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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That fine sand is a silicon dioxide material with a grain diameter of 0.1- 0.25 mm [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for dinarides (Keyword) returned 17 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 17
Karst poljes in Dinarides,, 1984, Mijatovic B. F.

Specific chemical composition of karst groundwater in the Ophiolite Belt of the Yugoslav Inner Dinarides: A case for covered karst, 1990, Kresic Neven, Papic Petar,

Geological and hydrogeological remote sensing techniques can be applied very favorably to Dinaric karst in the Balkans, a well-known reference area for studies of karst phenomena. The elements that make karst terrain of the Dinarides suitable for remote sensing are geomorphologic characteristics, in particular the specific surface drainage and karst forms, the varying vegetation that most often reflects the existence of different geologic formations on the surface, and distinct tectonic features. Some of the world's largest springs, ponors (sinks), and dolines are controlled by fractures visible on both satellite images and aerial photographs. Lineaments represent fault zones, systems of close faults with similar strike, or large individual faults which all are young or show recently renewed activity. Their neotectonic character and major importance for karst groundwater flow are confirmed by numerous field investigations including water tracing, geophysical research, and drilling

Meteoric phreatic speleothems and the development of cave stratigraphy: An example from Tounj Cave, Dinarides, Croatia, 1996, Babic L, Lackovic D, Horvatincic N,
Speleothems occurring in some caves of the carbonate Dinarides line all channel surfaces, and have been deposited from meteoric waters under phreatic conditions. Such phreatic speleothemic deposition modifies common experience (l) that meteoric phreatic conditions cause dissolutional widening of cave voids, and (2) that speleothems imply vadose conditions. The phreatic speleothems described here postdate an early polygenetic evolution of the cave voids, and predate the last, vadose stage. They were likely produced during the late/postglacial warming period, when dissolved carbonate was amply supplied, and when there was much water available for saturation of underground voids. Phreatic speleothems may be used as a tool for time correlation of internal deposits, both within one cave and within a karst region. They indicate an important stage in the history of the ground-water regime of an area. In general, phreatic speleothems help in better understanding of the development of subterranean voids and related karst/palaeokarst

Protection of karst aquifers in the Dinarides in Croatia, 1998, Biondi'_ B, Biondi'_ R, Dukari'_ F,

Interglacial Growth of Tufa in Croatia, 2000, Horvatincic Nada, Calic Romana, Geyh Mebus A. ,
Tufa samples from the Krka River area in Croatia were dated by 14C and 230Th/234U methods. The study area is situated in the karst region of the southern Dinarides. 14C ages of 40 tufa samples collected at the waterfalls coincide with the early Holocene interglaciation, up to 6000 14C yr B.P. Comparison of conventional 14C dates of Holocene tufa and those of speleothems in the Dinaric Karst shows that speleothem formation started several thousand years earlier than tufa growth. Samples of old tufa deposits from the Krka River (17) and Plitvice Lakes (12) area and speleothem samples from caves in Dinaric Karst (5) yield 34 230Th/234U dates, most of which cluster around interglacial marine [delta]18O stage 5 (21). Eight of 13 older dates belong to interglacial stages 7 and 9; only 5 dates fall within stage 6 and 8 glaciations. 230Th/234U dates of speleothems and tufa samples from central Europe have indicated that these were formed preferentially during warm and humid interglacial and interstadial periods, and it appears that this is true of southern Croatia as well. Stable isotope ([delta]13C, [delta]18O) analyses of 40 tufa samples from the Krka River area were compared with stable isotope analyses of tufa from the Plitvice Lakes area. The [delta]13C values for both locations are similar and range from -10 to -6[per mille sign], indicating similar conditions of tufa formation. A systematic difference between the [delta]18O values of tufa in these two areas reflects the regional distribution of the oxygen composition of precipitation

Hočevje oolitic group, Central Slovenia, 2000, Dozet, Stevo

A 450 to 500 metre thick and prevalently oolitic complex in the Suha Krajina area, lying conformably upon the Upper Liassic platy and thin-bedded limestones and discordantly under the Upper Malm Korinj breccias, has been denominated and described in this paper. A minor discordance separates the oolitic complex into two parts: the lower black oolitic part of Dogger age and the upper greyish oolitic part of Lower Malm age. The proposed name of the above-mentioned oolitic rocks is the "Hočevje group" consisting of the underlying Laze formation and overlying Šentrumar formation. The micropaleontological study showed that at least the topmost part of Dogger was not deposited.

