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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That vadose cave is 1. a cave that underwent most of its development above the water table. within the vadose zone, drainage is freeflowing under gravity, and cave passages therefore have air above any water surface. the gravitational control of vadose flow means that all vadose cave passages drain downslope, they exist in the upper part of a karst aquifer, and they ultimately drain into the phreatic zone or out to the surface. active stream caves, explorable by non-diving cavers, are by definition vadose (though they generally have phreatic origins). characteristics of vadose caves are uneroded ceilings (except for immature phreatic features pre-dating the vadose conditions) and continuous downhill gradients (unless interrupted by short perched sumps). the main passage forms are canyons, with meanders and potholes, broken by subcylindrical, spray-corroded shafts that may demonstrate waterfall retreat. some of the caves of monte canin, italy, are spectacularly long and deep vadose systems [9]. 2. older, higher cave passages found in the vadose zone; usually vadose caves have been abandoned by the ground water except in times of extreme aquifer recharge. passages are usually appear as canyons and keyholes.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for cone karst (Keyword) returned 20 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 20
Impact of forest clearance on the soils of tropical cone karst., 1987, Furley P. A.

MORPHOMETRY AND EVOLUTION OF FENGLIN KARST IN THE SHUICHENG AREA, WESTERN GUIZHOU, CHINA, 1992, Xiong K. N. ,
Four areas with different styles of fenglin (tower and cone karst) are investigated using morphometric techniques in the Shuicheng area of Guizhou Province. The karsts were formed in the Neogene and were uplifted during the Quaternary, to present elevations of about 1800 m. Measurements were made of the characteristics of 745 cones using maps and aerial photographs supplemented by field investigations. The karst cones are found to be of almost constant slope angle (45-degrees to 47-degrees) regardless of structure, but with a tendency for slightly lower slopes to occur where the carbonates have impure interbeds. Although generally symmetrical in plan, elongation of both cones and intervening depressions appears controlled by major elements of the structure and the general slope of the topography. Spatial analysis shows the cones to be relatively uniformly distributed in three of the four cases studied. Morphometric evidence points strongly to parallel slope evolution of cones. A model is offered of landscape evolution in which sequential development occurs through stages of karst-tableland with dolines to fencong-depression to fenglin-depression and finally to fenglin-plain. Geological control becomes less influential as this development proceeds, with the smaller and more widely spaced cones of the later stages becoming increasingly symmetrical in form

Alpine karsts. Genesis of large subterranean networks. Examples : the Tennengebirge (Austria) - the Ile de Crémieu, the Chartreuse and the Vercors (France), PhD Thesis, 1993, Audra, Philippe

This work, based on the study of several underground alpine networks, aims to propose some milestone in the history of these karstic regions.

The first part of the work is made up of three regional studies.

The Tennengebirge mountains are a massif of the limestone High Alps in the region of Salzburg in Austria. A cone karst close to the base level developed in the Neogene. Streams from the Alps fed the karst, resulting in the huge horizontal networks of which the Eisriesenwelt provides evidence. During the successive phases of upthrust, the levels of karstification, whether on the surface or deeper down, settled into a tier pattern, thus descending in stages from the base level. From the Pliocene era onwards, thanks to an increase in potential, alpine shafts replace the horizontal networks. The formation of these shafts is more pronounced during glaciation. The study of the Cosa Nostra - Bergerhöhle system developing 30 km of conduits on a gradient reaching almost 1 500 m provides a fairly full view of the karstification of this massif. It includes the horizontal levels developed in the Miocene and the Plio-Pleistocene, joined together by vertical sections. The most noteworthy features of the Tennengebirge, as in the neighboring massifs, lie first and foremost in the extreme thickness of the limestone which has recorded and immunized the differents steps of karstification. Secondly, the size of the networks can be, for the most part, accounted for by the contribution of allogenous waters from the streams of the Neogene and the glaciers of the Pleistocene. Generally sudden and unexpected, these flows of water engendered heavy loads (up to 600 m), simultaneously flooding several levels. To a lesser extent, the situation is similar today.

