Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That steam hole is an opening from a cavity through which a current of air charged with vapor blows upwards and condenses at the orifice to appear as steam. such openings are an occasional feature in karst terranes [20]. synonyms: (french.) puits a vapeur, puits fumant; (german.) dampfschlot; (greek.) atmotrypa; (spanish.) cavidad fumante; (turkish.) buhar deligi.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for collapse sinkhole (Keyword) returned 25 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 25
Laboratory and field evidence for a vadose origin of foibe (domepits)., 1965, Reams Max W.
Foiba (plural, foibe) is a term derived from the northeastern Italian karst region. The word is here suggested for use in preference to other terms referring to vertical cavities in soluble rocks. Foiba is defined as a cavity in relatively soluble rock which is natural, solutional, tends toward a cylindrical shape, and possesses walls which normally approach verticality. In laboratory experiments, limestone blocks were treated with dilute hydrochloric acid, and cavities resembling foibe were produced. Vertical walls developed only when a less soluble layer capped the limestone block or when the acid source was stationary, allowing acid to drip to the area directly below. Water analyses from foibe in central Kentucky and Missouri indicate that the water has had less residence time in the zone of aeration than other waters percolating through the rocks and entering the caves. In central Kentucky, foibe seem to be developed by migrating underground waterfalls held up by less soluble layers or by water moving directly down joints below less soluble layers. In Missouri, foibe are formed by joint enlargement below chert layers. Those foibe in the ceilings of caves are complicated by the enlargement of the lower part of the joints by cave streams during fluctuating water table conditions. In limestone caves of Kansas, foibe are formed in a similar manner as in Missouri. The foibe of the gypsum caves of Kansas are formed mainly on the sides of steep collapse sinkholes and lack joint control although they form beneath less soluble layers in the gypsum. Dripping water is necessary for the development of vertical walls by solution. Less soluble layers seem to be the unique feature which allows water to drip and pour into foibe. The floors of foibe are formed by less soluble layers or near the water table. If foibe intersect previously formed cave passages, no floors may develop.

Le gouffre de Tourettes (Var), ou la montagne qui accouche d'un trou (de souris), 1987, Salomon, J. N.
The Tourettes shaft (Var) About a 45m-deep collapse sinkhole in gypsum

Three regolith-collapse sinkholes formed near the Dongola Unit School and the Pentecostal Church in the southern Illinois village of Dongola (Union County) during the spring of 1993. The sinkholes appeared over a three-month period that coincided with development of a new municipal well. The new well was drilled through clay-rich, valley-fill sediment into karstified limestone bedrock. The piezometric surface of the limestone aquifer is above land surface, indicating the presence of an upward hydraulic gradient in the valley and that the valley fill is acting as a confining unit. Pumping during development of the well lowered the piezometric surface of the limestone aquifer to an elevation below the base of the valley fill. It is hypothesized that drainage of water from the sediments, the resulting loss of hydrostatic pressure and buoyant force in overlying sediments, increased intergranular pressure, and the initiation of groundwater flow toward the well resulted in rapid sediment transport, subsurface erosion, and collapse of the valley-fill sediment. The sinkholes follow an approximately east west alignment, which is consistent with one of the two dominant alignments of passages of nearby joint-controlled caves. A constant electrode-separation resistivity survey of the school playground was conducted to locate areas that might contain incipient sinkholes. The survey revealed a positive resistivity anomaly trending N75E in the southern part of the study area. The anomaly is linear, between 5 and 10 m wide. and its trend either intersects or is immediately adjacent to the three sinkholes. The anomaly is interpreted to be a series of pumping-induced cavities in the valley-fill sediments that formed over a preexisting crevice in the karstified bedrock limestone

Principal features of evaporite karst in Canada, 1997, Ford Dc,
Outcrops of sulfate arid mixed sulfate-carbonate rocks are common everywhere in Canada outside of the Shield province. Interstratal salt deposits are abundant in the interior lowlands. Types of karst that occur are determined chiefly by relations between (i) formation thickness and purity, (ii) regional topography and hydraulic gradient (iii) effects of receding Wisconsinan and earlier glaciers, and (iv) extent of modern permafrost. Exposures of bare karst on thick, pure sulfate formations are comparatively rare. Two principal landform types found on them are: (1) high-density polygonal karst (micro-sinkhole densities of thousands per km(2)); where hydraulic gradients are high and tills are thin; (2) hills and ridges of blocks uplifted and fractured by hydration (anhydrite) tectonics at paleo-icefront positions where hydraulic gradients are low. Deeply till-mantled karst dominated by collapse and suffosion sinkholes in the mantling detritus is well developed in southwestern Newfoundland and in central and northern Nova Scotia. Covered karst is abundant on sulfates conformably overlain by carbonate br elastic strata; collapse sinkholes ale the principal landform. Very large breccia pipes (up to 25 x 15 km) ale associated with deep subrosion of salt during glacier recessions. Syngenetic breccia karst is a fourth, distinct category created in some formations of thin, interbedded dolostones and sulfates. Where these are exposed td high hydraulic gradients, deep calcite-cemented breccias were formed in a first generation, upon which sinkhole and pinnacle karsts and dissolution drape topographies were able to develop rapidly in late-glacial and post-glacial conditions