The speleological objects in the area of the Rjecina nappe structure., 2001, Kuhta M.
According to the new geotectonic concept of the Dinarides (Herak 1986, 1991), the investigated carbonate region of the Rjecina nappe structure is locate along the margin of the mega-structural unit of the Adriatic carbonate platform, the Adriaticum. Folds and numerous reverse faults and thrusts of the Dinaric strike manifest the main structural and tectonical features. These structures are incised by younger diagonal faults. The whole structure is inclined towards the north-west, with a succession of younger deposits towards that direction and the structure terminates with flysch beds. The flysch forms a rim around the structure in contact with the Obruc nappe, which represents the boundary with the Dinaricum mega-structural unit. In a geomorphologic sense the studied area is a part of a karst plateau situate at an altitude of 580 m above sea level. The typical karst morphology on the surface extends to the underground were it is manifested by the existence of caves and pits formed by karstification. During the most recent speleological investigations 10 up to now unknown caves and pits were studied. For six objects located in the vicinity the data used was presented from previous studies (Bozicevic, 1969, Biondic and Dukaric, 1986). Together with four objects which were not investigated as jet in the studied region of the Rjecina nappe structure there are 20 registered speleological objects. The main data concerning these objects are given in the table and the morphological features are presented on topographic maps.

Mesozoic plate tectonic reconstruction of the Carpathian region, 2004, Csontos L, Voros A,
Palaeomagnetic, palaeobiogeographic and structural comparisons of different parts of the Alpine-Carpathian region suggest that four terranes comprise this area: the Alcapa, Tisza, Dacia and Adria terranes. These terranes are composed of different Mesozoic continental and oceanic fragments that were each assembled during a complex Late Jurassic-Cretaceous-Palaeogene history. Palaeomagnetic and tectonic data suggest that the Carpathians are built up by two major oroclinal bends. The Alcapa bend has the Meliata oceanic unit, correlated with the Dinaric Vardar ophiolite, in its core. It is composed of the Western Carpathians, Eastern Alps and Southern Alcapa units (Transdanubian Range, Bukk). This terrane finds its continuation in the High Karst margin of the Dinarides. Further elements of the Alcapa terrane are thought to be derived from collided microcontinents: Czorsztyn in the N and a carbonate unit (Tisza?) in the SE. The Tisza-Dacia bend has the Vardar oceanic unit in its core. It is composed of the Bihor and Getic microcontinents. This terrane finds its continuation in the Serbo-Macedonian Massif of the Balkans.The Bihor-Getic microcontinent originally laid east of the Western Carpathians and filled the present Carpathian embayment in the Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic. The Vardar ocean occupied an intermediate position between the Western Carpathian-Austroalpine-Transdanubian-High Karst margin and the Bihor-Getic-Serbo-Macedonian microcontinent. The Vardar and Pindos oceans were opened in the heart of the Mediterranean-Adriatic microcontinent in the Late Permian-Middle Triassic. Vardar subducted by the end of Jurassic, causing the Bihor-Getic-Serbo-Macedonian microcontinent to collide with the internal Dinaric-Western Carpathian margin.An external Penninic-Vahic ocean tract began opening in the Early Jurassic, separating the Austroalpine-Western Carpathian microcontinent (and its fauna) from the European shelf. Further east, the Severin-Ceahlau-Magura also began opening in the Early Jurassic, but final separation of the Bihor-Getic ribbon (and its fauna) from the European shelf did not take place until the late Middle Jurassic.The Alcapa and the Tisza-Dacia were bending during the Albian-Maastrichtian. The two oroclinal bends were finally opposed and pushed into the gates of the Carpathian embayment during the Palaeogene and Neogene. At that time, the main N-S shortening in distant Alpine and Hellenic sectors was linked by a broader right-lateral shear zone along the former Vardar suture