The Ile de Cremieu is a low limestone plateau on the western edge of the Jura. Due to its location in the foothills, the lobes of the Rhône glacier have covered it up, obliterating the surface karst. However, widespread evidence of anteglacial morphologies remains : paleokarst, cone karst, polygenic surface. Because of glacial plugging, access to the underground karst is limited. The main cavity is the cave of La Balme. Its initial development dates back to an early period. The morphological study has permitted the identification of several phases which go back to the Pleistocene and which are related to the Rhône glacier. The latter brought about modifications in the base level by supplying its merging waters as well as moraine material. These variations in the base level shaped the drainage structure. The underground glacial polishes are one of the noteworthy aspects recorded.

The massives of the Moucherotte and dent de Crolles belong to the northern French Prealps. They conceal large networks, respectively the Vallier cave and the Dent de Crolles. They were formed in the early Pliocene after the final orogenic phase and are in the form of horizontal conduits. The upthrust, which brought about the embanking of the Isère valley, left them in a perched position by taking away the basin which fed them. They were later, however, able to take advantage of waters from the Isère glacier during a part of the Pleistocene. The Vallier cave contains particularly glacio-karstic sediments of the lower Pleistocene, representing unique evidence of glaciation during this period. The vertical networks were put in place at the end of the Pliocene with the increase in karstification potential ; they underwent changes in the Pleistocene due to the effect of autochton and allogenous glaciers.

The second part of the work deals in general with the various forms and processes of karstification, sometimes going beyond the Alps. The study of cave deposits is a privileged tool in the understanding and reconstruction not only of the history of the networks but also the regional environment. The dating of speleothems by the U / Th method has very ofen given an age of over 350 000 years. The age of the networks is confirmed by the use of paleomagnetism which has yielded evidence of speleothems and glacio-karstic sediments anterior to 780 000 years. Anisotropic measurements of magnetic susceptibility have been used to distinguish the putting into place of glacio-karstic deposits by decantation.

Measurements of calcite rates lead to a typology of sediments based on their nature and carbonate content (rehandled weathered rocks, fluvial sands, carbonated varves, decantation clays). Granulometry confirms this differenciation by supplying precise details of transport and sedimentation modes : suspension and abrupt precipitation of clay, suspension and slow decantation of carbonated varves, suspension and rolling together with a variable sorting of sand and gravel. Mineralogical analyses oppose two types of detrital deposits. On the one hand, the rehandling of antequaternary weathered rocks extracted by the karst as a result of scouring during environmental destabilization and on the other hand, sediments characteristic of the ice age of the Pleistocene. The latter are not highly developed and their arrival in the karst is always later. Examination of heavy minerals, the morphoscopy of quartz grains and study of micromorphologies on thin blades provide precise details of conditions of evolution. The use of these methods of investigation allows for an accurate definition of the features of the evolution of the differents types of fillings, particularly speleothems, rehandled weathered rocks as well as carbonated varves. This wealth and complexity are emphasized by a detailed study of the sedimentary sequences of the Vallier cave and of the Bergerhöhle.
Speleogenesis is approached last of all in the light of above study. Emphasis is placed on the major part played by corrosion in the temporarily phreatic zone and on its many consequences (multi-level concept, simultaneous evolution of levels, origin of deep waterlogged karsts…).
Varia tions in the base level have induced karstification in contexts in which the potential was weak. These were followed by periods of increased potential to which were added the effects of glaciation. Perched horizontal levels belong to the first stages which ended in the early Pliocene, whereas alpine shafts developed in the second context. The role of structure and the parameters governing the shape of conduits (pits, meanders, canyons) are also dealt with. The different parts of the karst are borne in mind when dealing with the strength of karstic erosion during the ice age. It notably appears that it is weak on the crests and more or less non-existent in the deep parts of the karst which are liable to flooding. Finally, a preliminary analysis of an observation of neotectonic traces is presented.


