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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That unit-hydrograph is a hypothetical discharge hydrograph for a given point resulting from unit rainfall which produces unit runoff [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for collapses (Keyword) returned 65 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 65
Identification of the origin of oreforming solutions by the use of stable isotopes, 1977, Sheppard S. M. F. ,
SynopsisThe four major different types of water -- magmatic, metamorphic, sea water and/or connate, and meteoric water -- have characteristic hydrogen (D/H) and oxygen (18O/16O) isotope ratios. Applied to the analysis of isotopic data on hydrothermal minerals, fluid inclusions and waters from active geothermal systems, these ratios indicate that waters of several origins are involved with ore deposition in the volcanic and epizonal intrusive environment. Water of a single origin dominates main-stage mineralization in some deposits: magmatic -- Casapalca, Peru (Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu); meteoric -- Butte, Montana (Cu-Zn-Mn), epithermal deposits, e.g. Goldfield, Tonopah, Nevada (Ag-Au), Pachuca, Mexico (Ag-Au), San Juan Mountains District, Colorado (Ag-Au-Pb-Zn); sea water -- Troodos, Cyprus (Fe-Cu), Kuroko, Japan (Fe-Cu-Pb-Zn). Solutions of more than one origin are important in certain deposits (magmatic and meteoric -- porphyry copper and molybdenum deposits) and are present in many. In the porphyry Cu-Mo deposits the initial major ore transportation and alteration processes (K-feldspar-biotite alteration) are magmatic-hydrothermal events that occur at 750-500{degrees}C. These fluids are typically highly saline Na-K-Ca-Cl-rich brines (more than 15 wt % equivalent NaCl). The convecting meteoric-hydrothermal system that develops in the surrounding country rocks with relatively low integrated water/rock ratios (less than 0.5 atom % oxygen) subsequently collapses in on a waning magmatic-hydrothermal system at about 350-200{degrees}C. These fluids generally have moderate to low salinities (less than 15 wt % equivalent NaCl). Differences among these deposits are probably in part related to variations in the relative importance of the meteoric-hydrothermal versus the magmatic-hydrothermal events. The sulphur comes from the intrusion and possibly also from the country rocks. Deposits in which meteoric or sea water is the dominant constituent of the hydrothermal fluids come from epizonal intrusive and sub-oceanic environments where the volcanic country rocks are fractured or well jointed and highly permeable. Integrated water/rock ratios are typically high, with minimum values of 0.5 or higher (atom % oxygen) -- the magmatic water contribution is often drowned out'. Salinities are low to very low (less than 10 wt % equivalent NaCl), and temperatures are usually in the range 350-150{degrees}C. The intrusion supplies the energy to drive the large-scale convective circulation system. The sulphur comes from the intrusion, the country rocks and/or the sea water. Argillic alteration, which occurs to depths of several hundred metres, generated during supergene weathering in many of these deposits is isotopically distinguishable from hydrothermal clays

Phases d'effondrements aux grottes prhistoriques, du Wrm l'Holocne dans le Midi de la France, 1985, Blanc, J. J.
SEQUENCES OF COLLAPSES FROM WRM TO HOLOCENE IN PREHISTORIC CAVES (SOUTH-EAST OF FRANCE) - Multivariates methods (factorial and discriminant analysis) applied to many accurate stratigraphy and sedimentary sequences files deal just-dated cave-collapses observed into cavity and rock-shelters in the SE of France, show some detailed interpretations about the mechanism inducing the blocks-falls. This work places in a prominent position the various influences relative to cold climates and wet environments, degree of rock jointing of cave-walls and the sismo-tectonic impacts.

