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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That spring, boiling is 1. an uncommon type of vauclusian spring, where the flow is large enough in a constricted site to form turbulence on the surface of the resurgence pool [9]. 2. (jamaican.) a. variable-discharge artesian spring in which hydrostatic pressure is great enough to cause a turbulent or even fountain-like discharge [19]. see also blue hole.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for drome (Keyword) returned 21 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 21
Hydrogeological conditions in the Middle East, 1982, Burdon Dj,
The geology of Middle East is summarized under the subheadings: Precambrian basement, epicontinental sediments, geosynclinal and shelf deposits, Tertiary volcanics and Quaternary cover. The main tectonic episodes including epeirogenic movements, rifting and the Tertiary orogeny, are reviewed. The imposition of hydrometeorolocal and climatic conditions upon the regional geology provides the setting for the hydrogeological discussion. Five factors which influence infiltration to aquifers under conditions of low precipitation and high potential evaportranspiration are discussed. The predominance of fossil groundwater is the most striking hydrogeological phenomenon occurring on a regional scale in the Middle East. Its mode of formation during the pluvials is outlined and the isotopic evidence is reviewed. The main physical and chemical characteristics of fossil ground-waters are described. It is conservatively estimated that some 65 000 km3 of good- to medium-quality groundwater are stored in the great artesian basins of the Near East. These fossil ground-waters are a non-renewable natural resource. Current annual abstraction is, as yet, a small percentage of the total reserves but economic factors rather than the volume of reserves will determine the ultimate extent of their exploitation. The renewable groundwater resources of the Middle East tend, by comparison, to be of local rather than regional significance. Some originate outside the Middle East, coming in as surface flows in the Nile and Tigris-Euphrates and infiltrating into the sediments in and adjacent to the flood plains. Other renewable resources accumulate within the region where high precipitation and mountainous relief are associated. Such areas include the Djebel Akhdar of Cyrenacia, the Tertiary fold mountains from the Taurus through the Zagros to the Oman ranges, and the volcanic and basement highlands of Yemen, Asir and Ethiopa. Locally, in areas of lower precipitation, lenses of recent fresh groundwater float on regional more saline groundwater. In some areas subsurface flows towards and through wadi systems are also of importance

The Hydrology of a Glacierised Alpine Karst Castlegaurd Mountain, Alberta, PhD Thesis, 1983, Smart, Charles Christopher

Alpine karst throughout the world has been affected by past glaciation, and yet little is known of the interactions between glacier ice and karst. This dissertation attempts to gain some understanding of the problem through the study of the Castleguard Area, Alberta, where a karst aquifer is presently overlain by temperate glacier ice.
Quantitative fluorometric tracing and hydrometric measurements generated a broad data base on aquifer behaviour. Tracer breakthrough curves were interpreted using a new systematic approach which considers an explicit set of processes likely to affect the particular tracer under the given experimental conditions. Non-linearity in aquifer behaviour and rapid groundwater velocities demonstrated the aquifer to be an extreme conduit type Conduit springs are elements in a vertical hierarchy in which the topmost springs are "overflows" and exhibit greater flow variability than their associated "underflows". A numerical model was developed to simulate a conduit aquifer. It demonstrated that pulse train and recession analysis widely accepted methods of karst aquifer investigation, could be rather misleading when applied to conduit aquifers.
Interactions between ice and groundwater were observed at two scales: regulation water appeared to feed a diffuse percolation system and supraglacial melt passed into subglacial conduits which entered open vadose shafts. Karst is unlikely to be entirely subglacial in origin because of the limited aggressiveness of subglacial waters.
The Castlegaurd karst appeared to have originated preglacially in response to the breaching of impermeable caprock. Glaciation re-ordered the landscape and produced abundant clastic debris which subsequently blocked or obstructed karst conduits. Much of the resulting karst is paragenetic and comparatively immature due to glacial disruption and slow growth rates. Geomorphic and hydrologic interactions between ice and karst depend intimately upon the relationship between the geographic zones of the glacier and the aquifer.


