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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That retention is 1. the detention of water on surface depressions or in subsurface void space. 2. the retention of water in pores against gravity [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for croatia. (Keyword) returned 17 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 17
Two new Monolistrinae (Crustacea, Isopoda) of underground waters of Croatia., 1971, Deelemanreinhold C. L.
A new subspecies and a new species are described: Monolistra (Monolistra) caeca meridionalis nov. subspec. was found in three caves in the northern part of Croatia, Yougoslavia. It is distinguishable from the typical form principally by the thin, acuminate form of the protuberance of the protopodite of the IInd male peraeopod, by the endopodite of the Ist pleopod which bears 3-4 setae (1-2 in M. c. caeca), by the somewhat wider endopodite of the IIIrd pleopod and by the shorter, only slightly curved uropods. A sketch shows the situation of 6 newly discovered localities in northern Croatia, 3 of the typical form and three of the new subspecies. Microtistra sketi is the 6th species known of its genus and lives in a cave, in stagnant water of a periodic spring, tributary to the river Gacka in Croatia. The number (three pairs), and the length of the spines of the carapace and the pointedness of the epimers of the pereion are intermediate between those of the spiny forms living in Slovenia and the tubercular species M. pretneri Sket from Dalmatia and M. schottlaenderi (Stammer) from the vicinity of Trieste.

Two new Monolistrinae (Crustacea, Isopoda) of underground waters of Croatia., 1971, Deelemanreinhold C. L.
A new subspecies and a new species are described: Monolistra (Monolistra) caeca meridionalis nov. subspec. was found in three caves in the northern part of Croatia, Yougoslavia. It is distinguishable from the typical form principally by the thin, acuminate form of the protuberance of the protopodite of the IInd male peraeopod, by the endopodite of the Ist pleopod which bears 3-4 setae (1-2 in M. c. caeca), by the somewhat wider endopodite of the IIIrd pleopod and by the shorter, only slightly curved uropods. A sketch shows the situation of 6 newly discovered localities in northern Croatia, 3 of the typical form and three of the new subspecies. Microtistra sketi is the 6th species known of its genus and lives in a cave, in stagnant water of a periodic spring, tributary to the river Gacka in Croatia. The number (three pairs), and the length of the spines of the carapace and the pointedness of the epimers of the pereion are intermediate between those of the spiny forms living in Slovenia and the tubercular species M. pretneri Sket from Dalmatia and M. schottlaenderi (Stammer) from the vicinity of Trieste.

GROUND-WATER BEHAVIOR IN KARST - EXAMPLE OF THE OMBLA SPRING (CROATIA), 1995, Bonacci O,
The hydro-electric power plant (HEPP) which will exclusively use water from a karst underground storage basin will be built in the vicinity of the abundant karst spring Ombla in Croatia. This paper presents the results obtained by hydrogeologic, hydrologic and hydraulic investigations related to the principles of ground water circulation in the karst. The analyses included the determination of the effective porosity n(e) of the karst aquifer and the definition of the volume of large conduits and small fractures in the karst which form the aquifer volume. The position and dimensions of large karst conduits have also been defined. It was established that in three small springs, Zaton, Zavrelje and Slavljan, water overflows from the Ombla Spring in periods of high ground water levels, It was also discovered that at certain periods the Dupuit expression for steady-state flow in an unconfined aquifer can be used. In accordance with this, it was possible to determine the values of hydraulic conductivity, K (in m s(-1)), for the Ombla aquifer. They range from 2 x 10(-3) to 5 x 10(-3) m s(-1) and are inversely proportional to the Ombla Spring discharge. Continuous measurements of the ground water level by several piezometers located in the karst hinterland of the Ombla Spring and simultaneous measurement of the discharge made it possible to define discharge curves of the Ombla Spring dependent upon the ground water levels at Various locations. Characteristic features of the discharge curves made the identification of the position and dimensions of the main karst conduits possible

Ecologically acceptable flows definition for the Zrnovnica River (Croatia), 1998, Bonacci O, Kerovec M, Rojebonacci T, Mrakovcic M, Plenkovicmoraj A,
The paper defines an ecologically acceptable flow regime for the River Zrnovnica, Croatia. This is a small and relatively short karst river with high flows and high quality water, convenient for use for public water supply. Because the water from the river will be taken from the karst spring zone, the entire river channel could suffer negative ecological consequences. The main goal of setting minimum acceptable flows is to protect the Zrnovnica river food webs and to sustain the rare and endangered fish species Salmothymus obtusirostris. This paper presents results obtained from hydrological, morphological and biological investigations. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Speleological Features in the Mountainous Karst of Risnjak Mountain (Croatia), 1999, Buzjak Nenad, Fiedler Suzana

