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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That transit time; travel time is the travel time of a sonic impulse through a given length of rock [16].?

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Your search for dissolution pipes (Keyword) returned 5 results for the whole karstbase:
Dissolution pipes in Northern Puerto Rico: and exhumed Paleokarst, 1995, Lundberg, J. And Taggart, B. E.

Locating dissolution features in the Chalk, 2000, Matthews M. C. , Clayton C. R. I. , Rigbyjones J. ,
Dissolution features are common in the Chalk and may result in differential or collapse settlement of foundations if undetected. Dissolution pipes and cavities may be easily missed by conventional drilling methods. Probing and geophysical methods of investigation offer an attractive alternative due to their ability to cover large areas rapidly and thus minimize cost. The success of geophysical methods depends on many factors, principally the size of the feature in relation to the depth of burial and the cover material. This paper describes a study of dynamic probing and a number of geophysical methods used to locate dissolution features at two sites with contrasting ground conditions. The first site contained a bowl-shaped doline over a clay-filled dissolution pipe beneath a relatively thin soil cover. At the second site there was a thick, predominantly granular cover material that contained cavities which had migrated from dissolution pipes in the chalk below. Ground truth data from trenching was obtained to provide a basis for evaluating the investigation methods used. The ability of both dynamic probing and geophysical methods to locate and map dissolution features is discussed

Engineering impacts of karst: A review of some engineering aspects of limestone weathering with case studies from Devon and Ireland, MSc Thesis, 2001, Pressdee, C.

The thesis aims to review the nature of karstic limestone terrains and the implications for engineering practices as a result of the uniquely difficult ground conditions they present. Case studies are included to highlight two very different, yet apparently common, engineering problems on karst. This abstract deals only with Linhay Hill Quarry in Ashburton, Devon where pinnacled rockhead and clay infilled dissolution pipes present problems in the extraction and processing of the limestone for use as aggregate.
The quarry has been in existence for over a hundred years and the current owners are drilling and blasting the Devonian limestone and processing it for a variety of purposes; namely aggregates for concrete, macadam and unbound applications. In the quarry, the rock is fairly evenly bedded and dipping towards the east. Near the ground surface it is extensively solution weathered to form a karst surface, which is now buried by more recent deposits. The extensive karst topography gives considerable problems, currently on the north side, where the intimate mixture of solution weathered limestone and later infilling clays and sandy sediments makes drilling and blasting difficult and contaminates the limestone material.
On the basis of the work carried out, the following summary of findings is presented:
Using published engineering classification schemes; the Chercombe Bridge Limestone in and around Linhay Hill Quarry has been classified as Class III to IV Karst ('Mature' to 'Complex' Karst, Waltham, 1999).
• The origin of the karst is proposed to be the result of a combination of subtropical climate and localised valley conditions in the early Tertiary. Weathering and erosion of the Dartmoor granite and adjacent Cretaceous rocks provided fluvial sediment to subsequently infill the solution channels and cavities in the limestone.
• The physical effects of weathering have been shown to reduce the strength and density of the limestone whilst increasing the water absorption. This has implications for the quality of aggregate produced in the quarry.
• The chemical effects of dolomitisation and solutional weathering have been shown to produce a highly variable material in the quarry.
• Residual insoluble minerals were found to be randomly distributed and exhibited typically high densities, high absorptions and high clay and iron oxide/hydroxide contents.
• The nature of the infilled karst together with the effects of weathering mentioned above has significantly affected the workings of the quarry with considerable cost implications. They are listed (in no particular order) as follows:
Overburden stripping extremely time consuming and costly.
Increased drilling times through clay infilled fissures/cavities.
Enforced blast hole surveying techniques due to variable ground.
Enforced blast charge restriction resulting in reduced primary fragmentation.
Induced dolines in the surrounding farmland.
Costs of washing/scrubbing of clay coated 'contaminated' rock.
Clay materials not always removed resulting in reduced efficiency of processing plant.
Quality of aggregates impaired by variable rock properties and presence of clay.
Implications for concrete and mortar include potentially reduced workability strength and durability