Are troglobitic taxa troglobiomorphic? A test using phylogenetic inference, 1997, Desuttergrandcolas Laure
Obligate cave dwelling organisms are frequently characterised by a peculiar morphological syndrome, named troglomorphosis or troglobiomorphosis. This hypothesis, which deals with the evolutionary influence of the subterranean environment on cave organisms is far from being universally accepted. Yet it has been adopted by many authors and is often included in the definitions of the current classification of cave taxa. In this paper I present a test of the troglobiomorphosis hypothesis, using the case study of the cricket clade Amphiacustae (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae). Such a test preliminarily requires that observations of the habitat of the taxa (achieved on present-day populations) are clearly separated from hypotheses on the evolutionary transformations of cave taxa (troglobiomorphosis hypothesis s. str.). The evolutionary hypotheses on troglobite morphology are tested using phylogenetic inference, that is by parsimoniously mapping the states of several morphological characters (eye size, body colour, relative hindleg size) onto the cladogram of the Amphiacustae. According to these phylogenetic analyses, the troglobiomorphosis hypothesis is corroborated by the patterns reconstructed for eye size and body coloration characters, but is refuted by the patterns built for hindleg size.

Sea water intrusion in coastal karst springs: Example of the Blaz spring (Croatia), 1997, Bonacci O, Rojebonacci T,
Brackish karst springs are common along every karstic sea shore consisting of limestone and dolomite. On the Croatian sea coast there are more than 300 permanent or temporary brackish karst springs. From the standpoint of water supply, the problem of karst spring water salinization is quite significant because large quantities of high quality fresh water are not available to be used either as drinking water or for industrial and agricultural purposes. The salinity of brackish karst springs situated along the Adriatic coast varies from 10 to more than 18 000 mg Cl 1(-1) with an unfavourable distribution during the year. In the wet winter period, when water quantities in the region are abundant, the salinity is exceedingly low. In the warm and dry summer period the chloride concentration is high. At that season, when a shortage of flesh water in the region occurs, especially due to tourism, karst spring water is so salty that it cannot be used at all. The mechanism of sea water intrusion is relatively well known but the problem of karst springs desalinization has not been solved in practice. The Ghyben-Herzberg relationship is formulated exclusively on the basis of hydrostatic equilibrium, and its use under dynamic conditions is limited. The dynamics of fresh water circulation towards karst spring exits are very specific for each individual spring. Using numerous hydrological, hydrometric, hydrogeological and speleological investigations of the brackish Blaz (Croatia) karst spring, this paper gives the plausible position and dimensions of the main karst conduits through which sea water penetrates into the spring exit

Radiohydrometrical single-well-methods, 1998, Moser H.

Linear and nonlinear input/output models for karstic springflow and flood prediction at different time scales, 1999, Labat D. , Ababou R. , Mangin A. ,
Karstic formations function as three-dimensional (3D) hydrological basins, with both surface and subsurface flows through fissures, natural conduits, underground streams and reservoirs. The main characteristic of karstic formations is their significant 3D physical heterogeneity at all scales, from fine fissuration to large holes and conduits. This leads to dynamic and temporal variability, e.g, highly variable flow rates, due to several concurrent flow regimes with several distinct response times. The temporal hydrologic response of karstic basins is studied here from an input/output, systems analysis viewpoint. The hydraulic behaviour of the basins is approached via the relationship between hydrometeorological inputs and outputs. These processes are represented and modeled as random, self-correlated and cross-correlated, stationary time processes. More precisely, for each site-specific case presented here, the input process is the total rainfall on the basin and the output process is the discharge rate at the outlet of the basin (karstic spring). In the absence of other data, these time processes embody all the available information concerning a given karstic basin. In this paper, we first present a brief discussion of the physical structure of karstic systems. Then, we formulate linear and nonlinear models, i.e. functional relations between rainfall and runoff, and methods for identifying the kernel and coefficients of the functionals (deterministic vs. statistical; error minimisation vs. polynomial projection). These are based mostly on Volterra first order (linear) or second order (nonlinear) convolution. In addition, a new nonlinear threshold model is developed, based on the frequency distribution of interannual mean daily runoff. Finally, the different models and identification methods are applied to two karstic watersheds in the french Pyrenees mountains, using long sequences of rainfall and spring outflow data at two different sampling rates (daily and semi-hourly). The accuracy of nonlinear and linear rainfall-runoff models is tested at three time scales: long interannual scale (20 years of daily data), medium or seasonal scale (3 months of semi-hourly data), and short scale or 'flood scale' (2 days of semi-hourly data). The model predictions are analysed in terms of global statistical accuracy and in terms of accuracy with respect to high flow events (floods)