Risnjak mountain is located in western Croatia. Its central area is, together with the nearby Snjećnik mountain and the upper part of the Kupa river valley, a part of Risnjak National Park. Since it is mostly built of heavy broken Jurassic carbonate rocks (limestones predominate), all kinds of karst features are well developed. Among exokarst forms dolines predominate. Among speleological features shafts are the most frequent forms. There are several morphological types of these in the altitude range between 680 and 1520 m. Although the deepest shaft explored to date is 180 m deep, the rest of the shafts are mostly up to 50 m deep. Consistent with high altitude and a severe climate thick beds of snow and ice were found in a few shafts. Near the southeastern border of the National Park area there are a few streams which flow over the less permeable Triassic dolomite beds and impermeable Triassic and Permian clastic beds. They sink at the contact with permeable carbonate beds. Among their ponors the largest is Vele Vode ponor cave which is 1495 m long.


A contribution to history of Biokovo cave exploration, 2001, Jalž, Ić, B.

The influence of hydroelectrical development on the flow regime of the karstic river Cetina, 2003, Bonacci O, Rojebonacci T,
The Cetina River is a typical karst watercourse in the deep and well-developed Dinaric karst. The total length of the Cetina River open streamflow from its spring to the mouth is about 105 km. Estimated mean annual rainfall is 1380 mm. The Cetina catchment is built of Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous carbonate strata. The western part of the catchment by the Cetina River is referred to as the 'direct' or topographic catchment. It was defined based on surface morphologic forms, by connection between mountain chain peaks. This part of the catchment is almost entirely situated in the Republic of Croatia. The eastern part of the catchment is referred to as the 'indirect' catchment, and is mainly situated in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Water from the 'indirect' catchment emerges from the western 'direct' catchment in numerous permanent and temporary karst springs. Since 1960, numerous hydrotechnical works have been carried out on the Cetina River and within its catchment. Five hydroelectric power plants (HEPPs), five reservoirs, and three long tunnels and pipelines have been built. Their operation has significantly altered the natural hydrological regime. The Cetina River is divided into two hydrological reaches. In the 65 km upstream, the hydrological regime was redistributed within the year: low flows had increased and high flows had decreased, although the mean annual discharge remained the same. Part of the Cetina watercourse downstream from the Prancevici Reservoir lost the majority of its flow. The mean annual discharges dropped from 100 m(3) s(-1) to less than 10 m(3) s(-1) because of the Zakucac HEPP development. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd

Composite transfer functions for karst aquifers, 2003, Icjukic V. , Jukic D. ,
Linear transfer functions have been extensively used in hydrological studies. Generally, we support this conclusion: rainfall-runoff models based on the convolution between rainfall rates and a nonparametric transfer function (NTF) are not successful at simulating karst spring discharges during long recession periods. The tails of identified transfer functions have irregular shapes and they are not accurate physical representation of the transport through a karst system. Irregularities are the result of unavoidable errors in input and output time series and simplifications made by considering the system as linear and time invariant. This paper deals with a new form of the transfer functions for karst aquifers, the so-called composite transfer function (CTF). The CTF simulates discharges by two transfer functions adapted for the quick flow and the slow flow hydrograph component modeling. NTF is responsible for the quick flow component. The slow flow component is modeled by a parametric transfer function that is an instantaneous unit hydrograph mathematically formulated and defined from a conceptual model. By using the CTF, the irregular shape of the tail of the identified transfer function can be avoided, and the simulation of long recession periods as well as the simulation of a complete hydrograph becomes more successful. The NTF, the Nash model, the Zoch model and other similar conceptual models can be considered separately as simplified forms of the CTF. The rainfall-runoff model based on the convolution between rainfall rates and the CTF was tested on the Jadro Spring in Croatia. The results of the application are compared with the results obtained by applying NTFs independently. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Evidence for reproductive isolation between cave bear populations, 2004, Hofreiter M. , Rabeder G. , Jaenickedespres V. , Withalm G. , Nagel D. , Paunovic M. , Jambresic G. , Paabo S. ,
The European cave bear (Ursus spelaeus), which became extinct around 15,000 years ago, had several morphologically different forms. Most conspicuous of these were small Alpine cave bears found at elevations of 1,600 to 2,800 m [1-3]. Whereas some paleontologists have considered these bears a distinct form [4, 5], or even a distinct species [6], others have disputed this [7-9]. By a combination of morphological and genetic methods, we have analyzed a population of small cave bears from Ramesch Cave (2,000 m altitude) and one of larger cave bears from Gamssulzen Cave (1,300 m), situated approximately 10 km apart in the Austrian Alps (Figure 1A). We find no evidence of mitochondrial gene flow between these caves during the 15,000 years when they were both occupied by cave bears, although mitochondrial DNA sequences identical to those from Gamssulzen Cave could be recovered from a site located about 200 km to the south in Croatia. We also find no evidence that the morphology of the bears in the two caves changed to become more similar over time. We suggest that the two cave bear forms may have represented two reproductively isolated subspecies or species