Coastal cliff geohazards in weak rock: the UK Chalk cliffs of Sussex, 2004, Mortimore R. N. , Lawrence J. , Pope D. , Duperret A. , Genter A. ,
Geohazards related to chalk coastal cliffs from Eastbourne to Brighton, Sussex are described. An eight-fold hazard classification is introduced that recognizes the influence of chalk lithology, overlying sediments and weathering processes on location, magnitude and frequency of cliff collapses. Parts of the coast are characterized by cliffs of predominantly a single chalk formation (e.g. Seven Sisters) and other sections are more complex containing several Chalk formations (Beachy Head). Rock properties (intact dry density or porosity) and mass structure vary with each formation and control cliff failure mechanisms and scales of failures. The Holywell Nodular Chalk, New Pit Chalk and Newhaven Chalk formations are characterized by steeply inclined conjugate sets of joints which lead to predominantly plane and wedge failures. However, the dihedral angle of the shears, the fracture roughness and fill is different in each of these formations leading to different rock mass shear strengths. In contrast the Seaford and Culver Chalk formations are characterized by low-density chalks with predominantly clean, vertical joint sets, more closely spaced than in the other formations. Cliff failure types range from simple joint controlled conventional plane and wedge failures to complex cliff collapses and major rock falls (partial flow-slides) involving material failure as well as interaction with discontinuities. Other hazards, related to sediments capping the Chalk cliffs, include mud-slides and sandstone collapses at Newhaven, and progressive failure of Quaternary Head and other valley-fill deposits. Weathering, including the concentration of groundwater flow down dissolution pipes and primary discontinuities, is a major factor on rate and location of cliff collapses. A particular feature of the Chalk cliffs is the influence of folding on cliff stability, especially at Beachy Head, Seaford Head and Newhaven. A new classification for cliff collapses and a new scale of magnitude for collapses are introduced and used to identify, semi-quantify and map the different hazards. Climate (and climate change) and marine erosion affect the rate of development of cliff collapse and cliff-line retreat. This was particularly evident during the wet winters of 1999-2000-2001 when the first major collapses along protected sections of coastline occurred (Peacehaven Cliffs protected by an undercliff wall; Black Rock Marina the Chalk cliffs and the Quaternary Head). It is the geology, however, that controls the location and scale of erosion and cliff failure

On the formation of dissolution pipes in Quaternary coastal calcareous arenites in Mediterranean settings, 2010, De Waele Jo, Lauritzen Steinerik, Parise Mario

A large number of uniform cone-shaped dissolution pipes has been observed and studied in Quaternary coastal calcareous arenites in Apulia and Sardinia (Italy) and Tunisia. These cylindrical tubes have a mean diameter of 52·8 cm and are up to 970 cm deep (mean depth for sediment-free pipes is 1·38 m). They generally have smooth walls along their length, are perfectly vertical and taper out towards their bottoms. Their development is not influenced by bedding nor fractures. Sometimes their walls are coated by a calcrete crust. Their morphology has been studied in detail and their relationships with the surrounding rocks and with the environment have been analysed. The perfectly vertical development is a clear evidence of their genesis controlled by gravity. The depth of the dissolution pipes can be described by an exponential distribution law (the Milanovic distribution), strongly suggesting they developed by a diffusion mechanism from the surface vertically downward. We believe dissolution pipes preferentially form in a covered karst setting. Local patches of soil and vegetation cause infiltration water to be enriched in carbon dioxide enhancing dissolution of carbonate cement and local small-scale subsidence. This process causes the formation of a depression cone that guides infiltrating waters towards these spots giving rise to the downward growth of gravity-controlled dissolution pipes. A change of climate from wetter phases to drier and hotter ones causes the formation of a calcrete lining, fossilizing the pipes. When the pipes become exposed to surface agents by erosion of the sediment cover or are laterally breached the loose quartz sand filling them may be transported elsewhere. 


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