The slope movements within the Mondores graben (Drome, France); the interaction between geology, hydrology and typology, 2000, Bogaard Ta, Antoine P, Desvarreux P, Giraud A, Van Asch Twj,
The Mondores graben in the south-eastern French Alps is an uncommon structural feature, which originates in a complex polyphasic tectonic evolution. In contrast with its immediate surroundings, with hardly any huge landslides, the Mondores graben is characterised by various types of landslides. A huge sagging caused part of the limestone cliff to subside some 50 m within 50 years. Two recent mud flows that occurred were considered a potential threat to some inhabited places downstream. The hydrologic aspects of the Boulc-Mondores landslide resemble the geology: infiltration (and karst input?) in the rock-sliding zone and exfiltration in the marls resulting in slumps and mud flows. The mass movement interactions could be explained by a structural geology analysis with geodetic monitoring using different techniques. It is also shown that hydrochemistry as well as geophysical surveys are of importance in unravelling the hydrologic systems and the geological subsurface structures. The present paper aims at explaining the geological control of the different slides in view of estimating their potential danger. Understanding the geological structure and its evolution therefore is a necessary prerequisite. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Classification, Genesis, and Exploration Guides for Nonsulfide Zinc Deposits, 2003, Hitzman Murray W. , Reynolds Neal A. , Sangster D. F. , Allen Cameron R. , Carman Cris E. ,
Nonsulfide zinc deposits, popularly but incorrectly termed 'zinc oxide' deposits, are becoming attractive exploration targets owing to new developments in hydrometallurgy. They are divided into two major geologic types--supergene and hypogene deposits. Supergene deposits are the most common type of nonsulfide zinc deposit and are distributed worldwide. The vast majority occur in carbonate host rocks owing to the high reactivity of carbonate minerals with the acidic, oxidized, zinc-rich fluids derived from the oxidative destruction of sphalerite-bearing sulfide bodies. Formation of these deposits depends upon the size and mineralogy of the preexisting zinc occurrence, vertical displacement of the water table, rate of water table descent through tectonic uplift and/or arid climatic conditions, wall-rock fracture density, and a suitable neutralizing trap site. Weathering of Mississippi Valley-type and high-temperature carbonate replacement-type zinc deposits may generate significant supergene nonsulfide zinc deposits, but the weathering of pyrite-rich, sedimentary exhalative, and volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits is much less likely to form economic supergene zinc deposits. Three subtypes of supergene nonsulfide zinc deposits are recognized--direct replacement, wall-rock replacement, and residual and karst-fill deposits. Hypogene nonsulfide zinc deposits are more poorly known owing to the paucity of examples; however, two major subtypes are recognized: structurally controlled, replacement bodies and manganese-rich, exhalative(?) stratiform bodies. The structurally controlled bodies contain willemite and variable amounts of sphalerite, are hematitic, and are generally associated with hydrothermal dolomitization. Stratiform, manganese-rich, nonsulfide zinc deposits appear to be end members of a spectrum of deposits that include base metal-poor stratiform manganese deposits and sulfide-dominant Broken Hill-type deposits. Hypogene nonsulfide zinc deposits appear to have formed owing to the mixing of a reduced, low- to moderate-temperature (80{degrees}-200{degrees}C), zinc-rich, sulfur-poor fluid with an oxidized, sulfur-poor fluid

