Karst and Cave RSS news feed Like us on Facebook! follow us on Twitter!
Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That topofil is a mechanical cave survey device that uses a roll of thread and a distance counter, a protractor to measure inclination and a compass to measure the bearing [25].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
Engineering challenges in Karst, Stevanović, Zoran; Milanović, Petar
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for condensation-corrosion (Keyword) returned 19 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 19
BACTERIA, FUNGI AND BIOKARST IN LECHUGUILLA CAVE, CARLSBAD-CAVERNS-NATIONAL-PARK, NEW-MEXICO, 1995, Cunningham Ki, Northup De, Pollastro Rm, Wright Wg, Larock Ej,
Lechuguilla Cave is a deep, extensive, gypsum- and sulfur-bearing hypogenic cave in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico, most of which (> 90%) lies more than 300 m beneath the entrance. Located in the arid Guadalupe Mountains, Lechuguilla's remarkable state of preservation is partially due to the locally continuous Yates Formation siltstone that has effectively diverted most vadose water away from the cave. Allocthonous organic input to the cave is therefore very limited, but bacterial and fungal colonization is relatively extensive: (1) Aspergillus sp. fungi and unidentified bacteria are associated with iron-, manganese-, and sulfur-rich encrustations on calcitic folia near the suspected water table 466 m below the entrance; (2) 92 species of fungi in 19 genera have been identified throughout the cave in oligotrophic (nutrient-poor) ''soils'' and pools; (3) cave-air condensate contains unidentified microbes; (4) indigenous chemoheterotrophic Seliberius and Caulobacter bacteria are known from remote pool sites; and (5) at least four genera of heterotrophic bacteria with population densities near 5 x 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU) per gram are present in ceiling-bound deposits of supposedly abiogenic condensation-corrosion residues. Various lines of evidence suggest that autotrophic bacteria are present in the ceiling-bound residues and could act as primary producers in a unique subterranean microbial food chain. The suspected autotrophic bacteria are probably chemolithoautotrophic (CLA), utilizing trace iron, manganese, or sulfur in the limestone and dolomitic bedrock to mechanically (and possibly biochemically) erode the substrate to produce residual floor deposits. Because other major sources of organic matter have not been detected, we suggest that these CLA bacteria are providing requisite organic matter to the known heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the residues. The cavewide bacterial and fungal distribution, the large volumes of corrosion residues, and the presence of ancient bacterial filaments in unusual calcite speleothems (biothems) attest to the apparent longevity of microbial occupation in this cave

Solutional and erosional morphology, 2000, Lauritzen Se. , Lundberg J.
Caves are produced through the action of speleogenetic agents acting under various constraints to produce speleogenetic facies. These facies, expressed at the meso- and micro-scale, reflect the major and minor speleogenetic agents that operated on that cave; they also reflect the history of the cave, both during speleogenesis proper and during the post-speleogenetic phase, in particular the most recent history. Geological control is evident through the association of caves with guiding voids (the singularities that govern permeability) and passage shape with rock chemistry (solubility). Hydrological control guides the locus and direction of dissolution; phreatic conditions support omnidirectional dissolution and thus hydraulically controlled tubular forms, while vadose conditions allow only unidirectional dissolution and thus gravity-controlled canyon forms and karren-like features. Of the micro-forms, scallops are specific flow indicators that yield both directional and quantitative information like flow rates and various hydraulic parameters specific to the cave passages. The presence of a sediment fill may further direct corrosion; in the phreatic zone this causes paragenesis; in the vadose zone, sediments cause lateral undercutting and eventually collapse. Vadose streams display many of the forms of surface streams, such as migrating meanders, entrenchment, rock-mill pot-holes, and waterfalls. Vadose shafts, dome-pits and condensation-corrosional forms are perhaps specific to the cave enviroment. The various vadose, phreatic and certain water-table-specific forms are, in combination, powerful methods for reconstructing phases of speleogenesis as well as external base levels. Combined with speleothem dating techniques, they become important methods for determining erosion rates and landscape evolution.