Evolution of the Adriatic carbonate platform: Palaeogeography, main events and depositional dynamics, 2005, Vlahovic I. , Tisljar J. , Velic I. , Maticec D. ,
The Adriatic Carbonate Platform (AdCP) is one of the largest Mesozoic carbonate platforms of the Perimediterranean region. Its deposits comprise a major part of the entire carbonate succession of the Croatian Karst (External or Outer) Dinarides, which is very thick (in places more than 8000 m), and ranges in age from the Middle Permian (or even Upper Carboniferous) to the Eocene. However, only deposits ranging from the top of the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) to the top of the Cretaceous can be attributed to the AdCP (defined as an isolated palaeogeographical entity). Although the entire carbonate succession of the Karst Dinarides was deposited within carbonate platform environments, there were different types of carbonate platforms located in different palaeogeographical settings. Carboniferous to Middle Triassic mixed siliciclastic-carbonate deposits were accumulated along the Gondwanian margin, on a spacious epeiric carbonate platform. After tectonic activity, culminating by regional Middle Triassic volcanism recorded throughout Adria (the African promontory), a huge isolated carbonate Southern Tethyan Megaplatform (abbreviated as STM) was formed, with the area of the future AdCP located in its inner part. Tectonic disintegration of the Megaplatform during the middle to late Early Jurassic resulted in the establishment of several carbonate platforms (including the Adriatic, Apenninic and Apulian) separated by newly drowned deeper marine areas (including the Adriatic Basin as a connection between the Ionian and Belluno basins, Lagonero, Basin, and the area of the Slovenian and Bosnian troughs). The AdCP was characterised by predominantly shallow-marine deposition, although short or long periods of emergence were numerous, as a consequence of the interaction of synsedimentary tectonics and eustatic changes. Also, several events of temporary platform drowning were recorded, especially in the Late Cretaceous, when synsedimentary tectonics became stronger, leading up to the final disintegration of the AdCP. The thickness of deposits formed during the 125 My of the AdCP's existence is variable (between 3500 and 5000 m). The end of AdCP deposition was marked by regional emergence between the Cretaceous and the Palaeogene. Deposition during the Palaeogene was mainly controlled by intense synsedimentary tectonic deformation of the former platform area-some carbonates (mostly Eocene in age) were deposited on irregular ramp type carbonate platforms surrounding newly formed flysch basins, and the final uplift of the Dinarides reached its maximum in the Oligocene/Miocene. The Adriatic Carbonate Platform represents a part (although a relatively large and well-preserved one) of the broader shallow-water carbonate platform that extended from NE Italy to Turkey (although its continuity is somewhat debatable in the area near Albanian/Greece boundary). This large carbonate body, which was deformed mostly in the Cenozoic (including a significant reduction of its width), needs a specific name, and the Central Mediterranean Carbonate Platform is proposed (abbreviated to CMCP), although the local names (such as AdCP for its NW part) should be kept to enable easier communication, and to facilitate description of local differences in platform evolution,

