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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That domain is a biological region of the earth's crust [25].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for dnapl (Keyword) returned 8 results for the whole karstbase:
Migration of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, MTBE and chlorinated solvents in a karstified limestone aquifer, Stamford, UK, 1998, Banks D,
Two incidents of hydrocarbon contamination to the Lincolnshire Limestone in east Stamford, UK, have been investigated. No evidence of LNAPL contamination of groundwater was observed, suggesting that the spills may largely have been retained in the unsaturated zone. Some groundwater contamination by dissolved hydrocarbons occurred, apparently especially at times of high recharge. Rapid flow paths were proven to nearby springs in the River Welland (with groundwater flow velocities of up to 240 m day-1), and dissolved hydrocarbon and MTBE contamination appears to have been flushed rapidly from these systems. MTBE contamination at Tallington Pumping Station (5 km east of the site) is not clearly linked to these incidents. Of potentially more concern was the discovery of dissolved chlorinated solvent contamination in the groundwater at the spill sites, possibly related to a landfilled quarry and/or a nearby engineering works. No direct evidence of DNAPL was observed. A conceptual model of solvent distribution suggests independent sources of TCE, PCE and TCA

Role of cave information in environmental site characterization,, 1999, Jancin M.
For consultants concerned with developing site-specific conceptual models for flow and transport in karst, cave information can be worth accessingAt the scale of the basin, caves often display patterns that correlate with both the flow and recharge characteristics of their aquifersCharacterization of overall basin hydrology bolsters predictions and monitoring recommendations which address the siteAlthough the presence of caves beneath or near sites is rare, site-based information such as water-table maps (under both natural and pumping conditions), well water-level fluctuations, well turbidity observations, borehole-void yields during drilling, and dye-trace results, are potentially useful in defining conduit-flow boundaries to diffuse-flow blocksThe appropriate choice of dye-tracer methods should acknowledge whether most site conduits (or borehole voids, or even caves) are within the epikarst, the vadose zone, the phreatic zone, or the oscillation zoneFor inferences on site flow directions, it is useful to compare the directional frequencies of cave passages and joints, faults, and photolinears in the areaThere is evidence that where caves are well developed, there tends to be a low correlation between photolinear locations and relatively high well yieldsLNAPL migration will be retarded where main conduits are well beneath the water table, but an extensive overlying system of saturated epikarstic pores serve as trapsKarst with high seasonal or storm variations in water level will tend to repeatedly remobilize LNAPLsGiven sufficient volume, DNAPLs can penetrate vertically integrated networks of pores, fractures, or solution conduits to great depthHowever, where such pathway networks are lie above relatively tight lithologies at shallow depth, and are not sediment filled, lateral movement can greatly exceed vertical movementCharacterization of the 3-D nature of pores and pathways is an important element in understanding the migration of free product, and therefore in understanding the evolution of associated aqueous plumes

'A conceptual model for DNAPL transport in karst ground water basins' by Caroline M. Loop and William B. White. Ground Water 39, no. 1 : 119-127. Discussion, 2001, Aley T,

'A conceptual model for DNAPL transport in karst ground water basins' by Caroline M. Loop and William B. White. Ground Water 39, no. 1 : 119-127. Discussion - Authors' reply, 2001, Loop C. M. , White W. B. ,

Contaminant transport in karst aquifers., 2001, Vesper D. J. , Loop C. M. , White W. B.
Contaminants are easily injected into karst aquifers through sinking streams, sinkholes, or through open fractures and shafts in the carbonate rock. Transport of the contaminants through the aquifer is by a variety of mechanisms depending on the physical and chemical properties of the contaminant. Contaminants consist of (1) water soluble compounds, both organic and inorganic, (2) slightly soluble organic compounds, less dense than water (LNAPLs), (3) slightly soluble organic compounds, more dense than water (DNAPLs), (4) pathogens, (5) metals, and (6) trash. Water soluble compounds (e.g. nitrates, cyanides, carboxylic acids, phenols) move with the water. But rather than forming a plume spreading from the input point, the contaminated water forms linear stringers migrating down the conduit system toward the discharge point. LNAPLs (e.g. petroleum hydrocarbons) float on the water table and can migrate down the water table gradient to cave streams where they tend to pond behind obstructions. DNAPLs (e.g. chlorinated hydrocarbons), in contrast, sink to the bottom of the aquifer. In the conduit system, DNAPLs pond in low spots at the bottom of the conduit and infiltrate sediment piles. Transport of both LNAPL and DNAPL is dependent on storm flow which can force LNAPL through the system as plug flow and can move DNAPLs by mobilizing the sediment piles. Pathogens (viruses, bacteria, parasites) are transported through the karstic drainage system because of the absence of filtration and retain their activity for long distances. Metals (e.g. chromium, nickel, cadmium, mercury, and lead) tend to precipitate as hydroxides and carbonates in the neutral pH, carbonate rich water of the karst aquifer. Metal transport is mainly as particulates and as metal adsorbed onto small particulates such as clays and colloids. Metal transport is also episodic. Metals migrate down the flow path under flow conditions that take small particulates into suspension. Trash is carried into karst aquifers through sinkholes and sinking streams. It is, in effect, a form of clastic sediment, and can be carried deep into the conduit system where it can act as a source term for other contaminants leached from the trash.