The role of condensation-corrosion in thermal speleogenesis: Study of a hypogenic sulfidic cave in Aix-les-Bains, France, 2007, Audra P. , Hoblea F. , Bigot J. Y. , Nobecourt J. C.

Condensation-corrosion is an active speleogenetical process in thermal caves where high thermal gradient drives air convection. Wall retreat rates are greater than in meteoric caves. Conversely, evaporation produces depositional processes by replacement of limestone by gypsum and by aerosol decantation leading to the formation of popcorns. The Chevalley Aven belongs to Aix-les-Bains thermal-sulfidic cave system. Condensation occurs at the contact of cool walls of large spheres; conversely, evaporation occurs at the output of the narrow passages where the air sinks down from the upper sphere. A weathered layer and biofilms are present where slow condensation occurs. Corrosion distribution varies according to thermal rock conductivity and causes the sphere to develop upwards, laterally, and divergent. This mor­phodynamic pattern favors the development of stacked spheres, isolated by narrow necks, and arranged in a bush-like pattern. This development is clearly active in the vadose zone above the thermal water table. We propose that some avens above wa­ter table hypogenic caves, like Villa Luz (Mexico), may be of condensation-corrosion origin instead of phreatic. Future de­velopment will collect physical and chemical data to calculate the condensation-corrosion budget and assess its role in cave development.


MORPHOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF SPELEOGENESIS: HYPOGENIC SPELEOGENS, 2009, Audra P. , Mocochain L. , Bigot J. Y. , Nobecourt J. C.

Hypogenic speleogenesis can be identi?ed at different scales (basinal ?ow patterns at the regional scale, cave patterns at cave system scale, meso- and micromorphology in cave passages). We focus here on small scale features produced by both corrosion and deposition. In the phreatic zone, the corrosion features (speleogens) are a morphologic suite of rising ?ow forms, phreatic chimneys, bubble trails. At the water table are thermo-sulfuric discharge slots, notches with ?at roofs. Above a thermal water table the forms re?ect different types of condensation runoff: wall convection niches, wall niches, ceiling cupolas, ceiling spheres, channels, megascallops, domes, vents, wall partitions, weathered walls, boxwork, hieroglyphs, replacement pockets, corrosion tables, and features made by acid dripping, such as drip tubes, sulfuric karren and cups. Each type of feature is described and linked to its genetic process. Altogether, these features are used to identify the dominant processes of speleogenesis in hypogenic cave systems. Hypogenic caves were recognized early, especially where thermal or sulfuric processes were active (MARTEL, 1935; PRINCIPI, 1931). However SOCQUET (1801) was one of the earliest modern contributors to speleogenetic knowledge, and probably the ?rst to identify the role of sulfuric speleogenesis by condensation-corrosion due to thermal convection. More recent major contributions evidenced the role of sulfuric speleogenesis and hydrothermalism (e.g. DUBLYANSKY, 2000; EGEMEIER, 1981; FORTI, 1996; GALDENZI AND MENICHETTI, 1995; HILL, 1987; PALMER AND PALMER, 1989). However, most of these case-studies were often considered as “exotic”, regarding the “normal” (i.e. epigenic) speleogenesis. Only recently, KLIMCHOUK (2007) provided a global model, allowing the understanding of “hypogenic” speleogenesis and gathering the characteristics of hypogenic caves. Consequently, the number of caves where a hypogenic origin is recognized dramatically increased during the last years. The hypogenic origin can be recognized at the regional scale (deep-seated karst in basins), at the scale of an individual cave system because of distinctive features in its pattern, by studying the morphology of the cave conduits, or at the local scale of wall features made by corrosion processes (i.e. speleogens). Such type of features depict the characteristics of local cave development, and by extension the characteristics of speleogenesis. The description and interpretation of hypogenic speleogens is generally scattered in the literature. The aim of this paper is to gather the most important hypogenic speleogens, considered here as indicators, and used for the identi?cation and characterization of the hypogenic speleogenesis. Our knowledge is based on the compilation of about 350 caves from the literature, and the study of some of the most signi?cant caves (AUDRA, 2007; AUDRA et al., 2002, 2006). In this paper, we focus on the speleogens (i.e. wall- scale corrosion features) as indicators of hypogenic speleogenesis; we exclude here solution feature at larger scale such as conduits and cave systems and depositional features (sediments). Some of the features observed in the sulfuric caves are speci?cally caused by this strong acid. Some features are closely associated with hydrothermalism. Other features that are widespread in hypogene caves are created without sulfuric in?uence. The following typology mainly takes into account the type of runoff. In con?ned settings with slow phreatic ?ow, cave features are common to all types of hypogene processes, whether they are sulfuric or not (i.e. carbonic, hydrothermal…). In uncon?ned settings, condensation-corrosion processes take place above the water table. These aerial processes, enhanced by the oxidation of sul?des by the thermal convections, and by the microbial processes, result in a large variety of cave features. Some features are closely related to speci?c processes. Consequently, they are considered as valuable indicators of the sulfuric speleogenesis.