Quelques aspects du karst en Chine, 1985, Tricart, J.
Some characteristic features of karst in China Karst terrain is widespread in China: some 2,000,000km2, corresponding to 20-25% of the whole surface of the country. It occurs at very different altitudes and under quite different climates, from the region of Zhoukoudian, where has been found the skull of the Pekin Man, to the Tibet Plateau, where there is presently permafrost conditions, and up to southern tropical moist China, near Canton and Guilin. Recent chinese investigations have proved that most karst features are old. In Southern China a tropical karst (tower-karst or "mogotes" karst) is associated with lacustrine deposits containing the well-known Hipparion Fauna, of Miocene age. Its predates the intensive uplift of the Himalaya and of the Tibet, which has begun during the Pliocene and has continued during all the Pleistocene. The same fossils have been found in this tropical karst in present permafrost areas, above 5,000m. In the region of Guilin (Guangxi Province), this tropical karst has been described. There is evidence for the former existence of a covered karst, where limestones and dolomitic limestones were covered by a thick layer of reddish residual clays, with limonite. This mantle has been stripped during different periods of drier and probably cooler climate, has suggested by pollen spectra. In some places, these residual products have been trapped into pits, cracks, and caves. We have observed a small quantity of red clay painting limestone stalactites and sinters (Chuanshan and Leng Yin Yen Caves, in the surroundings of Guilin). They present sometimes a mining interest and some extractive industries are presently active (limonite, cassierite, etc.). Many caves have been surveyed by the Institute of Karst geology, in Guilin. Some have been equiped for tourism, around Guilin. All these caves are old. Some radiocarbon dating of speleothems yield ages of 33,000 year BP. The famous carving of the Leng Yen Cave have not been affected by calcite deposition from dripping since at least 500 years. The large caves that have been surveyed should correspond to a long evolution span. Along the Lijiang River, at least two terraces can be observed. They are built with gravels and pebbles, covered with thinner sand and loam, suggesting climatic changes, also attested by the changes of fauna and vegetation. These past cooler periods are characterised by an opened vegetation, with the striping of the old weathering cover of the former tropical karst. These karst terrains have been investigated in China for management purposes. Groundwater oscillations have frequently resulted in land subsidences damaging buildings, and in dramatic collapses destroying fields, roads. Sometimes, underground collapse plugged caves and dammed underground rivers, resulting in floodings. The caves are frequently used as reservoirs for irrigation and power plants.

Subsidence hazard prediction for limestone terrains, as applied to the English Cretaceous Chalk, 1987, Edmonds Cn, Green Cp, Higginbottom Ie,
Soluble carbonate rocks often pose a subsidence hazard to engineering and building works, due to the presence of either metastable natural solution features or artificial cavities. There is also an inherent danger to the public and lives have been lost because of unexpected ground collapses. Although site investigation techniques are becoming increasingly elaborate, the detection of hazardous ground conditions associated with limestones is frequently difficult and unreliable. Remedial measures to solve subsidence problems following foundation failure are expensive. It would be advantageous if areas liable to subsidence could be identified in a cost-effective manner in advance of planning and ground investigation. Hazard mapping could then be used by planners when checking the geotechnical suitability of a proposed development or by engineering geologists/geotechnical engineers to design the type of ground investigation best suited to the nature and scale of the potential hazard. Recent research focussed on the English Chalk outcrop has led to the development of two new models to predict the subsidence hazard for both natural solution features and artificial cavities. The predictive models can be used to map the hazard at any given chalkland locality, as a cost-effective precursor to ground investigation. The models, although created for the Chalk outcrop, have important implications for all types of limestone terrain. The basis of the predictive modelling procedure is an analysis of the spatial distribution of nearly 1600 natural solution features, and more than 850 artificial cavity locations, identified from a wide varietyy of sources, including a special appeal organized by CIRIA. A range of geological, hydrogeological and geomorphological factors are evaluated to identify significant relationships with subsidence. These factors are ranked, numerically weighted and incorporated into two quantitative subsidence hazard model formulae. The models can be applied to perform hazard mapping

Le karst du gypse du centre de la dpression de l'Ebre (Espagne), 1990, Soriano, M. A.
THE GYPSUM KARST OF THE CENTER OF THE EBRE BASSIN (SPAIN) - The central Ebro basin was filled with evaporitic deposits (gypsum and limestones) during the Miocene. During the Quaternary, several alluvial terrace and pediment levels were developed and they overlay the gypsum deposits. A large number of karstic landforms developed on gypsum have been found. The most important reason is its high solubility. We have found different types of microlandforms. The most important are Rillenkarren, solution pits and micro etching. There are also small tumuli. They are active at present. We have differentiated three macrolandforms: paleocollapses, depressions and alluvial dolines. The paleocollapses are very narrow and deep. They are filled with quaternary materials. They are not active and were generated in the Middle or Upper Pleistocene. The depressions were developed by the gypsum dissolution, together with topographical and geomorphologic factors. They do not seem to be active nowadays. The alluvial dolines are developed on the terrace and pediment deposits, which overlay gypsum materials. There is basin, well and pan-shaped dolines and they are especially frequent in the T2 terrace level. From the study of aerial photographs of different years, the variations in the number and size of dolines and their density have been determined. Natural factors (lithology and fractures), together with human activities (irrigation) are the principal causes in their development.

