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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That joint pattern is a group of joints which form a characteristic geometrical relationship, and which can vary considerably from one location to another within the same geologic formation.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for disease (Keyword) returned 13 results for the whole karstbase:
Histoplasmosis and Australian Cave Environments, 1985, Harden T. J. , Hunt P. J.

Histoplasma Capsulatum is a fungus which is the causative agent of histoplasmosis, a disease of worldwide distribution. The prevalence of this disease and its manifestation in clinical cases of disease in humans are described. The association of this fungus with dung enriched soil is discussed, particularly in relation to caves which are frequented by colonial bats. Histoplasma capsulatum has been associated on several occasions with the respiratory form of Histoplasmosis in Australia but has only been isolated from the Church Cave. It is suggested that although Histoplasma capsulatum in Australia has been found in association with only Miniopterus schreibersii, other genera of bats may also harbour this fungus.

Wheres the Histo? Histoplasma in Chillagoe Caves area, North Queensland, Australia., 1988, Carol, Eileen M.

Ideal climatic and ecological conditions in many caves in the Chillagoe area suggest the existence of Histoplasma capsulatum. A study in progress proposes to identify those caves that may be reservoirs for the organism, thus presenting a potential health risk for cave visitors. Soil samples collected from caves containing bat and bird (swiftlet) populations are being processed by the Division of Mycotic Diseases, at the Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia. Preliminary results from 15 caves have been negative, thus a more precise technique will be utilised in further collections. Intradermal histoplasmin skin testing of cavers intends to identify the possibility of cave exploration as one source of Histoplasma capsulatum exposure.

Habitat use and gas bubble disease in southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus), 1993, Nielsen Carl D. , Noltie Douglas B. , Schubert Alex L. S.
In situ observations of habitat use by southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus) in a Missouri, U.S.A. spring suggest that groundwater discharge and that zones of substrate which have large interstitial spaces that fish can enter may be important components of the species habitat. Such substrates may also facilitate smallscale dispersal. In addition, we document the first recorded case of gas bubble disease in a laboratory-held specimen of this species. Cavefish may be particularly susceptible to this malady, and the conditions under which it occurred are important to avoid should captive maintenance or propagation of this or related species be attempted.

Agricultural land use impacts on bacterial water quality in a karst groundwater aquifer, 1999, Boyer Dg, Pasquarell Gc,
The impact on water quality by agricultural activity in karst terrain is an important consideration for resource management within the Appalachian Region. Karst areas comprise about 18 percent of the Region's land area. An estimated one-third of the Region's farms, cattle, and agricultural market value are on karst terrain. The purpose of this study was to compare fecal bacteria densities in karst groundwater impacted by two primary agricultural land uses in central Appalachia. Fecal bacteria densities were measured in cave streams draining two primary land management areas. The first area was pasture serving a beef cow-calf operation. The second area was a dairy. Neither area had best management practices in place for controlling animal wastes. Median fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus densities were highest in cave streams draining the dairy. Median fecal coliform densities in the daily-impacted stream were greater than 4,000 CFU/100 ml and the median fecal coliform densities in the pasture-impacted streams were less than TO CFU/100 ml. Median fecal streptococcus densities in the same streams were greater than 2,000 CFU/100 ml and 32 CFU/100 ml, respectively. A second dairy, with best management practices for control of animal and milkhouse waste, did not appear to be contributing significant amounts of fecal bacteria to the karst aquifer. It was concluded that agriculture was affecting bacterial densities in the karat aquifer. New management practices specifically designed to protect karst groundwater resources may be one way to protect the groundwater resource