HYPOGENE CAVE PATTERNS, 2009, Audra P. , Mocochain L. , Bigot J. Y. , Nobecourt J. C.

The hypogenic cave pattern re?ects the speleogenetic processes incvolved. Processes vary according to the depth in the aquifer, involving mixing corrosion by convergent ?ux and with meteoric water, cooling, sulfur oxidation, carbon dioxide degassing, and condensation-corrosion. Cave patterns are: isolated geodes, 2D and 3D multistory systems following joints and bedding planes, Giant phreatic shaft, Water table mazes, Isolated chambers, Upwardly dendritic spheres, Water table cave, ‘Smoking’ shafts. The development of caves by hypogene processes (i.e. “hypogenic speleogenesis”) corresponds to the formation of caves by water that recharges the soluble formation from below, driven by hydrostatic pressure or other sources of energy, independent of recharge from the overlying or immediately adjacent surface” (FORD, 2006). Hypogenic caves - often referred to as “thermal caves” - were often considered as an “exotic” side of the “normal” (i.e. meteoric) caves. Palmer (1991) estimated that about 10% caves have hypogenic origin. Recent studies (overview in KLIMCHOUK, 2007) have emphasized the speci?c hydrogeological background and shown that hypogenic caves are much more common than previously thought. The extreme diversity of settings (carbonic, sulfuric, thermal, cold, deep phreatic, shallow phreatic, vadose...) in different geological or geomorphological contexts produces a puzzling impression: each hypogenic cave seems to be unique, with few characteristics in common with the other hypogenic caves in terms of their patterns.


Genesis and functioning of the Aix-les-Bains hydrothermal karst (Savoie, France): past research and recent advances, 2010, Hoblea F. , Gallinojosnin S. , Audra Ph.