Cover-collapse sinkholes in the 'Tournaisis' area, southern Belgium., 1999, Kaufmann O. , Quinif Y.

Gypsum karst features as evidence of diapiric processes in the Betic Cordillera, Southern Spain, 1999, Calaforra Jm, Pulidobosch A,
In the Triassic evaporite deposits of the Betic Cordillera, halokinesis has played a fundamental role in the morphodynamic evolution of gypsum karst, as evidenced by the morphology and distribution of dolines and poljes, by data obtained from caves, and from the types of water associated with evaporite domes. Distribution patterns of major exokarstic forms display a subcircular array with collapse sinkholes located in the centre of the domes and solution drawdown dolines on the outer limits of the diapiric forms. In addition, the least mineralized waters are situated in association with the caprock gypsum; hypersaline waters, which are also hotter, drain deeper flow systems that flow out at the edges of the halokinetic structures. The morphodynamic and hydrogeological information constitute a valuable tool for the correct interpretation of the tectonic structure of such complex areas. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Collapse and subsidence associated with salt karstification along the dead sea, 2001, Frumkin A, Raz E,
Two types of sinkholes are observed along the Dead Seashore, Israel. The first is associated with vadose dissolution in Mount Sedom salt diapir. The second is associated with dissolution under the watertable along the retreating Dead Sea shore. The Dead Sea level is falling dramatically, mainly because of human activity. Simultaneously, the take shores suffer tremendous impact since the late 1980s: The ground is collapsing and subsiding in hundreds of points along the take, with people, roads and property being swallowed in the more catastrophic events. The collapse is believed to result from dissolution of salt by aggressive groundwater, following the retreat of Dead Sea level and the groundwater halocline. Geological evidence suggests that a previous major lake level fall occurred naturallysimilar to2000 BCE. This may provide a new explanation for a curious historical-geological phrase in the book of Genesis, suggested to record formation of collapse sinkholes which occurred in response to the historic falling take level, associated with climatic desiccation

Cover-collapse sinkhole formation and piezometric surface drawdown, 2001, Tharp T. M.