Uncalculated impacts of unsustainable aquifer yield including evidence of subsurface interbasin flow, 2000, Bacchus St,
Unsustainable withdrawals from regional aquifers have resulted in adverse impacts considerable distances from the point locations of supply wells. In one area of the southeastern (SE) Coastal Plain, conservative estimates for repair/replacement of some residential wells damaged or destroyed by unsustainable yield from the Floridan aquifer system exceeded $4 million. However, a comprehensive assessment of damage/economic loss to private property and public resources due to unsustainable yield from that regional karat aquifer has not been made. Uncalculated direct costs to home-owners from damage attributed to those withdrawals are associated with destruction of homes from increased sinkhole formation, devalued waterfront property, and removal of diseased and dead trees. Examples of other uncalculated economic burdens resulting from unsustainable aquifer yield in the SE Coastal Plain include: (1) irreversible damage to the aquifer matrix and concomitant increased potential for groundwater contamination, (2) large-scale wildfires with subsequent degradation of air quality, debilitation of transportation corridors, and destruction of timber, wildlife habitat and property, and (3) destruction of 'protected' natural areas. This paper provides a general background of the regional Floridan aquifer system's karst characteristics, examples of known impacts resulting from ground water mining in the SE Coastal Plain, and examples of additional damage that may be related to unsustainable yield from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Costs of these impacts have not been calculated and are not reflected in the price users pay for ground water. Evidence suggests that the classic watershed management approach must be revised in areas with mined regional karst aquifers to include impacts of induced recharge from the surficial aquifer, and subsurface interbasin flow. Likewise, associated impacts to surface water and interrelated systems must be calculated The true cost of groundwater mining to this and future generations should be determined using a multidisciplinary approach

Geological hazards in loess terrain, with particular reference to the loess regions of China, 2001, Derbyshire E,
The considerable morphodynamic energy provided by the continuing tectonic evolution of Asia is expressed in high erosional potentials and very high rates of sediment production that make this continent unequalled as a terrestrial source of primary silt. Many of these environments are hazardous, threatening human occupation., health and livelihood, especially in regions of dense population such as the loess lands of north China. Dry loess can sustain nearly vertical slopes, being perennially under-saturated. However, when locally saturated, it disaggregates instantaneously. Such hydrocompaction is a key process in many slope failures, made worse by an underlying mountainous terrain of low-porosity rocks. Gully erosion of loess may yield very high sediment concentrations ( > 60% by weight). Characteristic vertical jointing in loess influences the hydrology. Enlarged joints develop into natural sub-surface piping systems, which on collapse, produce a 'loess karst' terrain. Collapsible loess up to 20 m thick is common on the western Loess Plateau. Foundation collapse and cracked walls are common, many rapid events following periods of unusually heavy monsoonal rain. Slope failure is a major engineering problem in thick loess terrain, flow-slide and spread types being common. The results are often devastating in both urban and rural areas. An associated hazard is the damming of streams by landslides. The human population increases the landslide risk in China, notably through imprudent land-use practices including careless water management. A number of environmentally related endemic diseases arise from the geochemistry of loess and its groundwaters. including fluorosis, cretinism, Kaschin-Beck Disease, Keshan Disease and goitre. The Chinese desert margins also have a major atmospheric dust problem. The effect of such dust upon human health in these extensive regions, including many large cities, has yet to be evaluated, but pneumoconiosis is thought to affect several million people in north and west China. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Storm and seasonal distributions of fecal coliforms and Cryptosporidium in a spring, 2003, Boyer Dg, Kuczynska E,
The transmission of disease in ground water is a topic of great concern to government agencies, ground water specialists, and the general public. The purpose of this study was to compare the temporal variability in storm flow of fecal coliform bacteria densities and Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst densities in agriculturally impacted karst ground water. Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst densities ranged from 0 to 1,050 oocysts/l, and mean storm densities ranged from 3.5 to 156.8 oocysts/l. Fecal coliform densities ranged from less than 1 CFU/100ml to more than 40,000 CFU/100ml, and geometric mean storm densities ranged from 1.7 CFU/100ml to more than 7,000 CFU/100ml. Fecal coliform densities correlated well with flow during storms, but Cryptosporidium oocyst densities exhibited a great deal of sample to sample variability and were not correlated with flow. Fecal coliform densities did not correlate positively with Cryptosporidium oocyst densities. Fecal coliform densities were greatest at storm peaks, when sediment loads were also greatest. Multiple transport mechanisms for fecal coliform bacteria and C. parvum oocysts may necessitate various agricultural land management and livestock health maintenance practices to control movement of pathogens to karst ground water

Disease, 2004, Halliday W. R.

Panstrongylus geniculatus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae): natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi under cavernicolous conditions in Paraguana Peninsula, Venezuela, 2007, Molinari J. , Aldana E. , And Nassar J. M.
The flagellate protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi, causes Chagas disease, a zoonosis affecting millions of humans in the Americas. The triatomine insect, Panstrongylus geniculatus, a well known vector of this disease, inhabits and is infected with T. cruzi in Cueva del Guano, a limestone cave in Paraguana Peninsula, Venezuela. P. geniculatus probably feeds on the blood of four rare or endangered bat species roosting in this cave, infecting them with T. cruzi. It is recommended that (1) any epidemiological activity at this cave be designed to minimize bat mortality, and (2) speleologists visiting tropical caves avoid contact with triatomine insects and their feces.