Aix-les-Bains (Savoie, France) owes its name and reputation to the thermal springs that occur along the eastern shore of Lake Bourget, France largest natural lake. Although the city waters have been exploited since Antiquity, scientific investigations into the nature and characteristics of the hydrothermal karst from which they emerge did not begin until the early 19th century. The present article traces the history of these investigations and summarizes the results of more than two centuries of scientific research. Today, the only visible signs of karstification related to hydrothermal flows are to be found in the discharge zone in the Urgonian limestone anticline that rises above the city centre. These features are: – the Grotte des Serpents, which houses the Alun Spring, the system main natural discharge, – the Chevalley Aven, a blind chimney that was accidentally uncovered in 1996, – other hydrothermal springs that are too small to enter, including the Soufre Spring. Although scientific investigation of the thermal springs at Aix-les-Bains began in the early 19th century, it was not until the 1920s that scientists started examining the relationship between karstification and the state of the aquifer. E.A.Martel was the first researcher to describe the Aix-les-Bains site as an active hydrothermal karst, in a pioneering study published in 1935. Sixty years later, the discovery of the Chevalley Aven during building work on a new hydrotherapy center gave fresh impetus to research into the karstification of the Aix-les-Bains thermo-mineral aquifer. Recent studies have also investigated the deep aquifer below the karst, using data provided by boreholes. The Urgonian limestone karst at Aix-les-Bains is the site of mixing between thermal waters rising through the anticline and meteoric waters percolating from the surface. Meteoric infiltration is sufficiently high for the hydrological behavior of the thermal springs to be identical to that of exsurgences in gravity-fed, cold-water transmissive karsts. The Chevalley Aven is a shaft that descends 30 meters below the surface, thereby providing access to the ground-water at depth. Monitoring of the water quality in the aven has shown that the Legionella contamination of the springs was due to high concentrations of the bacteria in upstream passages in the karst. In 2006, dye-tracing tests confirmed the existence of a hydraulic connection between the Chevalley Aven and the Alun and Soufre Springs, the fact there is a single ascending hydrothermal conduit, which lies between the Chevalley Aven and the Alun Spring. In addition to providing a valuable source of information about the functioning of the thermo-mineral aquifer, the cavities at Aix-les-Bains are of great karstological interest, especially for the study of hypogene speleogenetic processes. The circulation of warm (40oC), sulfur-rich waters and vapours through the system has led to the development of conduits with specific morphologies and the precipitation of characteristic deposits. These features include: – “beaded” chimneys and galleries formed by the linking of spheres produced by condensation-corrosion. Diffuse karstification along bedding planes around the main conduit; – deposition of non-carbonate minerals (gypsum, native sulfur); – formation of biothems and biofilms on walls subject to condensation. The Grotte des Serpents is a horizontal cavity that formed at the upper limit of the water table. The Chevalley Aven is a hypogene chimney that was sculpted under vadose conditions by the release of sulfuric acid-rich vapours above the thermal water table. As well as a surface coating of microbial mats and the presence of bacterial flakes in the thermal water, the vadose parts of the Aix-les-Bains hydrothermal karst contain a characteristic microfauna and flora. These microorganisms are thought to play an active role in hypogene karstification processes.


Hypogenic caves in France. Speleogenesis and morphology of the cave systems, 2010, Audra Ph. , D'antoninebecourt J. C. , Bigot J. Y.

Hypogenic caves develop by recharge from below, not directly influenced by seepage from the overlying land surface. Several processes of speleogenesis are combined, involving CO2 or H2S produced at depth. If the recharge from depth remains uniform, the growth of selected fissures is prevented, giving rise to maze cave systems with an upward development trend, which is defined as “transverse speleogenesis” [Klimchouk, 2003]. Hypogenic caves are much fewer than epigenic caves (i.e. developed downwards by meteoric water with aggressivity derived from soil). In France, as in the rest of the world, hypogenic caves were poorly recognized until recently because of their lower frequency, subsequent epigenic imprint often hiding the true origin, and the absence of a global conceptual model. However, about a hundred of hypogenic caves have been identified recently in France. The extreme diversity of hypogenic cave patterns and features is due to the variety of geological and topographic settings and types of flow. Thermal caves are a sub-set of hypogenic caves. Active thermal caves are few and small (Mas d’En Caraman, Vallon du Salut). Often, thermal in fluences only occur as point thermal in feeders into epigenic caves (Mescla, Estramar). In addition to the higher temperature, they may be characterized by CO2 (Madeleine) or H2S degassing, by warm water flowing in ceiling channels, or by manganese deposits. The Giant Phreatic Shafts locate along regional active fault lines. They combine all characteristics (thermal, CO2, H2S), due to the fast rising of deep water. The Salins Spring has been explored by scuba diving down to –70 m. Such a hyperkarstification is responsible for the development of the deepest phreatic shafts of the world: pozzo del Merro, Italy (-392 m). Inactive hypogenic caves may be recognized by their specific mineralization or by the presence of large calcite spar. Metallic deposits are due to the rising of deep waters that are warm, aggressive, and low in oxidation potential. Mixing with meteoric water generates Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) sulfidic ores. Iron deposits as massive bodies (Lagnes) or onto microbial media (Iboussires, Malacoste) making specific facies, such as “black tubes”, iron flakes, and iron pool fingers. Other frequent minerals are Mn oxides and Pb sulfur. In such low thermal conditions, calcite deposits occur as large spar in geodes or as passage linings. Other inactive hypogenic caves may also be recognized by characteristic patterns, such as mazes. The relatively constant recharge into confined karst aquifers suppresses fissure competition, so they enlarge at similar rates, producing a maze pattern. In horizontal beds, mazes extend centrifugally around the upwelling feeder. The juxtaposition of multiple discrete vertical feeders produces extended horizontal mazes. In gently tilted structures, 2D mazes extend below aquitards, or along bedding or more porous beds (Saint-Sbastien). In thick folded limestone the rising hypogenic flow alternatively follows joints and bedding planes, producing a 3D maze cave in a stair case pattern (Pigette). Isolated chambers are large cupola-like chambers fed by thermal slots. Thermal convection of air in a CO2-rich atmosphere causes condensation-corrosion that quickly produces voids above the water table (Champignons Cave). Sulfuric acid caves with replacement gypsum are produced by H2S degassing in the cave atmosphere. H2S oxidizes to H2SO4, which corrodes the carbonate rock and replaces it with gypsum. The strongest corrosion occurs above the water table, where sulfide degassing and thermal convection produce strong condensation-corrosion. Caves develop head ward from springs and from thermo-sulfuric slots upward (Chevalley-Serpents System). The low-gradient main drains record base level positions and even the slightest stages of water-table lowering (Chat Cave). Hypogenic speleogenesis provides better understanding of the distribution of karst voids responsible for subsidence hazards and the emplacement of minerals and hydrocarbons.


