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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That chemical carbonate rock is carbonate rock form by the precipitation of mineral matter in situ by chemical or biological processes.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for elevated-temperature (Keyword) returned 3 results for the whole karstbase:
Geochemistry of submarine warm springs in the limestone cavern of Grotta Azzurra, Capo Palinuro, Italy: evidence for mixing-zone dolomitisation, 1996, Stuben Doris, Sedwick Peter, Colantoni Paolo,
Subtidal springs in and around the submarine limestone cavern of Grotta Azzurra, at Capo Palinuro, Italy, discharge fluids which are warm (-, Na and Mg2, and enriched in Si, alkalinity, Ca2, Sr2, Mn, NH4, PO43- and H2S, relative to surrounding seawater. The compositions of the warm fluid samples collected in and around the cave define mixing lines which suggest dilution of a single thermal fluid (T >= 23[deg]C) by cool overlying seawater (T= 17-17.6[deg]C). The chemical data suggest that the proposed thermal fluid contains two components, one derived from seawater ( 10%). Excess Si, alkalinity, Ca2, Sr2 and Mn relative to seawater are likely derived from the groundwater component or dissolution/hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks. Magnesium has been removed from the seawater component in exchange for Ca2, due to dolomitisation of the limestone and/or hydrothermal alteration reactions. Saturation-state calculations suggest that the vented fluids are near saturation with respect to calcite and supersaturated with respect to dolomite. This and the presence of dolomite in the host rocks and cave-floor sediments suggest that 'mixing-zone' dolomitisation of the limestones is occurring, perhaps kinetically assisted by elevated temperature and/or bacterial mediation in the reducing subseafloor zone. One possible 'end-member' condition is considered for the thermal fluid -- zero-Mg -- which suggests an end-member temperature of 50.5[deg]C and a fluid composition derived from ~ 38% seawater and ~ 62% groundwater. The heat source for the circulating fluids is uncertain, but may involve warm underlying igneous rocks or heating via the geothermal gradient. A continuous in-situ record of vent-fluid temperature, salinity, pH and O2 concentration collected within the cavern is consistent with our interpretation of the fluid origin, and suggests that tidal forcing affects circulation and venting of the warm fluids

Basin fluid flow, base-metal sulphide mineralization and the development of dolomite petroleum reservoirs, 2004, Gregg Jay M. ,
Saline basinal fluids, at temperatures from 60 to 250 {degrees}C, have affected almost every sedimentary basin in the world including rocks from Palaeoproterozoic to Cenozoic age. These fluids commonly precipitate base-metal sulphides (pyrite, sphalerite, galena, etc.) and associated minerals (barite, fluorite, calcite, dolomite, etc.) ranging in volume from trace amounts to large economic ore deposits. Such deposits are commonly referred to as Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) after the large Palaeozoic deposits of this kind found in the Mississippi Valley of North America. They are primarily hosted by platform carbonates, typically dolomite, and are usually associated with hydrocarbons. Dolomites not affected by mineralizing fluids commonly display micron- to decimicron-size planar textures, and have well-developed micro- and mesoporosity networks dominated by intercrystal and vug porosity. However, these and other carbonate rocks affected by basinal fluids may undergo massive geochemical and textural alteration. This occurs even when the affected rocks are distal from the main loci of sulphide mineralization. Alteration includes: dolomitization of limestone; neomorphic recrystallization of existing dolomite; and precipitation at intervals of large volumes of open-space-filling dolomite, calcite and quartz cements alternating with dissolution. Dolomitization of limestone and/or neomorphic recrystallization of dolomite, at elevated temperatures, commonly results in centimicron and larger size crystals, and development of nonplanar textures that increase pore-throat tortuosity. Open-space-filling dolomite, calcite and quartz cementation causes a dramatic reduction of porosity and blockage of pore throats. Periods of carbonate dissolution, proximal to intense sulphide mineralization, result in the development of large-scale macroporosity such as breccias that are commonly superimposed on karst and tectonic fractures. Exposure to mineralizing basinal fluids substantially alters porosity and permeability distribution, and thus the potential reservoir properties of the dolomite. The resulting reservoir may have little resemblance to its precursor. Understanding the epigenetic history of a dolomite is critical, therefore, as this will ultimately affect its development strategy and production history

Lower Eocene carbonate cemented chimneys (Varna, NE Bulgaria): Formation mechanisms and the (a)biological mediation of chimney growth?, 2006, De Boever E, Swennen R, Dimitrov L,
In the area of Pobiti Kamani (Varna, northeast Bulgaria), massive carbonate cemented columns ('chimneys', up to 1.5 m diameter and 8 m high) and horizontal interbeds (2 within loose Lower Eocene sands. Field observations and petrographical and stable isotope geochemical characterisation of four studied locations reveal a relationship between these structures and processes of ancient hydrocarbon seepage. Column and interbed structures both consist of similar well-sorted silt- to sand-sized nummulitic host sediments, predominantly cemented by early diagenetic, low-magnesium calcite. Filamentous textures, about 10 [mu]m in diameter and 80-650 [mu]m long, are only locally detected within interparticle calcite cement of columns. Column samples from two sites reveal a similar, linear and inverse covariant trend of [delta]13C-[delta]18O values, which was interpreted as a mixing trend between two end member fluid/precipitation conditions, i.e. (1) a methane- and/or higher hydrocarbon-derived carbon member characterised by [delta]13C values as low as -[no-break space]43[per mille sign] and marine controlled precipitation conditions with [delta]18O of - 1 0.5[per mille sign] V-PDB and (2) a member with less contribution of methane which was mixed most likely with less depleted carbon sources explaining [delta]13C values ranging up to - 8[per mille sign] V-PDB. The corresponding, depleted [delta]18O values, with many samples clustering around - 8[per mille sign] V-PDB, are interpreted in terms of precipitation at elevated temperatures. This suggests the venting system was not a true 'cold' seep, sensu stricto. Furthermore, column cross-transects often document an internal pattern consisting of (concentric) zones with distinct isotopic signatures, which vary between the two end members. The mixing and internal pattern of column isotopic data, together with petrographical observations, are qualitatively interpreted as evidence of alternating precipitation conditions, controlled by varying seepage rates of a single fluid source at depth, during build-up of individual chimney pipes near the sediment surface. Based on several field observations, migration of the hydrocarbon-charged fluids in Lower Eocene times was possibly channelled along NE oriented faults. Isotopic signatures of calcite cemented horizontal interbeds, with depleted [delta]18O ratios as low as - 8.88[per mille sign] V-PDB and variable [delta]13C (- 1[per mille sign] to - 16[per mille sign], mainly around - 5[per mille sign] to - 7[per mille sign]) suggest that ascending fluids contributed to their cementation or resetted the calcite cement isotopic signature, predominantly during periods of active seepage of warmer fluids. Only few petrographical (and preliminary lipid-biomarker) evidence has been found, pointing to the presence or possibly former activity of microbiota, involved in carbon cycling and calcite precipitation, typical of cold seep settings. This may result from diagenetic alteration of organic components. However, considering the processes of chimney formation, a cementation process, governed by the inorganic oxidation of hydrocarbons in which interstitial oxygen is rapidly consumed without bacterial mediation, is considered

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