Bellechester, Minnesota, USA, lagoon collapses, 1993, Alexander Ec, Broberg Js, Kehren Ar, Graziani Mm, Turri Wl,

There are many varieties of geological hazard in China which are widely dispersed. Land subsidence is one such hazard and occurs mainly in the coastal cities of east China. Sinkhole collapses are mainly found near those cities of east and middle China that have karst water and karst water-impregnated ore deposits. Earth fissures also occur in east and middle China. All these geological hazards have a great influence upon the construction of engineering works. Though the causes of the hazards may be different, a major contributor is human economic activity. Therefore, a major countermeasure is to control human economic development

Geomorphological aspects of gypsum karst areas with special emphasis on exposed karst., 1996, Sauro Ugo
Medium- to large-size forms in gypsum karst are described, including dolines, blind valleys, ploje-like depressions, collapses and positive and/or residual forms such as outliers, cone-like hills, dome-like hills, mesa-like tabular blocks and plateaux and breccia pipe hills. The similarities and/or difference between gypsum and carbonate forms are discussed.

3-D seismic evidence of the effects of carbonate karst collapse on overlying clastic stratigraphy and reservoir compartmentalization, 1996, Hardage B. A. , Carr D. L. , Lancaster D. E. , Simmons J. L. , Elphick R. Y. , Pendleton V. M. , Johns R. A. ,
A multidisciplinary team, composed of stratigraphers, petrophysicists, reservoir engineers, and geophysicists, studied a portion of Boonsville gas field in the Fort Worth Basin of north-central Texas to determine how modern geophysical, geological, and engineering techniques can be combined to understand the mechanisms by which fluvio-deltaic depositional processes create reservoir compartmentalization in a low- to moderate-accommodation basin. An extensive database involving well logs: cores, production, and pressure data from more than 200 wells, 26 mi(2) (67 km(2)) of 3-D seismic data, vertical seismic profiles (VSPs), and checkshots was assembled to support this investigation. We found the mast Important geologic influence on stratigraphy and reservoir compartmentalization in this basin to be the existence of numerous karst collapse chimneys over the 26-mi(2) (67 km(2)) area covered by the 3-D seismic grid, These near-vertical karst collapses originated in, or near, the deep Ordovician-age Ellenburger carbonate section and created vertical chimneys extending as high as 2500 fl (610 m) above their point of origin causing significant disruptions in the overlying elastic strata. These karst disruptions lend to be circular in map view, having diameters ranging from approximately 500 ft (150 m) to as much as 3000 ft (915 m) in some cases. Within our study area, these karat features were spaced 2000 ft (610 m) to 6000 ft (1830 m) apart, on average. The tallest karst collapse zones reached into the Middle Pennsylvanian Strawn section, which is some 2500 ft (760 m) above the Ellenburger carbonate where the karst generation began. We used 3-D seismic imaging to show how these karst features affected the strata above the Ellenburger and how they have created a well-documented reservoir compartment in the Upper Caddo, an upper Atoka valley-fill sandstone that typically occurs 2000 ft (610 m) above the Ellenburger. By correlating these 3-D seismic images with outcrops of Ellenburger karat collapses, we document that the physical dimensions (height, diameter, cross-sectional area) of the seismic disruptions observed in the 3-D data equate to the karst dimensions seen in outcrops. We also document that this Ellenburger carbonate dissolution phenomenon extends over at least 500 mi (800 km), and by inference we suggest karst models like we describe here may occur in any basin that has a deep, relatively thick section of Paleozoic carbonates that underlie major unconformities

History and Status of the Moiliili Karst, Hawaii, 1998, Halliday, W. R.
The Moiliili Karst occurs in Pleistocene reef limestone located in a populous, low-elevation area of Honolulu, Hawaii. A 1934 construction excavation intersected a previously unknown karstic master conduit at a depth of -7 m msl. Temporary dewatering of over 3.7 x 109 L caused considerable economic loss due to collapses and subsidences in a wedge-shaped area about 1 km on each side. These outline a previously unrecognized dendritic karst drainage. Considerable retrograde flow of salt water also occurred. Subsequent urbanization again lowered the water table and dewatering phenomena are still occurring. A section of Moiliili Water Cave is the only clearly karstic feature that remains available for study. It serves as a floodwater conduit. Surprisingly, its water quality has improved since 1983. Its protection should be a prototype for other Hawaiian karsts and pseudokarsts. Other sections of Honolulu also are underlain by reef limestone and may be at risk.