Hypogenic caves in France. Speleogenesis and morphology of the cave systems, 2010, Audra Philippe, D’antoninobecourt Jeanclaude, Bigot Jeanyves

Hypogenic caves develop by recharge from below, not directly influenced by seepage from the over lying land surface. Several processes of speleogenesis are combined, involving CO2 or H2S produced at depth. If the recharge from depth remains uniform, the growth of selected fissures is prevented, giving rise to maze cave systems with an upward development trend, which is defined as “transverse speleogenesis” [Klimchouk, 2003]. Hypogenic caves are much fewer than epigenic caves (i.e. developed downwards by meteoric water with aggressivity derived from soil). In France, as in the rest of the world, hypogenic caves were poorly recognized until recently because of their lower frequency, subsequent epigenic imprint of tenhiding the true origin, and the absence of a global conceptual model. However, about a hundred of hypogenic caves have been identified recently in France. The extreme diversity of hypogenic cave patterns and features is due to the variety of geological and topographic settings and types of flow. Thermal caves are a sub-set of hypogenic caves. Active thermal caves are few and small (Mas d’En Cara man, Vallondu Salut). Often, thermal in fluences only occur as point thermal infeeders into epigenic caves (Mescla, Estra mar). In addition to the higher temperature, they may be characterized by CO2 (Madeleine) or H2S degassing, by warm water flowing in ceiling channels, or by manganese de posits. The Giant Phreatic Shafts locate along regional active faul tlines. They combine all characteristics (thermal, CO2, H2S), due to the fast rising of deep water. The Salins Spring has been explored by scuba diving down to –70 m. Such a hyperkars tification is responsible for the development of the deepest phreatic shafts of the world: pozzo del Merro, Italy (-392 m). Inactive hypogenic caves may be recognized by their specific mineralization or by the presence of large calcite spar. Metallic deposits are due to the rising of deep waters that are warm, aggressive, and low in oxidation potential. Mixing with meteoric water generates Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) sulfidicores. Iron deposits as massive bodies (Lagnes) or ontomicrobial media (Ibous sières, Malacoste) making specific facies, such as “black tubes”, iron flakes, and iron pool fingers. Other frequent minerals are Mn oxides and Pb sulfur. In such low thermal conditions, calcite deposits occur as large spar in geodes or as passage linings. Other inactive hypogenic caves may also be recognized by characteristic patterns, such as mazes. The relatively constant recharge into confined karst aquifers suppres ses fissure competition, so they enlarge at similar rates, producing a maze pattern. In horizontal beds, mazes extend centrifugally around the upwelling feeder. The juxtaposition of multiple discrete vertical feeders produces extended horizontal mazes. In gently tilted structures, 2D mazes extend below aquitards, or along bedding or more porous beds (Saint-Sé bastien). In thick folded limestone the rising hypogenic flow alternatively follows joints and bedding planes, pro ducing a 3D maze cave in a stair case pattern (Pigette). Isolated chambers are large cupola-like chambers fed by thermal slots. Thermal convection of air in a CO2-rich atmosphere causes condensation-corrosion that quickly produces voids above the water table (Champignons Cave). Sulfuric acid caves with replacement gypsum are produced by H2S degassing in the cave atmosphere. H2S oxidizes to H2SO4, which corrodes the carbonate rock and replaces it with gypsum. The strongest corrosion occurs above the water table, where sulfide degassing and thermal convection produce strong condensation-corrosion. Caves develop headward from springs and from thermo-sulfuric slots upward (Chevalley-Serpents System). The low-gradient main drains record base-level positions and even the slightest stages of water-table lowering (Chat Cave). Hypogenic speleogenesis provides better understanding of the distribution of karst voids responsible for subsidence hazards and the emplace ment of minerals and hydrocarbons.


