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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That evorsion is mechanical erosion by whirling water that may carry sand and gravel; pothole erosion [10]. mechanical erosion by rotating or whirling water carrying sand, gravel, cobbles, or boulders in suspension or as bedload [20]. synonyms: (french.) evorsion; (german.) (auswaschung), auskolkung; (greek.) mihaniki diavrosis; (italian.) evorsione; (spanish.) evorsion; (turkish.) dev kazani asindirmasi; (yugoslavian.) vrtlozna erozija.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

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Your search for environmental management (Keyword) returned 8 results for the whole karstbase:
Environmental management of tourist caves, 1993, Cigna Aa,

Mapping groundwater vulnerability: the Irish perspective, 1998, Daly D, Warren Wp,
The groundwater protection scheme used in the Republic of Ireland since the 1980s had not encompassed the vulnerability mapping concept. Yet internationally, vulnerability maps were becoming an essential part of groundwater protection schemes and a valuable tool in environmental management. Consequently, following a review of protection schemes world-wide, the scheme used in Ireland was updated and amended to include vulnerability maps as a crucial component of the scheme. The approach taken to vulnerability assessments and mapping in the Republic of Ireland has been dictated by the following fundamental questions: Vulnerability of what? Vulnerability to what? Which factors determine the degree of vulnerability? What is the appropriate scale for map production? How can limitations and uncertainties be taken into account? How can vulnerability assessments be integrated into environmental and resource management? The following decisions were made: (i) we should map the vulnerability of groundwater, not aquifers or wells/springs; (ii) the position in the groundwater system specified to be of interest is the water-table (i.e. first groundwater encountered) in either sand/gravel aquifers or in bedrock; (iii) we should map the vulnerability of groundwater to contaminants generated by human activities (natural impacts are a separate issue); (iv) as the main threat to groundwater in Ireland is posed by point sources, we should map the vulnerability of groundwater to contaminants released at 1-2 m below the ground surface; (v) the characteristics of individual contaminants should not be taken into account; (vi) the natural geological and hydrogeological factors that determine vulnerability are the sub-soils above the watertable, the recharge type (whether point or diffuse) and, in sand/gravels, the thickness of the unsaturated zone; (vii) based on these factors, four vulnerability categories are used (extreme, high, moderate and low); (viii) map scales of 1:50 000 and 1:10 000 are preferred; (ix) limitations and uncertainties are indicated by appropriate wording on the maps and a disclaimer; (x) vulnerability maps should be incorporated into groundwater protection schemes, which should be used in decision-making on the location and control of potentially polluting developments. Vulnerability maps have now been produced for a number of local authority areas. They are an important part of county groundwater protection schemes as they provide a measure of the likelihood of contamination, assist in ensuring that protection schemes are not unnecessarily restrictive of human economic activity, help in the choice of engineering preventative measures, and enable major developments, which have a significant potential to contaminate, to be located in areas of relatively low vulnerability and therefore of relatively low risk, from a groundwater perspective


Karstlands cover about 300,000 km2 (50%) of the land area of Central America and the Caribbean. The number of caves is probably tens of thousands. Cave monitoring is uncommon throughout Central America and the Caribbean, and is generally accorded a low priority by agencies responsible for environmental management and conservation. Exceptions occur only in some protected areas and in a few commercial caves. Fundamentally, it is not recognized generally that there is a need to monitor caves. Beyond that, monitoring is limited severely by paucity of funding, equipment and qualified personnel. Cave monitoring clearly is warranted, however, because cave environments are inherently fragile and because the karstlands are under increasing developmental pressures. In these contexts, selected inventorying and monitoring programs seem advisable in at least some of the more significant caves. Such monitoring programs might focus on physical environments, historic and prehistoric remains, faunal populations, resource extraction, water quality and human visitation. Equally importantly, surface karst environments need to be monitored too, because degradation at the surface will almost inevitably be mirrored by deterioration in underground conditions.

