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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That hade is the angle of inclination of a fault (or joint) plane measured relative to the vertical [9]. see also dip.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for earthquake (Keyword) returned 43 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 43
Phases d'effondrements aux grottes prhistoriques, du Wrm l'Holocne dans le Midi de la France, 1985, Blanc, J. J.
SEQUENCES OF COLLAPSES FROM WRM TO HOLOCENE IN PREHISTORIC CAVES (SOUTH-EAST OF FRANCE) - Multivariates methods (factorial and discriminant analysis) applied to many accurate stratigraphy and sedimentary sequences files deal just-dated cave-collapses observed into cavity and rock-shelters in the SE of France, show some detailed interpretations about the mechanism inducing the blocks-falls. This work places in a prominent position the various influences relative to cold climates and wet environments, degree of rock jointing of cave-walls and the sismo-tectonic impacts.

Barbuda--an emerging reef and lagoon complex on the edge of the Lesser Antilles island are, 1985, Brasier M, Donahue J,
The Pliocene to Holocene limestones of Barbuda have formed on a wide, shallow, outlying bank of the Lesser Antilles island arc, some 50 km east of the older axis of the Limestone Caribbees and 100 km east of the newer axis of the active Volcanic Caribbees. Contrasts with neighbouring islands of similar size include the lack of exposed igneous basement or mid-Tertiary sediments, the dominance of younger flat-lying carbonates, and the greater frequency of earthquake shocks. The history of emergence of the island has been studied through aerial reconnaissance, mapping, logging, hand coring, facies and microfacies analysis. These show a pattern of progressively falling high sea level stands (from more than 50 m down to the present level) on which are superimposed at least three major phases of subaerial exposure, when sea levels were close to, or below, their present level. This sequence can be summarized as follows: 1, bank edge facies (early Pliocene Highlands Formation) deposited at not more than c. 50-100 m above the present sea level; 2, emergence with moderate upwarping in the north, associated with the Bat Hole subaerial phase forming widespread karst; 3, older Pleistocene transgression with fringing reefs and protected bays formed at l0 to l5 m high sea level stands (Beazer Formation); 4, Marl Pits subaerial phase with widespread karst and soil formation; 5, late Pleistocene transgression up to m high stand with fringing and barrier reefs, protected backreefs and bays (Codrington Formation Phase I); 6, gradual regression resulting in emergence of reefs, enclosure of lagoons, and progradation of beach ridges at heights falling from c. 5 m to below present sea level (Codrington Phase II); 7, Castle Bay subaerial phase produced karst, caliche and coastal dunes that built eastwards to below present sea level; and 8, Holocene transgression producing the present mosaic, with reefs, lagoons and prograding beach ridge complexes, with the present sea level reached before c. 4085 years BP. The evidence suggests that slight uplift took place in the north of the island after early Pliocene times. Subsequent shoreline fluctuations are consistent with glacio-eustatic changes in sea level, indicating that the island has not experienced significant uplift during the Quaternary

Quaternary engineering geology, 1991, Fookes Pg,
The geological and geomorphological effects on the Earth's surface during the Quaternary have been both extensive and profound. An attempt has been made to simplify and summarize these effects by considering the principal agencies at work during the Quaternary: plate tectonics, rapidly rising sea levels, rapidly falling sea levels, rapidly cooling climates and rapidly warming climates. The resulting series of major glacial and interglacial episodes have had far-reaching consequences for the engineering characteristics of the Earth's surface. In attempting to summarize these major omissions will have been inevitable and errors will have occurred due to compression of the subject and its interpretation in a simplified manner. Table 2 summarizes the approach of the paper in itemising the principal Quaternary events, causes and effects, consequences to landscape and inferences to engineering. Each of the six events has been developed into larger tables and accompanied by some discussion and examples. The principal consequences of the events for engineering have been the production of glacial and periglacial soils,over large areas of the northern and southern hemispheres; changes in the sediment patterns on the coasts, the continental shelves and in river systems; and the development of weathering profiles of very variable type and distribution leading to development of in situ residual soils of many different engineering characteristics. The major shifts in climate associated with these events have led to migration of various surface forms which are now being exposed or covered by the present regime, leading to many active slope processes with potential instability for engineering projects and unexpected distribution of materials. The continuing events of plate tectonics which precedes the Quaternary by a long period of geological time explain the distribution of earthquake systems, growing coastlines and mountains, and the pattern of volcanic areas with their own suites of rock and soil of significance for the engineer. ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Palaeoseismicity from karst sediments: the “Grotta del Cervo” cave case study (Central Italy), 1991, Postpischl D. , Agostini S. , Forti P. , Quinif Y. ,
Karst speleothems can be used for tectonic and palaeoseismic analyses; in particular, stalagmites can be treated as the records of a natural pendulum.Samples of stalagmites from the “Grotta del Cervo” and the “Grotta a Male” caves (Central Italy) have been dated using 14C and U/Th radiometric methods. The present paper shows the limits and validity of such methods for dating strong earthquakes of the past.In particular, radiometric 14C dating shows that the youngest general stalagmitic collapse observed inside the “Grotta del Cervo” cave must be related to the December 1456 earthquake of Central Italy