EVIDNCIES MORFOLGIQUES DE PROCESSOS HIPOGNICS A CAVITATS DE MALLORCA, 2011, Merino A. , Gins J. , Forns J. J.

Until very recently, most of the caves in Mallorca were considered to be of epigenic origin, where the endokarst phenomena was mainly originated by the circulation of meteoric waters carrying biogenic CO2, and by different speleogenetic mechanisms associated to the littoral mixing zone along with extensive breakdown processes. The breakthroughs achieved along the last years have contributed not only to identify new morphologies, but also to distinguish a new speleogenetic process hitherto unknown in Mallorca: the hypogenic speleogenesis, related to a water recharge of deep origin. To address challenging questions regarding with it, a detailed investigation of suspicious caves harbouring hypogenic evidences was carried out, yielding unexpected data. In this paper, special attention is given to the morphological signs found predominantly in caves located within the south-western sector of Migjorn karst region and surrounding area. The following morphologies have been documented: a morphologic suite of rising flow integrated by feeders, rising wall channels and outlets; dead ends; partitions; the associations of cave rims–vents and bubble trails–folia; as well as likely condensation-corrosion features in the form of bellholes and small subspherical chambers. 


In defense of a fluctuating-interface, particle-accretion origin of folia, 2012, Davis Donald G.

Two recent papers have proposed radically different modes of origin for cave folia. Audra et al. (2009) propose subaqueous origin of carbonate folia via hypogenic CO2 bubble trapping, with concurrent condensation-corrosion and evaporative precipitation within individual folia gas pockets. Queen (2009) proposes that at least some folia are analogous to suboceanic tufa-tower “flanges” and may result from subaqueous freshwater mixing into a briny environment. The purpose of this paper is to show that neither of these mechanisms can be the fundamental process responsible for folia morphology in cave deposits, and that accretion from adherent particles at fluctuating interfaces is the only mechanism that has been shown to apply to folia of all compositions and in all cave environments where they are known to occur.


Acqua Fitusa Cave: an example of inactive water-table sulphuric acid cave in Central Sicily, 2012, Vattano M. , Audra Ph. , Bigot J. Y. , Waele J. D. , Madonia G. , Nobcourt J. C.