The vegetation of alpine belt karst-tectonic basins in the central Apennines (Italy), 2005, Blasi C, Di Pietro R, Pelino G,
The vegetation communities of the karst-tectonic basins of the Majella massif alpine belt were studied using the phyto sociological methods, and analysed from coenological, synchorological and syntaxonomical viewpoints. During the field-work, 115 releves were performed using the phytosociological approach of Braun-Blanquet, and these releves were further subjected to multivariate analyses. Eight clusters of releves resulted from the numerical classification. The plant communities identified in the study area were ascribed to the following five associations, two sub-associations and one community type: Leontopodio - Seslerietum juncifoliae (ass. nova); Helianthemo - Festucetum italicae (ass. nova); Gnaphalio - Plantaginetum atratae; Taraxaco-Trifolietum thalii gnaphalietosum magellensis (subass. nova),- Luzulo italicae-Nardetum, Carici - Salicetum retusae; Saxifrago - Papaveretum julici, Saxifrago - Papaveretum androsacetosum (subass. nova), Plantago atrata and Leontodon montanus community. The distribution of these communities within the karst basins was found to be related to variations in topographic and geomorphological parameters, such as altitude, slope, soil availability and stoniness. All the new associations proposed in this paper belong to the suballiance Leontopodio-Elynenion and to the alliance Seslerion apenninae, both of which are endemic to the central Apennines. In order to compare the plant community types identified within the Majella massif to similar associations found in the rest of the Apennine chain, synoptic tables were constructed. Finally, a comparative phytogeographical analysis of the alpine belt vegetation of the Apennines, Dinarides, southern Balkans and eastern Alps is presented

Relative Sea-Level Changes Recorded on an Isolated Carbonate Platform: Tithonian to Cenomanian Succession, Southern Croatia, 2006, Husinec Antun, Jelaska Vladimir,
Superb sections of Tithonian to Cenomanian carbonates of the Adriatic (Dinaric) platform are exposed on the islands of southern Croatia. A succession approximately 1,800 m thick consists exclusively of shallow-water marine carbonates (limestone, dolomitized limestone, dolomite, and intraformational breccia), formed in a protected and tectonically stable part of the platform interior. Several phases of exposure and incipient drowning are recorded in the platform interior. Four are crucial for understanding the Late Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous evolution of the wider peri-Adriatic area: (1) latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous sea-level fall, (2) Aptian drowning, followed by (3) Late Aptian platform exposure, and (4) Late Albian-Early Cenomanian sea-level fall. Deciphering these complex events from the vertical and lateral facies distribution has led to an evaluation of facies dynamics and construction of a relative sea-level curve for the study area. This curve shows that long-term transgression during the Early Tithonian, Hauterivian, Early Aptian, and Early Albian, resulted in generally thicker beds deposited in subtidal environments of lagoons or shoals. Regression was characterized by shallowing-upward peritidal parasequences, with well-developed tidal-flat laminites commonly capped by emersion breccia and/or residual clay sheets (Early Berriasian, Barremian, Late Aptian, Late Albian). The southern part of the Dinarides was tectonically quiet during the Tithonian through Aptian; sea-level oscillations appear to have been the primary control on facies stacking. Some correlation exists between local sea-level fluctuations and the published global eustasy charts for the Tithonian through Aptian. A significant departure is recognized at the Albian-Cenomanian transition, suggesting that it was influenced by tectonics associated with the disintegration of the Adriatic (Dinaric) platform

The researched area of the mountain massif Prenj with surface of 463 km2 is located in the zone of high karst of Outer Dinarides of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is circular mountain morphostructure with assymetrical transversal profile. Developed in Mesozoic subhorizontal layers of limestone and dolomite over 3500 thick, fissured by numerous reverse and normal faults. Prenj is folded-thrusted mountain massif (2103 m a.s.l.) uplifted during neotectonic phase of Dinarides development, structurally represented by three blocks. A high degree of correlation between lithology, fault structures and relief has been determinated. The main fault structures caused by rotation of Prenj blocks which were reflected on different orientations of stretching of the mountain ridges and composite valleys of Neretva, Konjika Bijela, Mostarska Bijela, Glogonica and Id-bar. Thrusts express tectonic, lithological, and morphological border of the considered mountain with inter mountain Neogene depressions in the North and South. Netectonic movements and dominanting carbonate composition of the terrain have influenced on reticular relief structure of the massif. Linear landforms of ridges formed in karst are neotectonically, rectilinearly and half-arc elongated up to 12 km. In regards to morphogenesis during the Quaternary, the massif is characterized by development: derasional, glacial, periglacial, karstic, fluviokarstic, fluviodenudational and fluvial erosional and accumulational processes and landforms. Finally, geomorphological regionalization of Prenj was made on the basis of the criteria of similarity of morpho-evolutionary, structural-lithological and orographical characteristics.