Contaminant transport in karst aquifers, 2003, Vesper D. J. , Loop C. M. , White W. B.

Contaminants are easily injected into karst aquifers through sinking streams, sinkholes, or through open fractures and shafts in the carbonate rock. Transport of the contaminants through the aquifer is by a variety of mechanisms depending on the physical and chemical properties of the contaminant. Contaminants consist of (1) water soluble compounds, both organic and inorganic, (2) slightly soluble organic compounds, less dense than water (LNAPLs), (3) slightly soluble organic compounds, more dense than water (DNAPLs), (4) pathogens, (5) metals, and (6) trash. Water soluble compounds (e.g. nitrates, cyanides, carboxylic acids, phenols) move with the water. But rather than forming a plume spreading from the input point, the contaminated water forms linear stringers migrating down the conduit system toward the discharge point. LNAPLs (e.g. petroleum hydrocarbons) float on the water table and can migrate down the water table gradient to cave streams where they tend to pond behind obstructions. DNAPLs (e.g. chlorinated hydrocarbons), in contrast, sink to the bottom of the aquifer. In the conduit system, DNAPLs pond in low spots at the bottom of the conduit and infiltrate sediment piles. Transport of both LNAPL and DNAPL is dependent on storm flow which can force LNAPL through the system as plug flow and can move DNAPLs by mobilizing the sediment piles. Pathogens (viruses, bacteria, parasites) are transported through the karstic drainage system because of the absence of filtration and retain their activity for long distances. Metals (e.g. chromium, nickel, cadmium, mercury, and lead) tend to precipitate as hydroxides and carbonates in the neutral pH, carbonate rich water of the karst aquifer. Metal transport is mainly as particulates and as metal adsorbed onto small particulates such as clays and colloids. Metal transport is also episodic. Metals migrate down the flow path under flow conditions that take small particulates into suspension. Trash is carried into karst aquifers through sinkholes and sinking streams. It is, in effect, a form of clastic sediment, and can be carried deep into the conduit system where it can act as a source term for other contaminants leached from the trash


Technical impracticability of DNAPL remediation in karst, 2005, Kresic N. , O'laskey R. , Deeb R. Et Al.

Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst, 2005, Beck B. F.

Conference Proceedings

Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst Contains over 70 papers addressing karst topography which impacts water resources, waste disposal, foundation stability, and a multitude of other geotechnical and environmental issues. These papers were presented at the 10th Multidisciplinary Conference held September 24-28, 2005 in San Antonio, Texas and Sponsored by the Geo-Institute of ASCE, P. E. LaMoreaux & Associates, Inc. and Edwards Aquifer Authority. The goal of this conference was to share knowledge and experience among disciplines by emphasizing practical applications and case studies. This proceedings will benefit environmental and geotechnical engineers, and others involved in water resources, water disposal, and foundation stability issues.

Contents:

Application of Geophysical Logging Techniques for Multi-Channel Well Design and Installation in a Karst Aquifer (by Frank Bogle, ...)

Case Studies of Massive Flow Conduits in Karst Limestone (by Jim L. Lolcama)

A Case Study of the Samanalawewa Reservoir on the Walawe River in an Area of Karst in Sri Lanka (by K. Laksiri, ...)

Characterization and Water Balance of Internal Drainage Sinkholes (by Nico M. Hauwert, ...)

Characterization of Desert Karst Terrain in Kuwait and the Eastern Coastline of the Arabian Penninsula (by Waleed Abdullah, ...)