Hypogenic caves are generated by water recharging from below independently of seepage from the overlying or immediately adjacent surface. These waters are often thermal and enriched in dissolved gases, the most common of which are CO2 and H2S. Hypogenic caves can be thermal caves, sulphuric acid caves, basal injection caves. They differ from epigenic caves in many ways, such as: speleogenetic mechanisms, morphological features, chemical deposits, and lack of alluvial sediments (KLIMCHOUK, 2007; KLIMCHOUK & FORD, 2009; PALMER, 2011). Several studies were conducted to evaluate the hypogenic origin of a large number of caves (AUDRA et alii, 2010; KLIMCHOUK & FORD, 2009; STAFFORD et alii, 2009). A significant contribution was given by the work of Klimchouk (2007) that systematically provided instruments and models to better understand and well define the hypogenic karst processes and landforms. Detailed studies on hypogenic caves were carried out in Italy since the 90s in different karst systems, especially in the Central and Southern Appenines. These studies mainly concerned chemical deposits related to ascending water and micro-biological action (GALDENZI & MENICHETTI, 1995; GALDENZI, 1997; PICCINI, 2000; GALDENZI & MARUOKA, 2003, FORTI & MOCCHIUTTI, 2004; GALDENZI, 2012). In this paper, we present the first results of researches conducted in Acqua Fitusa cave that was believed to be an epigenic cave until today. Acqua Fitusa cave is located in Central Sicily, along the north-eastern scarp of a N-S anticline, westward vergent, forming the Mt. La Montagnola. The cave formed in the Upper Cretaceous Rudist breccias member of the Crisanti Fm., composed of conglomerates and reworked calcarenites with rudist fragments and benthic foraminifers ( CATALANO et alii, 2011). The cave consists at least of three stories of subhorizontal conduits, displaying a total length of 700 m, and a vertical range of 25 m. It represents a clear example of inactive water-table sulphuric acid cave, produced mainly by H 2S degassing in the cave atmosphere. Despite the small size, Acqua Fitusa cave is very interesting for the abundance and variety of forms and deposits related to rising waters and air flow. A ~ 7 m deep inactive thermo-sulphuric discharge slot intersects the floor of some passages for several meters (Fig. 1). Different morphologies of small and large sizes, generated by condensation-corrosion processes, can be observed along the ceiling and walls: ceiling cupolas and large wall convection niches occur in the largest rooms of the cave; deep wall convection niches, in places forming notches, incise cave walls at different heights; condensation-corrosion channels similar to ceiling-half tubes carve the roof of some passages; replacements pockets due to corrosion-substitution processes are widespread; boxwork due to differential condensation-corrosion were observed in the upper parts of the conduits. Sulphuric notches with flat roof, linked to lateral corrosion of the thermal water table, carve the cave walls at different heights recording past stages of base-level lowering. 


Hypogenic origin of Provalata Cave, Republic of Macedonia: a distinct case of successive thermal carbonic and sulfuric acid speleogenesis, 2013, Temovski Marjan, Audra Philippe, Mihevc Andrej, Spangenberg Jorge E. , Polyak Victor, Mcintosh William, Bigot Jeanyves.

Provalata Cave (Republic of Macedonia) is a small but remarkable hypogenic cave, developed in Cambrian marbles by successive thermal carbonic and sulfuric acid speleogenesis. The cave has a thick partly corroded calcite crust, abundant gypsum deposits, with cupolas, ceiling and wall channels, feeders and replacement pockets as some of the most characteristic morphological features. Distribution of morphology and deposits suggest a hypogenic origin in two distinct speleogenetic phases: the first by thermal CO2 rich waters, the second by sulfuric acid dissolution, which were separated by complete infilling of cave passages with pyroclastic-derived clays. In the first phase of speleogenesis, cave passages were formed by dissolution along fractures due to cooling of rising carbonated thermal waters. These phreatic morphologies were later covered with a thick calcite crust deposited in a shallow phreatic environment. In Early Pleistocene the cave was completely filled with clays due to deposition of pyroclastic rocks in a lacustrine environment in the nearby Mariovo Basin. Mariovo Lake sediments were later incised by the Buturica River, which cut down into Cambrian marbles, creating its superimposed valley. Incision lowered the water table and allowed removal of the clay deposits in Provalata Cave. The second phase of speleogenesis started after introduction of H2S associated with rising thermal waters. Oxidation produced sulfuric acid, which rapidly dissolved first calcite crust, then marble host rock. Condensation-corrosion by sulfuric vapors replaced carbonate rock with gypsum producing replacement pockets as well as second generation of pockets and cupolas. The contact of sulfuric acid with the clay deposits formed alunite, jarosite, and natroalunite. 40Ar/39Ar dating gave maximum ages of 1.6 Ma (alunite) and 1.46 Ma (jarosite) for this last stage of speleogenesis, thus making it the second 40Ar/39Ar dating of a sulfuric cave in Europe (after Kraushöhle in Austria), and the first dated cave in the Republic of Macedonia.