The carbonated palaeosurface of the ''Arbailles'' massif (Pyrennes-Atlantiques): An example of Neogene hydrographic network dried up by uplift and karstification, 1997, Vanara N. , Maire R. , Lacroix J. ,
The ''Arbailles'' massif constitutes a folded area of Jurassic and lower Cretaceous limestones, which belongs to the north-Pyrenean zone. The top karst surface was dug by a palaeofluviatile system from the Albian marlous limestone cover and dried up by uplift (infiltration). This hydrographic network recorded the main events of uplift by staged valley levels (950, 850, 730 and 380 m). Some old endokarstic infillings can be seen on the residual cone karst showing the erosion of a thick limestone layer. The alterite pockets contain elements of former cuirasses which originated in former hydromorphic depressions. These polygenic deposits contain two kinds of mineral families coming from alterations of both Albian marlous limestones and Triassic Mendibelza conglomerates. During the Upper Oligocene and Miocene (after the Middle Lutetian orogenesis), the ''Arbailles'' massif was a chemical weathering surface in a wet and tropical climate in relation upstream with Mendibelza conglomerates and downstream with Cenomanian flyschs. The Plio-Quaternary uplift, of 1000 m, caused the alterite and cuirasse erosion, the drying up of the fluviatile system (Lower Pleistocene), the genesis of a cone karst and the formation of underground systems

La ligne de Wallace a-t-elle t franchie par les artistes des temps prhistoriques ? Deux nouvelles grottes ornes Borno (Kalimantan), 1998, Chazine Jeanmichel, Fage Luchenri
Before 1992, the Indonesian part of Borneo (Kalimantan) had not been the subject of archeological research. Five speleological and archeological research missions discovered numerous sites, first in the center island (Mller Range, in some isolated parts) and secondly in the huge karst region of Mangkalihat peninsula (NE of Kalimantan) where the first painted caves in Borneo were found in 1994. During the last expedition in september 98, we discovered two other painted caves: the most beautiful and richest ever found in Borneo, with numerous negative hand stencils and painted figures in a good state of preservation. These discoveries have been made in a very difficult area (pinacle and cone karst in the rainforest) by a small team - one caver and one archeologist. The systematic exploration of Borneo caves is essential to answer the question of the role played by the Island in the prehistoric migrations between Asia and Australia

Un karst sous la glace de l'Antarctide?, 2003, Bini A. , Forieri A. , Remy F. , Tabacco I. E. , Zirizzotti A. , Zuccoli L.
ARE THERE KARSTIC LANDFORMSUNDER ANTARCTICICECAP? - A new bedrock map of the Dome C area based on all radar data collected during Italian Antarctic Expeditions in 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2001 is presented. The map can clearly distinguish the Dome C plateau, along with some valleys and ridges develop. The plateau develops at three different altimetric levels and its morphology is characterised by hills and closed depressions. There are no visible features, which can be ascribed to glacial erosion or deposition. The major valley is 15 km wide and 500 m deep; its axis is parallel to that of other valleys and ridges in the plateau. The valley bottom is not flat, but contains a saddle in its centre. The morphology of the major valley could be considered as a relict one, which was not modified by the overlying ice cap. Two big ridges, characterised by hills, saddles and depressions, he near the boundaries of the area. The hill and depression landscape may be the result of two different processes the weathering of granitic rocks, with the development of a Demi-oranges and inselberg landscape, or the karstification of limestones, and development of a cone karst. The karstic hypothesis should be the more suitable, but it is impossible to exclude the granitic rock weathering. Both proposed genetic hypotheses calling for a warm- humid climate and a long period of stability in a continental environment. Consequently, the ice cap did not largely modify the landscape.

Landform differentiation within Gunungkidul Kegel Karst, 2004, Eko Haryono And Mick Day

The Gunung Kidul karst is the western part (65%) of the larger Gunung Sewu (Thousand Hills) karst area, which is generally considered a type example of cone- or kegelkarst (Lehmann, 1936). This classification is an over-simplification, however, in that the karst landscape within the Gunung Sewu is considerably differentiated in terms of landform morphology and genesis. In the Gunung Kidul, this differentiation is evident from aerial photographs, which provide basic information about landform patterns, including lineament information. These observations were confirmed by field investigation, which incorporated landform measurement and acquisition of lithological information. These detailed studies distinguish three Gunung Kidul karst subtypes: labyrinth-cone, polygonal, and residual cone karst. The labyrinth-cone subtype occurs in the central Gunung Kidul karst where hard, thick limestones have undergone intensive deformation. Polygonal karst has developed in the western perimeter on hard but thinner limestone beds. The residual cone subtype occurs in the weaker and more porous limestones (wackestones or chalks), despite considerable bed thickness.


Cone Karst, 2004, Day M.

Cockpit Country Cone Karst, Jamaica, 2004, Day M. , Chenoweth S.

Sewu Cone Karst, Java, 2004, Waltham T.