Isotope records in submarine speleothems from the Adriatic coast, Croatia, 2005, Suric Masa, Horvatincic Nada, Suckow Axel, Juracic Mladen, Baresic Jadranka,
Isotope studies, using 14C dating, {delta}13C and {delta}18O measurements, were performed at eight speleothems taken from three submerged caves situated along the eastern Adriatic coast, Croatia. The speleothems were taken from 17 m to 38.5 m depth below mean sea level. The samples consist of four stalagmites and four stalactites in position of growth, covered with marine biogenic overgrowth, and the length of speleothems ranges from ~80 mm to ~190 mm. The youngest (surface) and the oldest (base) layers of speleothems were radiocarbon dated and the 14C ages range from 21,600 cal B.P. to 37,000 yr B.P. During that period the global sea level was more than 40 m below the recent one, so presently submerged objects were under the subaerial conditions necessary for speleothem deposition. 14C ages of the youngest layer range from 21,600 to 32,200 cal B.P. for different submerged speleothems. This indicates the time when the speleothem growth ceased, most probably due to flooding of the cave with either fresh or brackish water. Speleothem growth during the Last Glacial Maximum (30-19 kyr ago) and different time of growth cessation for the different speleothem samples suggest that climate change was not the reason for cessation of deposition. Samples for {delta}13C and {delta}18O measurements were taken from six submerged speleothems with sampling distances of ca. 5-10 mm from the surface to the base of speleothems. Most of the {delta}13C values are in the range from -10.5{per thousand} to -8.5{per thousand}, with few exceptions to -6{per thousand}. These values are typical for Dinaric karst, and very different values for marine biogenic overgrowth indicate that no isotopic exchange took place during the submerged period. {delta}18O values range from -6.7{per thousand} to -4.1{per thousand}. A weak correlation between {delta}13C and {delta}18O values indicates possible kinetic isotope fractionation during the calcite precipitation. If the {delta}18O record is interpreted as climatic signal, it suggests similar climatic conditions for the late Pleistocene and the Holocene, especially no significant differences in temperature and/or moisture transport

Management Models Development Show Caves Tourist Destinations Croatia., 2006, Boč, Ić, Neven, Lukić, Aleksandar, Opač, Ić, Vuk Tvrtko

Touristic valorisation of caves has long tradition in Croatia. Research has been conducted in order to: identify show caves in Croatia (13), make an overview of their basic geomorphologic characteristics and study their role as tourist destinations.


The role of flow velocity in the vertical distribution of particulate organic matter on moss-covered travertine barriers of the Plitvice Lakes (Croatia), 2006, Milisa M. , Habdija I. , Primchabdija B. , Radanovic I. , Kepcija R. ,
We investigated the distribution patterns of particulate organic matter (POM) on travertine barriers in respect to flow velocity. Research was conducted on the barrage-lake system of the Plitvice Lakes, Croatia. Four layers were distinguished within the substrate (moss mat three travertine layers) in three hydraulic habitats at three sites. Substrate samples were collected monthly with a core sampler. The aim of the study was to explore the ability of moss mats and travertine substrate to accumulate POM; to ascertain the role of flow velocity and to produce a model of POM distribution pattern. The average of POM deposited in the 10 cm deep zone decreased significantly in the three sites along longitudinal profile of the system. Most POM was deposited in the moss mats, and the amounts decreased exponentially with depth. This was observed for coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM), ultra-fine particulate organic matter (UPOM) and total organic matter (TPOM) while fine organic matter (FPOM) deposition appeared unaffected by depth. More POM was accumulated in hydraulic habitats of low flow velocity. Correlation between flow velocity and POM accumulation was generally negative. Positive correlations between flow velocity and deposition rates were noted for CPOM in moss mats and top travertine layers; the deposition of other POM fractions was negatively influenced by the flow velocity. The influence of flow velocity decreased with increasing depth. In the deepest layers (7-10 cm) flow velocity influenced only the deposition of the smallest particles (UPOM)