Characterization of a Sinkhole Prone Retention Pond Using Multiple Geophysical Surveys and Closely Spaced Borings (by Nick Hudyma, ...)

Combining Surface and Downhole Geophysical Methods to Identify Karst Conditions in North-Central Iowa (by J. E. Wedekind, ...)

Complexities of Flood Mapping in a Sinkhole Area (by C. Warren Campbell, P.E.)

Conceptualization and Simulation of the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio Region, Texas (by R. J. Lindgren, ...)

Database Development and GIS Modeling to Develop a Karst Vulnerability Rating for I-66, Somerset to London, KY (by Michael A. Krokonko, ...)

Design and Construction of the Foundations for the Watauga Raw Water Intake Facility in Karstic Limestone near the City of Johnson City, TN (by Tony D. Canale, P.E., ...)

Detection of Three-Dimensional Voids in Karstic Ground (by Derek V. Morris, P.E., ...)

Development and Evolution of Epikarst in Mid-Continent US Carbonates (by Tony L. Cooley, P.E.)

Dye Tracing Sewage Lagoon Discharge in a Sandstone Karst, Askov, Minnesota (by Emmit Calvin Alexander, Jr., ...)

The Effectiveness of GPR in Sinkhole Investigations (by E. D. Zisman, P.E., ...)

Effects of Anthropogenic Modification of Karst Soil Texture on the Water Balance of ?Alta Murgia? (Apulia, Italy) (by F. Canora, ...)

Environmental Isotope Study on Recharge and Groundwater Residence Time in a covered Ordovician Carbonate Rock (by Zhiyuan Ma, ...)

Error and Technique in Fluorescent dye Tracing (by Chris Smart)

Essential Elements of Estimating Engineering Properties of Karst for Foundation Design (by Ramanuja Chari Kannan, P.E., Fellow, ASCE)

Estimating Grout Quantities for Residential Repairs in Central Florida Karst (by Larry D. Madrid, P.E., ...)

Evaluation of Groundwater Residence Time in a Karstic Aquifer Using Environmental Tracers: Roswell Artesian Basin, New Mexico (by Lewis Land)

Experience of Regional Karst Hazard and Risk Assessment in Russia (by A. L. Ragozin, ...)

Experimental Study of Physical Models for Sinkhole Collapses in Wuhan, China (by Mingtang Lei, ...)

Fractal Scaling of Secondary Porosity in Karstic Exposures of the Edwards Aquifer (by Robert E. Mace, ...)

The Geological Characteristics of Buried Karst and Its Impact on Foundations in Hong Kong, China (by Steve H. M. Chan, ...)

Geophysical Identification of Evaporite Dissolution Structures Beneath a Highway Alignment (by M. L. Rucker, ...)

Geotechnical Analysis in Karst: The Interaction between Engineers and Hydrogeologists (by R. C. Bachus, P.E.)

The Gray Fossil Site: A Spectacular Example in Tennessee of Ancient Regolith Occurrences in Carbonate Terranes, Valley and Ridge Subpovince, South Appalachians U.S.A. (by G. Michael Clark, ...)

Ground-Water Basin Catchment Delineation by Bye Tracing, Water Table Mapping, Cave Mapping, and Geophysical Techniques: Bowling Green Kentucky (by Nicholas C. Crawford)

Groundwater Flow in the Edwards Aquifer: Comparison of Groundwater Modeling and Dye Trace Results (by Brian A. Smith, ...)

Grouting Program to Stop Water Flow through Karstic Limestone: A Major Case History (by D. M. Maciolek)

Highway Widening in Karst (by M. Zia Islam, P.E., ...)

How Karst Features Affect Recharge? Implication for Estimating Recharge to the Edwards Aquifer (by Yun Huang, ...)

Hydrogeologic Investigation of Leakage through Sinkholes in the Bed of Lake Seminole to Springs Located Downstream from Jim Woodruff Dam (by Nicholas C. Crawford, ...)

The Hydrologic Function of the soil and Bedrock System at Upland Sinkholes in the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone of South-Central Texas (by A. L. Lindley)

An Integrated Geophysical Approach for a Karst Characterization of the Marshall Space Flight Center (by Lynn Yuhr, ...)

Integrated Geophysical Surveys Applied to Karstic Studies Over Transmission Lines in San Antonio, Texas (by Mustafa Saribudak, ...)

Judge Dillon and Karst: Limitations on Local Regulation of Karst Hazards (by Jesse J. Richardson, Jr.)