'Pit Craters'', lava tubes, and open vertical volcanic conduits in Hawaii: a problem in terminology., 1998, Halliday William R.
Almost from the 1849 publication of the term pit crater, volcanologists have disagreed about the parameters differentiating these features from other vertical volcanic structures. Kaluaiki is a jameo giving entry to Thurston Lava Tube in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Long-standing misidentification of it as a pit crater is an example of misunderstandings arising from the lack of a clear definition of pit crater. In general, pit craters are unrelated to lava tube caves genetically, but two special cases are discussed. One probably is genetically related to a rift tube deep below the surface; the other is a complex of a small pit crater with a partial rim of accreted plates plus an ordinary-seeming lava tube cave. The term pit crater should be redefined in such a way that it excludes collapses or subsidences related to ordinary superficial lava tubes and open vertical volcanic conduits. Otherwise, a non-definition like that currently listed for agglomerate may be appropriate.

Subsidence hazards caused by the dissolution of Permian gypsum in England: geology, investigation and remediation, 1998, Cooper Ah,
About every three years natural catastrophic subsidence, caused by gypsum dissolution, occurs in the vicinity of Ripon, North Yorkshire, England. Holes up to 35 m across and 20 m deep have appeared without warning. In the past 150 years, 30 major collapses have occurred, and in the last ten years the resulting damage to property is estimated at about {pound}1000000. Subsidence, associated with the collapse of caves resulting from gypsum dissolution in the Permian rocks of eastern England, occurs in a belt about 3 km wide and over 100 km long. Gypsum (CaS04.2H20) dissolves rapidly in flowing water and the cave systems responsible for the subsidence are constantly enlarging, causing a continuing subsidence problem. Difficult ground conditions are associated with caves, subsidence breccia pipes (collapsed areas of brecciated and foundered material), crown holes and post-subsidence fill deposits. Site investigation methods that have been used to define and examine the subsidence features include microgravity and resistivity geophysical techniques, plus more conventional investigation by drilling and probing. Remedial measures are difficult, and both grouting and deep piling are not generally practical. In more recent times careful attention has been paid to the location for development and the construction of low-weight structures with spread foundations designed to span any subsidence features that may potentially develop

Volcanic gaps and subaerial records of palaeo-sea-levels on Flores Island (Azores): tectonic and morphological implications, 1999, Azevedo Jmm, Ferreira Mrp,
The morphological evolution of Flores Island, as commonly observed for volcanic islands, suggests (1) the balance between constructive processes (effusive and moderately explosive volcanic activities and tectonic uplifting movements) and destructive processes (marine abrasion, stream erosion, crater-forming volcanic explosions, caldera collapses and tectonic subsidence) and (2) the recurrent fluctuations of the sea-level. Records of (a) gaps in the volcanic activity and (b) erosional and depositional marine activity are shown as: - epiclastic deposits of marine origin - erosional morphologies, such as abrasion platforms, terraces, cliffs and caves - intensive palagonitization of the volcanic rocks - vertical changes of the structures in the hydroclastic submarine formations. Taking into account (1) the vertical crustal movements (uplift and subsidence) which may occur in volcanic domains and (2) the sequence of regressive-transgressive trends in the relative sea-level as expressed by indicators of pale-sea-levels, it is assumed that the morphological evolution of Flores Island comprehends three main stages, The existence of important differences between the present-day altitudes of correlated marine records noted in Flores, in Santa Marie Island (Azores Archipelago) and Porto Santo Island (Madeira Archipelago) is related with their crustal behaviour and different volcanic and tectonic evolution.

Subsidence caused by gypsum dissolution at Ripon, North Yorkshire, 1999, Cooper Ah, Waltham Ac,
In the afternoon of Wednesday 23 April 1997, a large subsidence crater opened up in front of a house on Ure Bank Terrace, on the northern outskirts of Ripon in North Yorkshire. Overnight its sides collapsed inwards, so that the hole had doubled in size by the next morning (Fig. 1). The subsidence crater was then 10 m in diam- eter, and 5.5 m deep to a choke of debris overlain by water 1 m deep. Its sudden appearance was the cause of considerable concern to the occupants of the adjacent house, and the event was widely reported in the national press and media. A subsidence hollow was mapped at this site by the 1856 Ordnance Survey and documented by Cooper (1986). More subsidence had occurred at the Ure Bank site in previous years, but this latest collapse had rather more impact. Creeping movement of the soil towards the new hole meant that the adjacent house was destined for demolition. The event was the latest of a series of ground collapses that have occurred, at an average rate of about one per year, in and around the city of Ripon. While they are little more than an inconvenience in farmland, they have the potential to cause serious damage when they occur in built-up areas. The immediate cause of the Ure Bank subsidence was the downward movement of soil, drift and recent fill into actively expanding voids within the ground. Ultimately, it was caused by the partial collapse of a cave ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Collapses above Gypsum Labyrinth Caves and Stability Assessment of Karstified Terrains, 1999, Andrejchouk V.

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