Relative Sea-Level Changes Recorded on an Isolated Carbonate Platform: Tithonian to Cenomanian Succession, Southern Croatia, 2006, Husinec Antun, Jelaska Vladimir,
Superb sections of Tithonian to Cenomanian carbonates of the Adriatic (Dinaric) platform are exposed on the islands of southern Croatia. A succession approximately 1,800 m thick consists exclusively of shallow-water marine carbonates (limestone, dolomitized limestone, dolomite, and intraformational breccia), formed in a protected and tectonically stable part of the platform interior. Several phases of exposure and incipient drowning are recorded in the platform interior. Four are crucial for understanding the Late Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous evolution of the wider peri-Adriatic area: (1) latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous sea-level fall, (2) Aptian drowning, followed by (3) Late Aptian platform exposure, and (4) Late Albian-Early Cenomanian sea-level fall. Deciphering these complex events from the vertical and lateral facies distribution has led to an evaluation of facies dynamics and construction of a relative sea-level curve for the study area. This curve shows that long-term transgression during the Early Tithonian, Hauterivian, Early Aptian, and Early Albian, resulted in generally thicker beds deposited in subtidal environments of lagoons or shoals. Regression was characterized by shallowing-upward peritidal parasequences, with well-developed tidal-flat laminites commonly capped by emersion breccia and/or residual clay sheets (Early Berriasian, Barremian, Late Aptian, Late Albian). The southern part of the Dinarides was tectonically quiet during the Tithonian through Aptian; sea-level oscillations appear to have been the primary control on facies stacking. Some correlation exists between local sea-level fluctuations and the published global eustasy charts for the Tithonian through Aptian. A significant departure is recognized at the Albian-Cenomanian transition, suggesting that it was influenced by tectonics associated with the disintegration of the Adriatic (Dinaric) platform

SUBMERGED SPELEOTHEMS EXPECT THE UNEXPECTED. EXAMPLES FROM THE EASTERN ADRIATIC COAST (CROATIA), 2007, Surić, M. , Jalž, Ić, B. , Petricioli D.

With the intention of reconstructing Late Pleistocene – Holocene sea-level changes along the Eastern Adriatic coast, a series of speleothems were collected from several submerged caves and pits, in order to constrain periods of their deposition and ceased growth related to sea-level fluctuations. For that purpose, stalagmites provide more reliable records than stalactites, due to their successive layers deposited perpendicularly to the growth direction. Therefore, stalagmites have been collected preferably. But, two of 17 speleothems displayed unexpected interior morphology – speleothem L-1 collected at the depth of 1.5 m in Medvjeđa spilja Cave on Lošinj Island, and speleothem M-25 from Pit near Iški Mrtovnjak Islet collected at the depth of 25 m. Both of the samples were taken from the cave floor, in the growth position of the stalagmite. But the insight into the perpendicular cut with evident central tube revealed their true (stalactitic) origin and additional confirmations were obtained by longitudinal cut and U-Th and 14C dating. Just as the causes of their breakdowns were probably different, so were their falls; speleothem M 25 (together with several other speleothems around it) stuck in the marine sediment in its primary position, while L-1 turned upside-down and even continued crystallizing during the lower sea level. These events are possible in the continental caves, as well. Evidently, it is much easier to recognize and avoid these problems in air-filled caves than in the submarine ones where the speleothems are almost always covered with marine overgrowth, which disguises their outer morphology. Additionally, the bases of the stalagmites are also sometimes covered with marine sediment, which makes correct estimation rather difficult.


Sustainability of the karst environment. Dinaric karst and other karst regions: Proceedings of the Intermational Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference, Plitvice Lakes, Croatia, 23-26 september 2009, 2010,

The objective of the international interdisciplinary scientific conference “Sustainability of the karst environment - Dinaric karst and other karst regions”, organized by Centre for Karst, Gospić, Croatia, was to give a theoretical and practical contribution to the concept of sustainable development in karst regions, with a special emphasis on the experiences achieved in the Dinaric karst region. The exchange of information and findings obtained in other karst regions worldwide allows for an integral approach to this complex issue, and thereby contribute towards finding reliable solutions. The basic objective of the conference was to apply an interdisciplinary approach to scientifically assess the issues of sustainable development of all forms of karst.

The issue was approached from different perspectives, from those of a technical and biological nature, to those addressing the social aspects of environmental issues and life on the karst. The conference itself was held at the Plitvice Lakes (World Heritage Site), one of the most fascinating phenomena on Earth. During the conference, one half-day excursion was organized to visit National Park Plitvice Lakes. Following the conference, an excursion was organised to visit several other significant phenomena of the Dinaric karst in Croatia.

Conference themes were:

- Geological aspects

- Geomorphological aspects

- Hydrological and hydrogeological aspects

- Coastal and submerged karst

- Biological and ecological aspects of karst

- Anthropogenic impacts and protecting karst

- Sociological, demographic and social aspects of karst

- Dinaric karst and other karst regions (China, Alpine, Caribbean karst, etc.)

The publication will serve as a contribution to the VIIth Phase of the International Hydrological Programme (IHP 2008-2013) of UNESCO, which has endeavoured to address demands arising from a rapidly changing world.


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