Karst Groundwater Resource and Advantages of its Utilization in the Shaanbei Energy Base in Shaanxi Province, China (by Yaoguo Wu, ...)

Karst Hydrogeology and the Nature of Reality Revisited: Philosophical Musings of a Less Frustrated Curmudgeon (by Emmit Calvin Alexander, Jr.)

Karst in Appalachia ? A Tangled Zone: Projects with Cave-Sized Voids and Sinkholes (by Clay Griffin, ...)

Karstic Features of Gachsaran Evaporites in the Region of Ramhormoz, Khuzestan Province, in Southwest Iran (by Arash Barjasteh)

Large Perennial Springs of Kentucky: Their Identification, Base Flow, Catchment, and Classification (by Joseph A. Ray, ...)

Large Plot Tracing of Subsurface Flow in the Edwards Aquifer Epikarst (by P. I. Taucer, ...)
Lithology as a Predictive Tool of Conduit Morphology and Hydrology in Environmental Impact Assessments (by George Veni)

Metadata Development for a Multi-State Karst Feature Database (by Yongli Gao, ...)

Micropiling in Karstic Rock: New CMFF Foundation Solution Applied at the Sanita Factory (by Marc Ballouz)

Modeling Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer Using MODFLOW-DCM (by Alexander Y. Sun, ...)

Multi-Level Monitoring Well Completion Technologies and Their Applicability in Karst Dolomite (by Todd Kafka, ...)

National-Scale Risk Assessment of sinkhole Hazard in China (by Xiaozhen Jiang, ...)

New Applications of Differential Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Time Domain Reflectometry to Modeling Infiltration and Soil Moisture in Agricultural Sinkholes (by B. F. Schwartz, ...)

Non-Regulatory Approaches to Development on Karst (by Jesse J. Richardson, Jr., ...)

PA State Route 33 Over Bushkill Creek: Structure Failure and Replacement in an Active Sinkhole Environment (by Kerry W. Petrasic, P.E.)

Quantifying Recharge via Fractures in an Ashe Juniper Dominated Karst Landscape (by Lucas Gregory, ...)

Quantitative Groundwater Tracing and Effective Numerical Modeling in Karst: An Example from the Woodville Karst Plain of North Florida (by Todd R. Kincaid, ...)

Radial Groundwater Flow at Landfills in Karst (by J. E. Smith)

Residual Potential Mapping of Contaminant Transport Pathways in Karst Formations of Southern Texas (by D. Glaser, ...)

Resolving Sinkhole Issues: A State Government Perspective (by Sharon A. Hill)

Shallow Groundwater and DNAPL Movement within Slightly Dipping Limestone, Southwestern Kentucky (by Ralph O. Ewers, ...)

Sinkhole Case Study ? Is it or Isn?t it a Sinkhole? (by E. D. Zisman, P.E.)

Sinkhole Occurrence and Changes in Stream Morphology: An Example from the Lehigh Valley Pennsylvania (by William E. Kochanov)

Site Characterization and Geotechnical Roadway Design over Karst: Interstate 70, Frederick County, Maryland (by Walter G. Kutschke, P.E., ...)

Soil Stabilization of the Valley Creek Trunk Sewer Relief Tunnel (by Jeffrey J. Bean, P.E., ...)

Some New Approaches to Assessment of Collapse Risks in Covered Karsts (by Vladimir Tolmachev, ...)

Spectral Deconvolution and Quantification of Natural Organic Material and Fluorescent Tracer Dyes (by Scott C. Alexander)

Springshed Mapping in Support of Watershed Management (by Jeffrey A. Green, ...)

Sustainable Utilization of Karst Groundwater in Feicheng Basin, Shandong Province, China (by Yunfeng Li, ...)

Transport of Colloidal and Solute Tracers in Three Different Types of Alpine Karst Aquifers ? Examples from Southern Germany and Slovenia (by N. Göppert, ...)

Use of the Cone Penetration Test for Geotechnical Site Characterization in Clay-Mantled Karst (by T. C. Siegel, ...)

The Utility of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Interferometry in Monitoring Sinkhole Subsidence: Subsidence of the Devil?s Throat Sinkhole Area (Nevada, USA) (by Rana A. Al-Fares)

Void Evolution in Soluble Rocks Beneath Dams Under Limited Flow Condition (by Emmanuel S. Pepprah, ...)


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