from flowing into mines in North China, 2001, Zhou W. F. , Li G. Y. ,
Coalfields in North China encompassing than ten Provinces contain six to seven coal seams in the Permo-Carboniferous strata. The lower three seams, accounting for 37% of the total reserves , are threatened with karst water from the underlain Ordovician limestone. Hundreds of water inrush incidences have occurred in which a large amount of water suddenly flows into tunnels or working faces under high potentiometric pressure 20 years. Large-scale dewatering or depressurizing of the karst aquifer was considered essential to water inrushes and keep the mines safely operational. This practice has caused sinkholes, dry gs, water supply shortage, and groundwater Keywords Geological barrier contamination in the surrounding areas, which is environmentally not permitted. One of the alternative water control measures is to make full use of the layer between the coal seam and the karst er as a geological barrier. Similar to the application in the nuclear industry where a geological barrier of this application is considered a hydraulic barrier as well with the objective to prevent or constrain water flow from the underlying aquifer into mines. Its effectiveness to constrain water flow is described by a parameter referred to as hydrofracturing pressure (P-hf) When the water pressure in the underlying aquifer exceeds P-hf, a wedging effect takes place within the fractures of the geological barrier and, as a result, water inrush occurs. In-situ hydrofracturing tests were used to determine P-hf in bauxite and silty sandstone at tunnels. The P-hf in the silty sandstone is larger than that in the bauxite but they both vary with depth (distance from the bottom of the tunnel). Based on the test results, a new safety criterion for water inrush was derived for mines and it has been successfully applied to mining practices with the minium effort of dewatering in the karst aquifer. The same criterion can also be applied to tunneling and quarrying in areas with similar geological conditions

A strategy for modeling ground water rebound in abandoned deep mine systems, 2001, Adams R, Younger Pl,
Discharges of polluted water from abandoned mines are a major cause of degradation of water resources worldwide, Pollution arises after abandoned workings flood up to surface level, by the process termed ground water rebound, As flow in large, open mine voids is often turbulent, standard techniques for modeling ground water flow (which assume laminar flow) are inappropriate for predicting ground water rebound. More physically realistic models are therefore desirable, yet these are often expensive to apply to all but the smallest of systems. An overall strategy for ground water rebound modeling is proposed, with models of decreasing complexity applied as the temporal and spatial scales of the systems under analysis increase. For relatively modest systems (area < 200 km(2)), a physically based modeling approach has been developed, in which 3-D pipe networks (representing major mine roadways, etc.) are routed through a variably saturated, 3-D porous medium (representing the country rock). For systems extending more than 100 to 3000 km(2), a semidistributed model (GRAM) has been developed, which conceptualizes extensively interconnected volumes of workings as ponds, which are connected to other ponds only at discrete overflow points, such as major inter-mine roadways, through which flow can be efficiently modeled using the Prandtl-Nikuradse pipe-flow formulation. At the very largest scales, simple water-balance calculations are Probably as useful as any other approach, and a variety of proprietary codes may be used for the purpose

The influences of coal mining on the large karst springs in North China, 2011, Wu Qiang, Xing Li Ting, Ye Chun He, Liu Yuan Zhang

Environmental damage, to a greater or lesser degree, is caused by coal mining. On the basis of analyzing the hydrogeological conditions of the mining areas, this paper provides a sum-up of the characteristics of water disasters in North China-type Coalfield. Researching into the Baimai Spring group, this paper explores the relation between karst water and groundwater of coal-measure strata, using the methods of pumping test, dynamic observation, and tracer test. After working over the impact of mine water-inrush on spring dynamics, this paper estimates the contributory level of karst water to mining drainage. This paper holds that the mine water-inrush mainly results from karst water, with the fault structures acting as channels; the keys of mine water-inrush are faulty density, intersection and endpoint fault. Finally, this paper suggests that mining below Mine-9 be forbidden, and that below Mine-7 be properly mined, which provides the scientific basis for preserving springs and preventing water disasters in the mining areas.

The hydrogeology and hydrochemistry of the thermal waters at Taffs Well, South Wales, UK, 2013, Farr G. , Bottrell S. H

Taffs Well is the only thermal spring in Wales, with an average temperature of 21.6°C ± 0.5°C. The River Taff is adjacent to the spring and removal of a weir and work on flood defences has reduced mixing with flood water from the river. This has enabled data to be gathered that more closely represent the thermal water end-member than previously possible. Limited interaction with modern waters is confirmed by tritium, nitrate, CFC and SF6concentrations below or close to lower detection limits, showing at most 6% mixing with modern waters. 14C dating suggests a conservative age estimate of at least 5000 years.
Values for dissolved noble gases suggest that the waters originate as rainfall at an altitude several hundred metres higher than the spring. The northern Carboniferous Limestone outcrop is proposed, which would then require recharged waters to flow to a depth of 400m and distance of 25km, following the synclinal structure of the South Wales Coalfield, to discharge at the spring. Sr isotope data suggest interaction with the Marros Group (formerly known as the Millstone Grit), the waters flowing within or close to the contact between the Carboniferous Limestone and Marros Group before rising via the Tongwynlais Fault.

Characteristics of gas disaster in the Huaibei coalfield and its control and development technologies, 2014, Wang L. , Cheng Y. , An F, Zhou H. , Kong S. , Wang W.

The Huaibei coalfield is in the East China Economic Area, which is rich in coal and gas resources. However, hundreds of coal and gas outburst accidents have occurred because of the complex geological structures of the coalfield. Based on theoretical analysis and field statistics, the characteristics of regional geological structures and the coal measure strata evolution in the Huaibei coalfield were researched, and gas resource distribution and gas parameters were statistically analyzed to determine the dominant controlling factors of gas occurrence and gas dynamic disaster. The results indicated that the Huaibei coalfield has undergone complex tectonic evolution, causing obvious differences in gas storage in different blocks of different mining areas, which exhibits a pattern of high amounts of gas in the south and east, and low amounts of gas in the north and west. The coal seam and gas occurrence have a bipolar distribution in the coalfield caused by multiple tectonic movements, and they are deeply buried. Horizontal tectonic stress plays a dominant role in gas outburst, and the thermal evolution and trap effects of magma intrusion increase the possibility and extent of gas outburst. Considering coal seam and gas occurrence characteristics in the coalfield, we propose a new technology for deep coal reservoir reconstruction which combined present underground regional gas control methods and surface well extraction methods. The technology has three effects: developing gas resources, improving coal mining safety level and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, which has been practiced to be effective in coal mines in the Huaibei coalfield.

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