A new conceptual groundwater-flow system for the central South Downs aquifer, 2003, Robins N. S. , Dance L. T. ,
The central part of the South Downs Chalk aquifer is intensely used for public water supply. Although the aquifer has a long history of careful development and management, the outline conceptual groundwater-flow vision has not been formally investigated for many years. A major programme of work has now been completed which (a) provides a new insight into the hydraulic workings of the aquifer, and (b) highlights a number of hitherto poorly understood concepts controlling groundwater movement in the Chalk. These include the key role of geological structure and the occurrence of hard bands and karst-type groundwater flow as major controls over preferred flow-paths. The new conceptualisation concludes that the main discharge area for the aquifer is laterally to the north-south rivers and not directly southwards to the sea

A Disturbance Index for Karst Environments, 2005, Van Beynen Philip, Townsend Kaya,

Spatiotemporal analysis of air conditions as a tool for the environmental management of a show cave (Cueva del Agua, Spain), 2006, Fernandezcortes A, Calaforra Jm, Sanchezmartos F,
We recorded the air temperature and carbon dioxide concentration within the Cueva del Agua, a cave in Spain, under natural conditions prior to the cave being opened to tourists. Geostatistical tools are useful techniques for characterizing microclimate parameters with the aim of adopting measures to ensure the conservation and sound environmental management of tourist caves. We modelled the spatial distribution of these microclimatic parameters over an annual cycle using iterative residual kriging, revealing the stratification of air related to the cave's topography. Replenishment of the cave air is activated by convective circulation that accompanies the development of inversions in the thermal gradient of the air. Comparison of the spatial distribution of each microclimatic parameter over time enables us to characterize the exchange of air between the cave interior and the outside, as well as identify potential areas that could be opened to tourists and determine suitable visiting schedules

Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology, 2007, Ford D. , Williams P.
Originally published in 1989, Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology became the leading textbook on karst studies. This new textbook has been substantially revised and updated. The first half of the book is a systematic presentation of the dissolution kinetics, chemical equilibria and physical flow laws relating to karst environments. It includes details of the many environmental factors that complicate their chemical evolution, with a critique of measurement of karst erosion rates. The second half of the book looks at the classification system for cave systems and the influence of climate and climatic change on karst development. The book ends with chapters on karst water resource management and a look at the important issues of environmental management, including environmental impact assessment, environmental rehabilitation, tourism impacts and conservation values. Practical applications of karst studies are explained throughout the text. Contents: CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO KARST. CHAPTER 2. THE KARST ROCKS. CHAPTER 3. DISSOLUTION: CHEMICAL AND KINETIC BEHAVIOUR OF THE KARST ROCKS. CHAPTER 4. DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF KARST DENUDATION. CHAPTER 5. KARST HYDROLOGY. CHAPTER 6. ANALYSIS OF KARST DRAINAGE SYSTEMS. CHAPTER 7. SPELEOGENESIS: THE DEVELOPMENT OF CAVE SYSTEMS. CHAPTER 8. CAVE INTERIOR DEPOSITS. CHAPTER 9. KARST LANDFORM DEVELOPMENT IN HUMID REGIONS. CHAPTER 10.THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE, CLIMATIC CHANGE AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON KARST DEVELOPMENT. CHAPTER 11. KARST WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT. CHAPTER 12. HUMAN IMPACTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION.

The extensive karst areas of the Lao PDR are poorly documented but are known to include extensive limestone mountain plateaus; isolated ridges including towerkarst; hillslopes that are locally underlain by limestone; and alluvium-covered limestone plains. Palaeokarst phenomena attest to a very long history of karstification while sediments in some caves offer insight into environmental change during the Quaternary. Limited financial and technical resources, political factors and the dangers posed by massive volumes of unexploded ordnance that remain after decades of war are major impediments to karst area documentation, analysis, planning and management. Assessment of karst extent based on aerial photographs and other remote sensing techniques is complicated by very extensive pseudokarst formed due to bombardment during past military con*icts, including hundreds of thousands of closed depressions formed in both carbonate and non-carbonate rocks. Notwithstanding such practical di+culties, the extent and importance of the karst is such that improved inventory at the national, provincial and local levels is required if satisfactory environmental management and sustainable social and economic development are to be achieved.

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