HYPOGENIC CAVES OF SICILY (SOUTHERN ITALY), 2013, Vattano M. Audra P. Benvenuto F. Bigot J. Y. Waele J. D. Galli E. Madonia G. Nobé, Court J. C.

 

First results of a study on hypogenic caves in Sicily are presented. Inactive water-table sulphuric acid caves and 3D maze caves linked to rising of thermal waters rich in H2S were recognized. Cave patterns are guided by structural planes, medium and small scale morphological features are due mainly to condensation-corrosion processes. Calcite and gypsum represent the most common cave minerals. Different types of phosphates linked to the presence of large bat guano deposits were analyzed.


MORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CONDENSATION-CORROSION SPELEOGENESIS AT DEVILS HOLE RIDGE, NEVADA, 2014, Dublyansky Y. , Spötl C.

The Devils Hole Ridge, a small block of Paleozoic carbonate rocks surrounded by the Amargosa Desert in southern Nevada, is located at the discharge end of the Ash Meadows regional groundwater flow system.
Continuous, long-term presence of slightly thermal (33.6°C) groundwater and the extensional tectonic setting, creating underground thermal lakes in open fractures, lead to intense dissolution above the water table. The morphology of the subaerial parts of the tectonic caves was slightly modified by condensation corrosion, and the Devils Hole Prospect Cave was almost entirely created by condensation corrosion. Caves and cavities in the Devils Hole Ridge are an interesting example of a hypogene speleogenesis by mechanism by condensation corrosion, operating above an aquifer which was demonstrably supersaturated with respect to calcite for hundreds of thousands of years.


Long-term erosion rate measurements in gypsum caves of Sorbas (SE Spain) by the Micro-Erosion Meter method, 2015, Sanna Laura, De Waele Jo, Calaforra José Maria, Forti Paolo

The present work deals with the results of long-term micro-erosion measurements in the most important gypsum cave of Spain, the Cueva del Agua (Sorbas, Almeria, SE Spain). Nineteen MEM stations were positioned in 1992 in a wide range of morphological and environmental settings (gypsum floors and walls, carbonate speleothems, dry conduits and vadose passages) inside and outside the cave, on gypsum and carbonate bedrocks and exposed to variable degree of humidity, different air flowand hydrodynamic conditions. Four different sets of stations have been investigated: (1) the main cave entrance (Las Viñicas spring); (2) the main river passage; (3) the abandoned Laboratory tunnel; and (4) the external gypsum surface. Data over a period of about 18 years are available. The average lowering rates vary from 0.014 to 0.016 mm yr−1 near the main entrance and in the Laboratory tunnel, to 0.022 mm −1 on gypsum floors and 0.028 mm yr−1 on carbonate flowstones. 

The denudation data from the external gypsum stations are quite regular with a rate of 0.170 mm yr−1. The observations allowed the collecting of important information concerning the feeding of the karst aquifer not only by infiltrating rainwater, but under present climate conditions also by water condensation of moist air flow. This contribution to the overall karst processes in the Cueva del Agua basin represents over 20% of the total chemical dissolution of the karst area and more than 50% of the speleogenetically removed gypsum in the cave system, thus representing all but a secondary role in speleogenesis. Condensation–corrosion is most active along the medium walls, being slower at the roof and almost absent close to the floor. This creates typical corrosion morphologies such as cupola, while gypsum flowers develop where evaporation dominates. This approach also shows quantitatively the morphological implications of condensation–corrosion processes in gypsum karst systems in arid zones, responsible for an average surface lowering of 0.047 mm yr−1, while mechanical erosion produces a lowering of 0.123 mm yr−1.


Results 1 to 15 of 19
You probably didn't submit anything to search for