Geohazard map of cover-collapse sinkholes in the 'Tournaisis' area, southern Belgium, 2002, Kaufmann O. , Quinif Y. ,
This paper reports the methodology developed to draw up a geohazard map of cover-collapse sinkhole occurrences in the 'Toumaisis' area. In this area, Carboniferous limestones are overlain by a Mesocenozoic cover, mainly consisting of marls, sand and clay. The thickness of this cover ranges from a few meters to more than 100 m. The surficial morphology of the area does not show any karstic evidence except for the occurrence of these collapses. From a paleogeographical point of view, a developed quaternary karst is not conceivable in the area. Recent works suggested that the collapses are set off from reactivated paleokarsts. The paleokarsts studied in the area proved to be the result of a particular weathering of the limestone. The organization of these paleokarsts seems very low and mainly guided by the limestone fracturing. As for most induced sinkholes, the reactivation of these paleokarsts is linked to the lowering of piezometric heads. In most of the area, a thick cover and intensive land use mask potential surface hints of the buried paleokarsts and of the fracturing of the bedrock. Aerial photographs and remote sensing techniques have therefore shown little results in delineating collapse hazard zones up to now. The study of the surficial morphology is also of little help. In order to draw up the geohazard map in such a difficult context, hydrogeological data and geological mapping information could only be used. These informations are based on a limited number of boreholes and piezometers and are thus, only valid on a regional scale. Records of former collapses were also available. These records were of great interest since sinkhole distribution is obviously clustered in the area. Bedrock roof and cover formation floor altitudes were digitized and adapted to produce digital thematic maps. Piezometric heads were imported from a calibrated groundwater model of the aquifer. These data and a digital elevation model of the area were integrated into a geographical information system (GIs) to produce a coherent 3-D description of the area on a regional scale. Parameters such as the dewatering of the limestone and the thickness of the cover formation where sinkholes occurred were then estimated. Density of former collapses was also computed. This showed that zones of high sinkhole occurrence coincide with zones of heavy lowering of piezometric heads. Combining the density of former collapses with the dewatering of the limestone enabled us to delineate zones of low, moderate and high collapse hazard. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Deep karst conduits, flooding, and sinkholes: lessons for the aggregates industry, 2002, Lolcama J. L. , Cohen H. A. , Tonkin M. J. ,
Limestone aggregate quarries in deeply penetrating karst terrain are often at considerable risk of artesian inflow from groundwater or surface water channeled through the karstic aquifer. The inflow occurs through what are likely to be complex conduits that penetrate hundreds of feet into bedrock. Rates of inflow can exceed the operation's pumping capabilities proving to be uneconomic to manage over the long term. Over time, inflow rates can increase dramatically as turbulent flow through the conduit erodes its soft residual clay-rich fill. One recent investigation observed an inflow rate of more than 40,000 gpm from a surface water source. Floodwater persistently laden with sediment is an indicator of conduit washout and implies increasing inflow rates over time. Conduits carrying floodwater can exist in a variety of forms: along deeply penetrating geologic faults, joints, or following the path of preferentially eroded bedding. Preferential structural deformation along faults or bedding can enhance dissolution during subsequent interaction with groundwater. The resulting conduit may be a complex combination of many geological features, making the exploration and remediation of the pathway difficult. Sinkholes at the site can occur within several contexts. Pre-existing subsidence structures can reactivate and subside further, forming new collapse sinkholes within soil directly overlying the conduit. Cover-collapse sinkhole development can be a direct result of increasing downward groundwater velocities and subsurface erosion associated with the enlargement of a conduit. Normal operation events such as a quarry blast can also provide a significant new linkage between the groundwater and the quarry, allowing rapid drainage of the groundwater reservoir. With such drainage and erosion of karst-fill, sinkholes will develop over localized water table depressions, most significantly over enhanced permeability zones associated with fractures. Paradoxically, although the rise in quarry water level will lead to regional reduction in the hydraulic gradients, on local scales, drainage of the groundwater reservoir increases gradients and leads to the development of cover-collapse sinkholes. Recommended methods for preliminary site investigation can include a detailed review of geological literature and drilling logs to compile a conceptual model of the site. A fracture trace analysis with EM geophysics can confirm the locations of major faults and fractures. Fingerprinting of the various water sources to the quarry and the water in the quarry is an inexpensive and effective means of identifying the source and likely direction of the groundwater and surface water flow. Automated geophysical equipment on the market for performing rapid resistivity and microgravity surveys speeds up the site screening process during reconnaissance exploration for deep structure. It is recommended that mine planning fully incorporate this information so that quarry operators can take proactive measures to avoid catastrophic and costly flooding events. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Geological and geotechnical context of cover collapse and subsidence in mid-continent US clay-mantled karst, 2002, Cooley T,
This paper presents a synthesis of geologic and geotechnical concepts to present a unified model of conditions controlling The development of cover-collapse sinkholes and associated ground subsidence. Appropriate engineering response to the hazards associated with collapse and subsidence requires a full understanding of the underlying mechanisms that produce such effects. The geotechnical characteristics of the overlying clay mantle and occurrence of the associated cover-collapse features are not random, but rather are directly tied to the underlying water flow routes and their development through time. The clay mantle and underlying epikarst are two components of a single system, each of the components influencing the other. This paper brings together these two aspects in terms of the author's personal experience and observations as a geologist, geotechnical engineer, hydrogeologist, and caver. A summary of the basic model follows. Much of the clay mantle and pinnacled upper surface of the epikarst form while surface drainage still prevails. At this stage, the karst underdrains are insufficiently developed to transport soils, although some subsidence into cutters occurs because of dissolutional rock removal. Soil arches and macropore flow routes associated with cutters have developed by this stage. As competent deep conduits extend into the area by headward linking, the cutters with the most favorable drains are linked to the conduits first and act as attractors for the development of a tributary, laterally integrated drainage system in the epikarst. Once the most efficient cutter drains become competent to transport soils, the depressed top-of-rock and ground surfaces characteristic of dolines develop. A given doline underdrain is likely to have multiple tributary drains from adjacent cutters, which vary in soil transport competence. Soil stiffness in the clay mantle over the limestone varies as a result of the pattern of stresses imposed as the underlying rock surface is lowered by dissolution and later as soil piping locally removes soils. In the absence of karst, these soils would have developed a laterally uniform, stiff to very stiff consistency. Where soil near the soil-bedrock interface is locally removed, however, the weight of the materials overlying this void is transferred to abutment zones on the pinnacles by soil arches. Local soil loading in the abutment areas of these arches would increase at least on the-order of 50% in the case of an isolated cavity. In some cases, multiple closely spaced cutters whose soil arches have narrow, laterally constrained abutment zones bearing on the intervening pinnacles may produce substantially higher soil abutment stresses. If the clays in the abutment zones do not fail, they would respond to this increase in stress by consolidating: stiffening and decreasing in volume. The cutters spanned by the soil arches accumulate raveled soils that are 'under-consolidated', the soft zones noted between pinnacles by Sowers. A simple integral of stresses analysis makes it obvious, however that no continuous soft zone exists. It is the transfer of load to the pinnacles through the stiffened abutment soils that allows these locally soft areas to exist. Soil stiffness profiles from borings substantiate this pattern. Cover-collapse features develop where soil transport through cutter drains is sufficient to remove the soils from beneath these arched areas. Two types of collapse have been observed: type I collapses have an upward-stoping open void whose rubble pile is removed by transport as fast as it is generated, producing a deep, steep-sided final collapses. In some cases, multiple voids in clusters can form with narrow abutments separating them. Large collapses may involve a progressive failure of several members of a cluster, including intervening pillars. Type 2 features are soil-filled voids limited in their rate of upward growth by the rate of soil removal, have little open void space, and migrate to the ground surface as a column of soft soils, finally producing a shallow depression. The type 2 features have geotechnical significance because of their effect on settlement under imposed loads. A single underdrain system may service both types of features, the behavior of particular voids being dependent on the relative efficiencies of their drains. This behavior can also change with time because backfilling of the underdrains with soil or flushing out of the soil filling can occur with changes in hydrologic or erosional regimes