Synsedimentary collapse of portions of the lower Blomidon Formation (Late Triassic), Fundy rift basin, Nova Scotia, 1995, Ackermann Rv, Schlische Pw, Olsen Pe,
A chaotic mudstone unit within the lower Blomidon Formation (Late Triassic) has been traced for 35 km in the Mesozoic Fundy rift basin of Nova Scotia. This unit is characterized by highly disrupted bedding that is commonly cut by small (<0.5 m) domino-style synsedimentary normal faults, downward movement of material, geopetal structures, variable thickness, and an irregular, partially faulted contact with the overlying unit. The chaotic unit is locally overlain by a fluvial sandstone, which is overlain conformably by mudstone. Although the thickness of the sandstone is highly variable, the overlying mudstone unit exhibits only gentle regional dip. The sandstone unit exhibits numerous soft-sediment deformation features, including dewatering structures, convoluted bedding, kink bands, and convergent fault fans. The frequency and intensity of these features increase dramatically above low points at the base of the sandstone unit. These stratigraphic relations suggest buried interstratal karst, the subsurface dissolution of evaporites bounded by insoluble sediments. We infer that the chaotic unit was formed by subsidence and collapse resulting from the dissolution of an evaporite bed or evaporite-rich unit by groundwater, producing dewatering and synsedimentary deformation structures in the overlying sandstone unit, which infilled surface depressions resulting from collapse. In coeval Moroccan rift basins, facies similar to the Blomidon Formation are associated with halite and gypsum beds. The regional extent of the chaotic unit indicates a marked period of desiccation of a playa lake of the appropriate water chemistry. The sedimentary features described here may be useful for inferring the former existence of evaporites or evaporite-rich units in predominantly elastic terrestrial environments

Forum: Stalagmite sheets shattered by Earthquakes, 1997, Ford T. D.

Speleothems and earthquakes, 1997, Forti P.

Tectonic caves of Solai in the Kenyan Rift Valley., 1998, Davis Robert A.
Tectonic caves al Solai, Kenya, were explored in 1970. These lie in a complex geological area of the Great Rift Valley in columnar-faulted ignimbrite. Fissures are presumed to have been widened by later tectonic activity -e.g. the major earthquake of January, 1928. The caves and exploration are briefly described. Questions of formation, drainage and possibilities of steam reservoirs are discussed.

Rupture de speleothemes par fluage d'un remplissage endokarstique. L'exemple de la grotte de Ribiere (Bouches-du-Rhone), 1999, Gilli{ Eric,
Natural caves could be good recorders for paleoearthquakes if it was possible to know precisely the underground damage caused by a seismic event. The researched effects are breakings of speleothems. Therefore, several non-coseismic mechanisms may be involved. A recent study of the Ribiere cave shows that the creeping of a karstic filling explains most of the cave breakings that are attributed to earthquakes.ResumeLes cavites karstiques pourraient etre des enregistreurs de paleoseismes, sous reserve de connaitre de facon precise l'impact d'une secousse sismique sur les grottes. Les effets recherches sont essentiellement des cassures de stalactites et stalagmites, plusieurs mecanismes autres que cosismiques pouvant cependant etre invoques pour expliquer ces ruptures. Or, de recentes observations sur la grotte de Ribiere montrent qu'un fluage de sediment endokarstique peut expliquer la plupart des ruptures de concretions attribuees a des seismes