The catastrophic flash-flood event of 8-9 September 2002 in the Gard region, France: A first case study for the Cevennes-Vivarais Mediterranean Hydrometeorological Observatory, 2005, Delrieu G, Ducrocq V, Gaume E, Nicol J, Payrastre O, Yates E, Kirstetter Pe, Andrieu H, Ayral Pa, Bouvier C, Creutin Jd, Livet M, Anquetin S, Lang M, Neppel L, Obled C, Parentduchatelet J, Saulnier Gm, Walpersdorf A,
The Cevennes-Vivarais Mediterranean Hydrometeorological Observatory (OHM-CV) is a research initiative aimed at improving the understanding and modeling of the Mediterranean intense rain events that frequently result in devastating flash floods in southern France. A primary objective is to bring together the skills of meteorologists and hydrologists, modelers and instrumentalists, researchers and practitioners, to cope with these rather unpredictable events. In line with previously published flash-flood monographs, the present paper aims at documenting the 8-9 September 2002 catastrophic event, which resulted in 24 casualties and an economic damage evaluated at 1.2 billion euros (i.e., about 7 billion U.S. dollars) in the Gard region, France. A description of the synoptic meteorological situation is first given and shows that no particular precursor indicated the imminence of such an extreme event. Then, radar and rain gauge analyses are used to assess the magnitude of the rain event, which was particularly remarkable for its spatial extent with rain amounts greater than 200 mm in 24 h over 5500 km(2). The maximum values of 600-700 mm observed locally are among the highest daily records in the region. The preliminary results of the postevent hydrological investigation show that the hydrologic response of the upstream watersheds of the Gard and Vidourle Rivers is consistent with the marked space-time structure of the rain event. It is noteworthy that peak specific discharges were very high over most of the affected areas (5-10 m(3) s(-1) km(-2)) and reached locally extraordinary values of more than 20 m(3) s(-1) km(-2). A preliminary analysis indicates contrasting hydrological behaviors that seem to be related to geomorphological factors, notably the influence of karst in part of the region. An overview of the ongoing meteorological and hydrological research projects devoted to this case study within the OHM-CV is finally presented

Morphologie et remplissage des dolines du Causse de Martel daprs les observations ralises au cours du diagnostic archologique de larodrome de Brive-Souillac (Corrze et Lot), 2006, Bruxelles Laurent, Colonge David, Salgues Thierry
Doline morphology and filling in the Causse of Martel based on the observations realized during the archaeological diagnosis of the Brive-Souillac airfield (Corrze and Lot, France) - An operation of archaeological diagnosis was led by the INRAP (national institute for preventive archaeological researches) on the Causse de Martel. On this occasion, 610 trenches with bulldozers were done, mainly localized in the bottom of dolines. The morphology of the depressions presents most often a pronounced asymmetry. We observe a gently dipping slope underlain by sandy alterites. On the opposite side, a steep corrosion rim developed in bathonian limestones. The sections show an accumulation of several meters of different sediments. At the base, we find periglacial deposits (stratified scree and yellow silt) which fossilized some archaeological remains of the middle Paleolithic. Just above an erosional unconformity, brown clays with calcareous gravel are found. Thanks to the presence of archaeological material, we date the emplacement of this level to be between the Protohistory and the medieval age. Finally, one or two meters of modern agricultural colluviums end the sequence. These observations put in evidence at least two main periods of infilling of these dolines. They correspond to two major phases of hillside imbalance. The first one has a climatic origin (Periglacial) and the second a human origin (clearings and agriculture). These accumulations are separated from the underlying deposits by distinct erosion surfaces, which can be linked to a reactivation of the karstic undercapture and the erosion of a part of the filling. This functioning corresponds to periods during which the colluviums are less abundant, indicating a certain stability of hillsides. Finally, the morphology of the rock layers and the geometry of the deposits show that the karstic landscape, which was clearly more accentuated before the Periglacial and even before Protohistory, underwent an important filling. Today, the dolines are partially filled and show with a flat bottom.

