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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That anemometer is a device used to measure wind speeds [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for evolutionary classification of karst (Keyword) returned 3 results for the whole karstbase:
Hypogene Speleogenesis, 2013, Klimchouk, A. B.

Recognition of the wide occurrence, significance, and specific characteristics of hypogene speleogenesis during last twodecades signifies a major paradigm shift in karst science, previously overwhelmingly dominated by epigene concepts and models. Hypogene karst is one of the fundamental categories of karst, at least of equal importance with more familiar epigenic karst. Hypogene and epigenic karst systems are regularly associated with different types, patterns, and segments off low systems, which are characterized by distinct hydrokinetic, chemical, and thermal conditions. Hypogene speleogenesis is the formation of solution-enlarged permeability structures by water that recharges thecavernous zone from below, independent of recharge from the overlying or immediately adjacent surface. It develops mainly in leaky confined conditions, although it may continue through unconfined ones. Hydraulic communication along cross-formational flow paths, across lithological boundaries, different porosity systems, and flow regimes allows deeper ground waters in regional or intermediate flow systems to interact with shallower and more local systems, permittinga variety of dissolution mechanisms to operate. A specific hydrogeologic mechanism acting in hypogenic transverse speleogenesis (restricted input/output) suppresses the positive flow-dissolution feedback and speleogenetic competition seen in the epigenic development. Hypogenic caves occur in different soluble rocks in a wide range of geological and tectonic settings, basinal throughorogenic. Overall patterns of cave systems are strongly guided by the spatial distribution of the initial (prespeleogenetic) permeability features and hydrostratigraphic barriers and interfaces within the soluble and adjacent units, by the mode of water input to, and output from, cave-forming zones and by the overall recharge–discharge configuration in the multiple aquifer system. Because of their transverse nature, hypogene caves have a clustered distribution in plan view, althoughinitial clusters may merge laterally across considerable areas. Hypogene caves display remarkable similarity in their pattern sand mesomorphology, strongly suggesting that the type of flow system is the primary control. The rapidly evolving understanding of hypogene speleogenesis has broad implications for many applied fields such asprospecting and characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs, groundwater management, geological engineering, and mineral resources industries


Evolution of Intrastratal Karst and Caves in Gypsum, 2013, Klimchouk, A. B.

The term ‘intrastratal karst’ denotes a series of evolutionary karst types corresponding to successive stages of karst developmentin a soluble rock while it moves back to exposure after being buried by younger strata. The major boundaryconditions, the overall circulation pattern, and extrinsic factors and intrinsic mechanisms of karst development appear tochange considerably between the stages, resulting in characteristic styles of cave development and surface karst morphology,particularly distinct in case of gypsum karst.As gypsum is much more soluble than carbonates, it does not survive long in outcrops beyond arid areas. Wheregypsum is exposed to the surface with no substantial karstification formed during various stages of reburial, the developmentof epigene solution porosity in this rock is hindered due to the fast dissolution, being limited to flow paths in whichthe breakthrough conditions can be attained quickly. However, karst processes in gypsum develop extensively in intrastratalkarst settings, with inheritance from the deep-seated stage through the denuded one. Karstification may commence in anystage of intrastratal development, and during the next successive stage, the process, although in changed conditions, will beaffected significantly by the preformed solution porosity. Speleogenesis in deep-seated gypsum karst is exclusively hypogene.In subjacent karst, both hypogene and epigene speleogenesis may operate depending on the locally prevailing flowregime, but hypogene speleogenesis still dominates. In entrenched and denuded karst types, speleogenesis is overwhelminglyepigenic, but it is greatly facilitated by the presence of solution porosity inherited from the previous stages.Diverse and expressive karst landforms related to subsurface conduits evolve through different stages of the intrastratal karstdevelopment.The subsidence hazard in regions underlain by gypsum differs substantially between the karst types, so that one canobtain a kind of integrated general hazard assessment by classifying a given individual karst according to its evolution state.In general, various types of intrastratal karst, subjacent karst in particular, are the most potent in generating subsidence problems, whereas exposed karst types, particularly open karst, are the least prone to subsidence


Hypogene Speleogenesis, its hydrogeological significance and role in karst evolution (in Russian), 2013, Klimchouk A. B.

The book examines empirical and theoretical regularities of hypogene speleogenesis and reveals its hydrogeological significance and the role in karst evolution. It is demonstrated that hypogene karst, along with epigenic karst, is the fundamental and wide spread genetic variety of karst, which nature and peculiar features call for revision and refinement of some basic notions of the general karst paradigm. A new approach is advocated to a definition of the notion of karst, where the latter is viewed as a specific groundwater circulation system with key properties determined by speleogenesis.

It is shown that major distinctions in mechanisms of the development of karstic void-conduit structures (types of speleogenesis) are determined by hydrodynamic peculiarities of confined and unconfined groundwater systems, and by the circulation vector. An evolutionary classification of karst is elaborated, which main categories cumulatively reflect its origin and characterize its most essential properties. Hypogene karst is a natural stage in the evolution of karst groundwater circulation geosystems in the course of regressive lithogenesis and hydrogeological cycles.

The book reveals principal regional regularities and type settings of hypogene speleogenesis, and describes its functional, structural and morphological peculiar features. It demonstrates the significance of hypogene speleogenesis in the formation of hydrogenic deposits of mineral resources and hydrocarbons in soluble strata and adjacent formations, and its role in karst hazards. The genetic and evolutionary approach is outlined and advocated in dealing with karst-related applied issues of hydrogeology, geological engineering, petroleum and ore geology.


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