Co-seismic ruptures and deformations recorded by speleothems in the epicentral zone of the Basel earthquake, 1999, Lemeille Francis, Cushing Marc, Carbon David, Grellet Bertrand, Bitterli Thomas, Flehoc Christine, Innocent Christophe,
The study of growth anomalies of speleothems in a karstic environment can provide potential evidence for palaeoearthquakes. These data are used to study the recurrence times of major earthquakes in areas where evidence for historic seismicity is lacking. A study has been carried out in the epicentral area of the 1356 Basel earthquake (epicentral intensity = VII-VIII, macroseismic magnitude = 6.2). The Battlerloch and Dieboldslochli caves, situated in the area of greatest damage, show growth anomalies of speleothems possibly related to a seismic event (several breaks of speleothems and offsets of the axis of the regrowths). The first U/Th disequilibrum measurements by alpha spectrometry show recent ages (less than several tens of thousands of years and probably historic). 14C dating by AMS of carbonate laminations taken on both sides of the anomalies confirm the evidence of a seismic event around 1300 AD. More accurate darings by U/Th TIMS are carried out in order to compare the information provided by the two different dating methods.ResumeL'etude des anomalies de developpement des speleothemes en milieu endokarstique peut permettre de retrouver la trace de paleoseismes. Ces donnees sont utilisees pour etudier les periodes de retour des seismes majeurs dans les regions ou la sismicite historique n'est pas suffisante. Une etude a ete menee dans la zone epicentrale du seisme de Bale de 1356 (intensite epicentrale = VII-VIII, magnitude macrosismique = 6,2). Dans l'aire de degats majeurs, les grottes du Battierloch et du Dieboldslochli ont montre l'existence d'anomalies de croissance des speleothemes pour lesquelles une origine sismique est possible (nombreuses ruptures de speleothemes et decalage de l'axe de croissance des repousses). Les premieres mesures de desequilibres U/Th par spectrometrie alpha indiquent des ages recents (inferieurs a quelques dizaines de milliers d'annees et probablement historiques). Les datations 14C par AMS de carbonates des lamines preleves de part et d'autre de ces anomalies confirment l'empreinte d'un evenement destructif brutal vers 1300 AD. Des datations plus precises par U/Th TIMS sont en cours de realisation afin de confronter les informations apportees par ces deux chronometres

Palaeoseismic events in karst terrains along the northern Bulgarian Black Sea coast, 2001, Angelova D,
The study of the palaoseismic events in the karst terrains of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast is a very important up-to-date problem. The investigated region is one of the highest-energy regions in Bulgaria with established and recorded catastrophic historic and contemporary earthquakes. The terrain is subjected to the influence not only of its own earthquake foci but also of those in Romania and Russia. The palaeoearthquakes that caused considerable disturbances in the karst terrains along the Northern Bulgarian Black Sea coast have left significant traces. They caused disturbances in the environment and the relief (rearrangement of the surface and ground water karst basins, partially or entirely collapsed caves, deformed caves, oil, gas and salt intrusions and gravitationally formed caves). The ecological consequences in historic and contemporary aspects were catastrophic. The palaeoseismic dislocations were formed as a result of global, regional and local geodynamic events related with the destruction of the Moezian platform and the regional extension of the Black Sea basin. The time of their display and their spatial interrelations were established as a result of complex investigations accompanied by original documents

Modelling of speleothems failure in the Hotton cave (Belgium). Is the failure earthquake induced?, 2001, Cadorin Jf, Jongmans D, Plumier A, Camelbeeck T, Delaby S, Quinif Y,
To provide quantitative information on the ground acceleration necessary to break speleothems, laboratory measurements on samples of stalagmite have been performed to study their failure in bending. Due to their high natural frequencies, speleothems can be considered as rigid bodies to seismic strong ground motion. Using this simple hypothesis and the determined mechanical properties (a minimum value of 0.4 MPa for the tensile failure stress has been considered), modelling indicates that horizontal acceleration ranging from 0.3 m/s(2) to 100 m/s(2) (0.03 to 10g) are necessary to break 35 broken speleothems of the Hotton cave for which the geometrical parameters have been determined. Thus, at the present time, a strong discrepancy exists between the peak accelerations observed during earthquakes and most of the calculated values necessary to break speleothems. One of the future research efforts will be to understand the reasons of the defined behaviour. It appears fundamental to perform measurements on in situ speleothems