The Ardeche endokarstic responses to the eustatic variations resulting from the Messinian salinity crisis, 2006, Mocochain L. , Clauzon G. , Bigot J. Y. ,
The Messinian salinity crisis is typically recorded by evaporites in the abyssal plains of the Mediterranean Sea and by canyons incised into the Mediterranean margins and their hinterlands. However, the impacts of crisis on geomorphology and surface dynamics lasted, until. canyons were filled by sediments in the Pliocene (fig. 2). In the mid-Rhone valley, the Ardeche Cretaceous carbonate platform is incised over 600 m by the Rhone Messinian canyon. The canyon thalweg is located - 236 m Lis) (below sea level) in the borehole of Pierrelatte [Demarcq, 1960; fig. 1]. During the Pliocene, this canyon was flooded as a ria and infilled by a Gilbert type fan delta [Clauzon and Rubino, 1992; Clauzon et al., 1995]. The whole Messinian-Pliocene third order cycle [Haq et al., 1987] generated four benchmark levels. The first two are [Clauzon, 1996]: (i) The pre-evaporitic abandonment Surface which is mapped around the belvedere of Saint-Restitut (fig. 1). This Surface is synchronous [Clauzon, 1996] of the crisis onset (5.95 Ma) [Gautier et al., 1994; Krigjsman et al., 1999] and, consequently, is an isochrounous benchmark. (ii) The Messinian erosional surface is also an isochronous benchmark due to the fast flooding [Blanc, 2002] of the Rhone canyon, becoming a ria at 5.32 Ma [Hilgen and Langereis, 1988]. These surfaces are the result of endoreic Mediterranean sea level fall more than a thousand meters below the Atlantic Ocean. A huge accommodation Space (up to more than 1000 in) was created as sea-level rose up to 80 in above its present-day level (asl) during (lie Pliocene highstand of cycle TB 3.4 (from 5.32 to 3.8 Ma). During the Lower Pliocene this accommodation space was filled by a Gilbert fan delta. This history yields two other benchmark levels: (i) the marine/non marine Pliocene transition which is an heterochronous surface produced by the Gilbert delta progradation. This surface recorded the Pliocene highstand sea level; (ii) the Pliocene abandonment Surface at the top of the Gilbert delta continental wedge. Close to the Rhone-Ardeche confluence, the present clay elevations Of file four reference levels are (evolution of base-level synthesized in fig. 4): (1) 3 12 in asl, (2) 236 in bsl, (3) 130 m asl, (4) 190 In A. The Ardeche carbonate platform underwent karstification both surficial and at depth. The endokarst is characterized by numerous cavities organised in networks. Saint-Marcel Cave is one of those networks providing the most coillplete record (fig. 5). It opens out on the northern side of the Ardeche canyon at an altitude of 100 m. It is made up by three superposed levels extending over 45 km in length. The lower level (1) is flooded and functionnal. It extends beneath the Ardeche thalweg down to the depth of 10 m bsl reached by divers. The observations collected in the galleries lead us to the conclusion that the karst originated in the vadose area [Brunet, 2000]. The coeval base-level was necessarily below those galleries. The two other levels (middle (2) and upper (3)) are today abandoned and perched. The middle level is about 115 m asl and the upper one is about 185 m A. They are horizontal and have morphologies specific to the phreatic and temporary phreatic zone of the karst (fig. 6). In literature, the terracing of the Saint-Marcel Cave had been systematically interpreted as the result of the lowering by steps of the Ardeche base-level [Guerin, 1973; Blanc, 1995; Gombert, 1988; Debard, 1997]. In this interpretation, each deepening phase of the base level induces the genesis of the gravitary shaft and the abandonment of the previous horizontal level. The next stillstand of base level leads to the elaboration of a new horizontal level (fig. 7). This explanation is valid for most of Quaternary karsts, that are related to glacio-eustatic falls of sea-level. However Our study on the Saint-Marcel Cave contests this interpretation because all the shafts show an upward digging dynamism and no hint of vadose sections. The same 'per ascensum' hydrodynamism was prevailing during the development of the whole network (figs. 8 and 9). We interpret the development of the Ardeche endokarst as related to the eustatic Messinian-Pliocene cycle TB 3.4/3.5 recorded by the Rhone river. The diving investigations in the flooded part of the Saint-Marcel Cave and also in the vaLlClusian springs of Bourg.-Saint-Andeol reached - 154 in bsl. Those depths are compatible only with the incision of the Messinian Rhone canyon at the same altitude (- 236 m bsl). The Saint-Marcel lower level would have develop at that time. The ascending shaping of levels 2 and 3 is thus likely to have formed during the ensuing sea-level rise and highstand during the Pliocene, in mainly two steps: (i) the ria stage controlled by the Mediterranean sea level rise and stillstand; (ii) the rhodanian Gilbert delta progradation, that controlled the genesis of the upper level (fig. 10)

Modelling of calcium sulphate solubility in concentrated multi-component sulphate solutions, 2007, Azimi G. , Papangelakis V. G. , Dutrizac J. E.