Cave un-roofing as a large-scale geomorphic process, 2006, Klimchouk Alexander
A morphogenetic approach appears to be the most sensible in defining the tiankeng as a typological category. Tiankengs are giant collapse dolines formed over large river caves, with continuous precipitous perimeter and a diameter-to-depth ratio between 0.5 and 2. The term bears an evolutionary meaning, referring to the youthful stage of open collapse doline development, and the relationship of tiankengs to large underground rivers. The latter criterion separates tiankengs from other types of giant collapse features, such as caprock collapses over evaporates or large collapses over hydrothermal cavities. The South China karst offers evidence that un-roofing of caves is a large-scale geomorphic process playing an important role in the formation of cone and tower karst. It is probably the major process in the origin of large depressions, gorges and valleys in tropical karst, although other geomorphic processes contribute to shaping and maturation of a landscape and eventually obscure the origin in unroofed caves. Many saddles between hills and towers in fengcong and fenglin karst may owe their origin to cave un-roofing.

Tiankengs in the karst of China, 2006, Zhu Xuewen, Chen Weihai
China has the most extensive and diversified karst terrains in the world and most of them are rich in caves and dolines. The cone karst (fengcong) and tower karst (fenglin) developed in the humid climate in southern China form the most distinctive karst landscapes. Tiankengs are giant dolines that are a feature in some areas of the cone karst. In recent years, more than fifty tiankengs have been discovered in the cone karst in southern China, notably in the provinces of Chongqing, Guangxi, Sichuan and Guizhou. Current research indicates that tiankengs develop in specific environments of geomorphology, geology and hydrogeology, and are therefore distinguished from normal karst dolines.

Tiankengs in the karst of China, 2006, Zhu Xuewen, Chen Weihai

China has the most extensive and diversified karst terrains in the world and most of them are rich in caves and dolines. The cone karst (fengcong) and tower karst (fenglin) developed in the humid climate in southern China form the most distinctive karst landscapes. Tiankengs are giant dolines that are a feature in some areas of the cone karst. In recent years, more than fifty tiankengs have been discovered in the cone karst in southern China, notably in the provinces of Chongqing, Guangxi, Sichuan and Guizhou. Current research indicates that tiankengs develop in specific environments of geomorphology, geology and hydrogeology, and are therefore distinguished from normal karst dolines.


Cave un-roofing as a large-scale geomorphic process, 2006, Klimchouk, Alexander

A morphogenetic approach appears to be the most sensible in defining the tiankeng as a typological category. Tiankengs are giant collapse dolines formed over large river caves, with continuous precipitous perimeter and a diameter-to-depth ratio between 0.5 and 2. The term bears an evolutionary meaning, referring to the youthful stage of open collapse doline development, and the relationship of tiankengs to large underground rivers. The latter criterion separates tiankengs from other types of giant collapse features, such as caprock collapses over evaporates or large collapses over hydrothermal cavities. The South China karst offers evidence that un-roofing of caves is a large-scale geomorphic process playing an important role in the formation of cone and tower karst. It is probably the major process in the origin of large depressions, gorges and valleys in tropical karst, although other geomorphic processes contribute to shaping and maturation of a landscape and eventually obscure the origin in unroofed caves. Many saddles between hills and towers in fengcong and fenglin karst may owe their origin to cave un-roofing.


Cave un-roofing as a large-scale geomorphic process, 2006, Klimchouk Alexander
A morphogenetic approach appears to be the most sensible in defining the tiankeng as a typological category. Tiankengs are giant collapse dolines formed over large river caves, with continuous precipitous perimeter and a diameter-to-depth ratio between 0.5 and 2. The term bears an evolutionary meaning, referring to the youthful stage of open collapse doline development, and the relationship of tiankengs to large underground rivers. The latter criterion separates tiankengs from other types of giant collapse features, such as caprock collapses over evaporates or large collapses over hydrothermal cavities. The South China karst offers evidence that un-roofing of caves is a large-scale geomorphic process playing an important role in the formation of cone and tower karst. It is probably the major process in the origin of large depressions, gorges and valleys in tropical karst, although other geomorphic processes contribute to shaping and maturation of a landscape and eventually obscure the origin in unroofed caves. Many saddles between hills and towers in fengcong and fenglin karst may owe their origin to cave un-roofing.

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