Recent active faults in Belgian Ardenne revealed in Rochefort Karstic network (Namur Province, Belgium), 2001, Vandycke S. , Quinif Y. ,
This paper presents observations of recent faulting activity in the karstic network of the Rochefort Cave (Namur Province, Belgium, Europe). The principal recent tectonic features are bedding planes reactivated as normal faults, neo-formatted normal faults in calcite flowstone, fresh scaling, extensional features, fallen blocks and displacement of karstic tube. The seismotectonic aspect is expanded by the presence of fallen blocks where normally the cavity must be very stable and in equilibrium. Three main N 070degrees fault planes and a minor one affect, at a decimetre scale, the karst features and morphology. The faults are still active because recent fresh scaling and fallen blocks are observable. The breaking of Holocene soda straw stalactites and displacements of artificial features observed since the beginning of the tourist activity, in the last century, also suggest very recent reactivation of these faults. This recent faulting can be correlated to present-day tectonic activity, already evidenced by earthquakes in the neighbouring area. Therefore, karstic caves are favourable sites for the observation and the quantification of recent tectonic activity because they constitute a 3-D framework, protected from erosion. Fault planes with this recent faulting present slickensides. Thus a quantitative analysis in term of stress inversion, with the help of striated faults, has permitted to reconstruct the stress tensor responsible for the brittle deformation. The principal NW-SE extension (sigma(3) horizontal) is nearly perpendicular to that of the present regional stress as illustrated by the analysis of the last strong regional earthquake (Roermond, The Netherlands) in 1992. During the Meso-Cenozoic, the main stress tectonics recorded in this part of the European platform is similar to the present one with a NE-SW direction of extension. The discrepancy between the regional stress field and the local stress in the Rochefort cave can be the result of the inversion of the sigma(2) and sigma(3) axes of the stress ellipsoid due to its symmetry or of a local modification at the ground surface of the crustal stress field as it has been already observed in active zones

Les archives sdimentaires quaternaires de la grotte sous les Sangles (Bas-Bugey, Jura mridional, France). Indices palo-climatiques et sismo-tectoniques, 2002, Lignier Vincent, Desmet Marc
Quaternary sedimentary archives of the Sous les Sangles Cave (Lower Bugey, Southern Jura, France); paleo-climatic and sismo-tectonic evidences - The Sous les Sangles Cave is located in southern part of Jura mountain at the front part of the northwestern alpine tectonically active massifs. This region was covered by alpine and jurassian glaciers during the Last Glacial Maximum. An old gallery contains stratified fluvial and moraine injection, covered by a 3.5 meters thick deposit of finely laminated silty carbonate and clays. Sedimentological investigation reveals several periods of different water flow depending on glacial and inters glacial periods. The upper finely laminated sediments correspond to the end of the last glacial maximum according to the exokarstic equivalent of the Cerin lake and the U/Th ages obtained with speleothems. Spectral analysis (using Fourier methods and pass-band mapping techniques) on grey-level raw data have been used on the Sous les Sangles sediment. The main result shows evidence of a cyclic deposition according to the three main periodicities recognised through the 1.5-m top sequence. The laminated material is affected by plastic and brittle deformations. The entire deposit is characterised by (1) a vertical faulting without apparent dominant relative movement which can be interpreted as tension faults; (2) an associated soft and brittle deformation similar to thin skin tectonic at centimetre scale affecting the base of the deposit and testified to gravity reworking which could correspond to discrete sismotectonic activity; (3) brittle deformations associated with fluid escape patterns occurring at two specific levels along the vertical faults, emphasising the earth tremor existence according to several broken speleothems. These observations are highly supported by the geodynamic and tectonic frame of this part of Jura massif which reveal an actual uplift of several millimetre/year, especially in this part of the Cluse des Hpitaux cross valley. Numerous historical earthquakes have been documented in this area. The microtectonic study of the cave shows dominant inverse and strike-slip structures correlated to the general tectonic frame.

Karst types in Bulgaria, 2003, Angelova, Dora

The karst in Bulgaria occupies an area of 26 170 km2 or 22.7 % of the territory of the country. The karst water resources are estimated to be 2.3 billion m3 or 11.6 % of the total water resources of the country. The interest in karst in Bulgaria has become higher during the last years because there are a number of practical problems that have to be solved. Karst in Bulgaria is characterized by great diversity due to the complex combination of factors (geological, tectonic, geomorphologic, hydrological and hydrogeological, climatic, etc.) and to the geodynamic development of this part of Europe. This work presents a new zoning of karst in Bulgaria. The following types have been distinguished: plain karst (the Danubian Plain); marine and transformed marine karst into plain and plain-marine karst (Black Sea subaqual and subareal plain); plateau-like karst (the Fore Balkan) and mountainous karst. The karst wetlands and karst phenomena provoked by paleoearthquakes are separately outlined and sample models for the different karst types, genesis, dynamics, lithostructural control, relations, etc. are presented.


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