The chemistry of several calcium sulphate systems was successfully modelled in multi-component acid-containing sulphate solutions using the mixed solvent electrolyte (MSE) model for calculating the mean activity coefficients of the electrolyte species. The modelling involved the fitting of binary mean activity, heat capacity and solubility data, as well as ternary solubility data. The developed model was shown to accurately predict the solubility of calcium sulphate from 25 to 95 °C in simulated zinc sulphate processing solutions containing MgSO4, MnSO4, Fe2(SO4)3, Na2SO4, (NH4)2SO4 and H2SO4. The addition of H2SO4 results in a significant increase in the calcium sulphate solubility compared to that in water. By increasing the acid concentration, gypsum, which is a metastable phase above 40 °C, dehydrates to anhydrite, and the conversion results in a decrease in the solubility of calcium sulphate. In ZnSO4–H2SO4 solutions, it was found that increasing MgSO4, Na2SO4, Fe2(SO4)3 and (NH4)2SO4 concentrations do not have a pronounced effect on the solubility of calcium sulphate. From a practical perspective, the model is valuable tool for assessing calcium sulphate solubilities over abroad temperature range and for dilute to concentrated multi-component solutions.


HYDROMECHANISM AND DESALINATION OF COASTAL KARST AQUIFERS: THEORY AND CASES, 2008, Breznik Marko & Steinman Franci
Brackish water of coastal karst aquifers is useless. Desalination methods are: interception method to capture fresh water in karst massif, isolation and rise-spring-level methods to prevent sea water inflow and reduced pumping of fresh water in dry periods. Four typical cases explain these methods.

Water tracing in the Muruk-Berenice system (Nakanai Mountains, New Britain, Papua New Guinea), 2011, Audra P. Hoblé, A F.

Three dye tracing have been carried out in the Nakanai Mountains to determine Berenice spring catchment area and some internal connections inside Muruk Cave. Andromede Cave belongs to Muruk-Berenice system, via Arcturus main drain. Due to special conditions in rainforest with difficult of moving, we made qualitative tracing using charcoal bags.


The study of Karstic aquifers geodetic measurements in Bus de la Genziana station − Cansiglio plateau (northeastern Italy), 2011, Barbara Grillo Carla Braitenberg Roberto Devoti & Ildikò, Nagy

We propose an interdisciplinary study of karstic aquifers using tiltmeters and GPS observations. The study region is located in northeastern Italy, in the seismic area of the Cansiglio Plateau. The Zöllner type Marussi tiltmeters are installed in a natural cavity (Bus de la Genziana) that is part of an interesting karstic area of particular hydrogeologic importance. The Livenza river forms from a number of springs at the foothills of the karstic massif and flows through the Friuli-Veneto plain into the Adriatic Sea. Comparing the tiltmeter signal recorded at the Genziana station with the local pluviometrical series and the hydrometric series of the Livenza river, a clear correlation is recognized. Moreover, the data of a permanent GPS station located on the southern slopes of the Cansiglio Massif (CANV) show also a clear correspondence with the water runoff. Here we present the hydrologic induced deformations as observed by tiltmeter and GPS. After heavy rain events we record rapid deformations both by tiltmeters and GPS corresponding to the rainfall duration. In the following days a slow geodetic motion recovers the accumulated deformation with a distinctive pattern both in tilt and GPS data, which correlates with the runoff of the karstic aquifer. The purpose of this research is to open a new multidisciplinary frontier between geodetic and karstic systems studies to improve the knowledge of the underground fluid flow circulation in karstic areas. Furthermore a better characterization of the hydrologic effects on GPS and tilt observations will have the benefit that these signals can be corrected when the focus of the study is to recover the tectonic deformation.


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