New data on the dolines of Velebit Mountain: An evaluation of their sedimentary archive potential in the reconstruction of landscape evolution , 2012, Ballut Christle, Faivre Sanja

The first approach to the relationships between societies and physical environments on Velebit Mountain shows narrow correlations between spatial distribution of dolines, soil formation, hydric resources, vegetation and land occupation. In 2002, sediment cores have been obtained from different dolines of Velebit Mountain to evaluate the potential of their sedimentary archives in order to reconstruct the landscape history. On the littoral slopes and on the top parts of the mountain, the dolines were difficult to dig due to the presence of rocks in depth. Nevertheless, the cores have been sampled and soil analyses have been made (physical and chemical analyses: colour, grain size, pH, CaCO3, C, N, P, K, Mg, CEC). No dating materials were found. The first results attest to rather homogeneous pedologic processes in each area studied (Kamenica, Stinica, Baške Oštarije and Bilensko Mirevo), but they also indicate colluvial contributions. These contributions differ from one doline to another according to their location and morphology. Dolines reveal themselves to be not very good traps, as the representative nature of their sedimentary archives could be very local. However, the best profile has been obtained at Bilensko Mirevo, which shows a change in the soil nutrient content from an impoverishment in its middle part toward an increase of the soil nutrients in recent parts. Those environmental changes could not be precisely dated, but could be correlated with the 17th to 20th century phase of strong human impact on the Velebit environment and with the rural depopulation observed since the second half of the 20th century.


The Dinarides are the largest continuous karst region in Europe. With regard to a geotectonic view, they are divided into the Outer, Central and Inner Dinarides occupying the territories of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro. Numerous occurrences of thermomineral water have been recorded in the Inner Dinarides area. The majority of them are genetically related to carbonate sediments of Mesozoic age. This paper deals with occurrences of thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides karst, their quantitative and qualitative characteristics, basic genetic types, the age of karst thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides, the available quantities of hydrogeothermalmineral energy, balneological potential and the possibility of rational multi-purpose utilisation. Hydrochemical and isotope methods have been used for the analysis of basic genetic types and age of karst thermomineral waters, while a geothermometer method has been used for the calculation of primary temperatures in water-bearing horizons(geothermal reservoirs) themselves. The carried out research has pointed out that karst thermomineral waters formed in carbonate sediments of Mesozoic age are characterized by temperatures ranging from 15.5oC (Kneina Ilida) to 75oC (Bogatić), being most frequently of a HCO3-Ca, Mg type with neutral to poor alkaline reaction and mineralization below 1 g/l. Karst thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides are most frequently related to geothermal systems formed in carbonate sediments covered by rocks of poor water permeability. In case of some thermomineral water occurrences, the mixing of the karst thermomineral waters with those formed in sedimentary basins occurs due to their hydraulic relation, thus it is not possible to determine only one geothermal system in which they are formed. The overall geothermal potential of the thermomineral waters of the Inner Dinarides karst is about 160 MW. In addition to the geothermal aspect, these waters have been widely utilised in balneology, wellness programmes, as well as for the needs of bottling. The level of research activity and with that the way of the utilisation of these waters are various. With regard to the number of occurrences known so far and their potential, it can be claimed with certainty, that the utilisation of thermomineral water occurring in the karst of the Inner Dinarides will increase significantly in future. An example of the multi-purpose utilisation of the Pribojska Banja Spa thermomineral waters illustrates a possible way of doing it.

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