The chronic illness of Christopher Francis Drake Long (1902 1924),, 2010, Craven, Stephen A.

An account is given of Christopher Long's bipolar disease, with evidence to support the diagnosis. Some of the unusual aspects of his important cave explorations are potentially explained.

Reevaluation of the unusual bovid skull from Lunnaya Cave, Karabi karst plateau, Crimea (SE Ukraine), 2010, Vremir M.

A partial bovid skull, from the karst deposits of Lunnaya Cave (Karabi karst plateau, Crimea) is re-examined. The subfossil find of unknown age, was retrieved by local cavers from Simferopol, and was allocated to the late Pleistocene Eurasian musk-ox: Ovibos moschatus (Zimmermann, 1780). Most recently, a reexamination of the specimen was possible, and a detailed analysis indicates an appurtenance to the water-buffalo (Bubalus bubalis (Kerr, 1792)), with some morphological disorders caused by Hydrocephalus, an inherited malformation sporadically recorded in extant bovids. However the skull was reported from below a thick flowstone crust, the age of the specimen is not older than 7th to 10th century A.D. (or even younger), when the domesticated form appear in SE Europe including the Crimean peninsula. Probably due to its disease, the animal was killed by a sharp axe-like tool and dropped into the cave. In this respect, late Pleistocene musk-ox finds are still missing from the Crimean theriofauna, their Southern range in the area, being limited to Zhytomyr-Kiev-Chernigov regions in Northern Ukraine.

A world review of fungi, yeasts, and slime molds in caves, 2013, Vanderwolf K. , Malloch D. , Mcalpine D. F. , Forbes G. J.

We provide a review of fungi, yeasts, and slime molds that have been found in natural solution caves and mines worldwide. Such habitats provide frequent roost sites for bats, and in eastern North America the environmental conditions that support white-nose syndrome, a lethal fungal disease currently devastating bat populations. A list of 1029 species of fungi, slime moulds, and yeasts in 518 genera have been documented from caves and mines worldwide in 225 articles. Ascomycota dominate the cave environment. Most research has been conducted in temperate climates, especially in Europe. A mean of 17.9±24.4SD fungal species are reported per study. Questions remain about the origin and ecological roles of fungi in caves, and which, if any, are cave-specialists. In the northern hemisphere, caves are generally characterized by relatively stable, low temperatures and a lack of organic substrates. This environment favors communities of oligotrophic, psychrotolerant fungi. Data that may help explain how cave environmental features and faunas inf luence the introduction and transmission of cave fungi remains scant.

Evaluation of Strategies for the Decontamination of equipment for Geomyces destructans, the Causative Agent of the White-Nose Syndrome (WNS), 2013, Shelley V. , Kaiser S. , Shelley E. , Williams T. , Kramer M. , Haman K. , Keel K. , Barton H. A.


White-nose syndrome is an emerging infectious disease that has led to a
dramatic decline in cave-hibernating bat species. White-nose syndrome is caused by the
newly described fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans, which infects the ear, muzzle,
and wing membranes of bats. Although the exact mechanism by which the fungus causes
death is not yet understood, G. destructans leads to a high mortality rate in infected
animals.While the primary mechanism of infection appears to be bat-to-bat transfer, it is
still unclear what role human activity may play in the spread of this pathogen. Here we
evaluate the effectiveness of decontamination protocols that can be utilized by
speleologists to reduce the likelihood of spreading this dangerous pathogen to naı¨ve
bats or uninfected hibernacula. Our results show that pre-cleaning to remove muds and/
or sediments followed by the use of commercially available disinfectants can effectively
remove G. destructans from caving fabrics. Alternatively, immersion in water above
50 uC for at least 20 minutes effectively destroys the fungal spores. These results have
allowed the development of a decontamination protocol (
WhiteNoseSyndrome/cavers.html) that, when appropriately followed, can greatly
reduce the likelihood of the human mediated transfer of G. destructans from an
infected to uninfected site.

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