Poroelastic analysis of cover-collapse sinkhole formation by piezometric surface drawdown, 2002, Tharp T. M. ,
Where the water table is above the soil-rock contact in karst regions, cover-collapse sinkholes in the soil and soft sediment above the rock commonly occur as a result of drawdown of the piezometric surface in the karst aquifer. Transient stresses and pore pressures around soil voids at the soil-rock contact can cause hydraulic fracturing of the soil near the wall of the void. After the first such fracture, successive sloughing of soil propagates the soil void rapidly to the surface, resulting in a cover-collapse sinkhole. Sinkhole formation by this mechanism should be strongly a function of rate and magnitude of piezometric surface drawdown, permeability and tensile strength of the soil, and the size, depth, and geometry of the initial soil void. Large soil voids and those with walls that are partly planar or of low curvature are most susceptible to hydraulic fracture and the resulting progression to sinkhole formation

Development of collapse sinkholes in areas of groundwater discharge, 2002, Salvati R. , Sasowsky I. D. ,
Collapse sinkholes are found in groundwater recharge zones throughout the world. They cause substantial loss of property each year, and occasional fatalities. In such settings, the formation of these features occurs through the downward migration of regolith into karst voids. The presence of a void in the bedrock. and sufficient seepage pressure or gravitative force in the regolith, is required for their creation. We investigated the development of cover collapse sinkholes in an unusual setting, areas of groundwater discharge rather than recharge. Upward hydraulic gradients and the likelihood of groundwater saturated with respect to calcite are difficult to reconcile with standard models for collapse development. Short flowpaths or renewed groundwater aggressivity towards calcite (via mischungskorrosion, thermally driven circulation, or deep-seated gaseous sources) are hypothetical mechanisms that could generate the subsurface voids that are needed to allow cover collapse development in discharge areas. For the two field sites in central Italy that we investigated, calculated carbon dioxide partial pressures in springs ranged from 7.38 X 10(-2) to 7.29 X 10(-1) atm. This indicates that deep-seated gaseous sources are most likely the mechanism allowing the development of the sinkholes. Groundwater is recharged in surrounding limestone massifs. The water moves through the carbonates and becomes saturated with calcite. As it circulates deeply in to the adjacent valleys, it mixes with deep-seated waters and gaseous fluxes from major fault systems, acquiring renewed aggressivity towards calcite. Finally, the water ascends into confined aquifers in the valley fill, and dissolves carbonate material present within, leading to surface collapse. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Occurrence of cover-collapse sinkholes [cover-collapse dolines] in the May Dam reservoir area (Konya, Turkey), 2003, Cicek Ihsan, Dogan Ugur

Occurrence of cover-collapse sinkholes [cover-collapse dolines] in the May Dam reservoir area (Konya, Turkey), 2003, Cicek Ihsan, Dogan Ugur

Results 1 to 15 of 25
You probably didn't submit anything to search for