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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That permeameter is a device used to measure the permeability of small samples [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for exchange (Keyword) returned 132 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 132
Observations on Ice Caves as Heat Exchangers, 1962, Sturgess, Paul M.

Quaternary Paleoclimatology of the Black Sea basin, 1979, Schrader Hans Joachim,
The occurrence of polyhaline, mesohaline and oligohaline diatom, silicoflagellate, ebridian and chrysomonad populations in late Quaternary Black Sea sediments (DSDP Leg 42B) forms the basis for reconstruction of surface water paleosalinities in the Black Sea basin over the last 3 million years. Four major periods with increased salinites are separated by extended freshwater periods. Based on paleosalinites, indicators of trophic freshwater conditions and changes in diatom species diversity, a correlation is made to the northern Europian glacial--interglacial stratigraphy and this correlation is used to place paleoenvironmental events into a chronostratigraphy. The `synchronous' late Quaternary occurrence of sediments rich in organic carbon in both the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea supports this interpretation.Three different stages in the interaction between the Black Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea are defined: Stage A (exchange of freshwater and marine water similar to the present day flux) during the Holocene, Eemian, Holsteinian and Pliocene; Stage B (freshwater conditions with only occasional marine spills) during the Saalian, the Waalian, the Tiglian and the Praetiglian; and Stage C (freshwater conditions with no inflow of marine waters) during the Weichselian, the Elsterian and Eburonian

Genetic Population Structure in an Amphipod Species., 1981, Golladay S. W. , Gooch James L.
Genetic structure of a species should conform, in part, to environmental structure. Three polymorphic enzyme loci in the amphipod Gammarus minus Say are geographically differentiated in gene frequencies in the mid-Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States, and genetic breaks usually coincide with topographical features and stream divides. Considering alleles as migrational markers, it is expected that heterozygosity would decrease upstream in isolated drainage basins, increase in the headwaters of adjacent but oppositely flowing streams in which gene exchange was occurring between genetically differentiated populations, and increase in sites near regional master streams. These genetic patterns were found to exist in an area near the Juniata River in central Pennsylvania.

Etude des circulations d'air dans la grotte de Niaux, 1983, Andrieux, C.
THE AIR MOVEMENTS IN THE grotte DE NIAUX. CONSEQUENCES - The present paper deals with air movements in the grotte de Niaux (Arige, France) during ten years (1971-1980). The data (observations, measurements) have been obtained, upon an average, each week; they relate to the direction of underground air movements, to the speed and to average air flow, which have been measured at some places, at cave entrances. The results show two types of air movements. In the first one, the gas exchanges between the cave and outside happen through the galleries and the known entrances and also through all the fractures of the carbonate rocks. When it occurs, the cave can be divided in three main parts, each one having their own characteristics. The second one is observed only during very rainy times; the whole cave is then subjected to air movement according to the "wind tube model". The air exchanges through the fractures are fixed by the percolation. The percolation zone is consequently submitted to diphasic water flow. Therefore, different models of air movements in caves must be considered. These data also show it is needful that the airflow should be measured to understand the climatic phenomena of the caves.

Trace-element partition coefficients in the calcite-water system and their paleoclimatic significance in cave studies, 1983, Gascoyne M,
Speleothems (stalactites, stalagmites) formed in limestone caves have been found to contain much information on the timing and intensity of past climates, from analysis of their U, Th, 13C and 18O contents. Because the incorporation of certain trace elements (e.g., Mg, Mn and Zn) in calcite is known to be temperature-dependent, it may be possible to use variations in trace-metal content of fossil speleothems as an alternative paleotem-perature indicator. Using specially developed ion-exchange sampling techniques, analysis of trace-metal content of seepage water and associated fresh calcite deposits in caves in Vancouver Island and Jamaica shows that Mg is distributed between phases in a consistent manner within the temperature regimes of the caves (7[deg] and 23[deg]C, respectively). Average values of the distribution coefficient for Mg are respectively 0.017 and 0.045 at these temperatures. These results indicate that the Mg content of calcite varies directly with temperature and in a sufficiently pronounced manner that a 1[deg]C rise in depositional temperature of a speleothem containing 500 ppm Mg, at ~10[deg]C, would be seen as an increase of ~35ppm Mg -- a readily determinable shift. Other factors affecting Mg content of a speleothem are considered

Karst du Rawyl (Hautes Alpes calcaires de Suisse occidentale), matires dissoutes et en suspension emportes par les sources, 1984, Wildberger, A.
HIGH ALPINE KARST OF RAWYL (SOUTHWESTERN SWITZERLAND): DISSOLVED AND SUSPENDED MATERIALS IN THE WATER OF KARSTIC SPRINGS - The karst of the Rawyl area is located between 1200 and 3250m elevation, at an average height of 2500m. The mean annual rainfall is about 2m. The output of dissolved and suspended material was measured at various important springs, subjected to a glacial to nivo-glacial discharge pattern. The dissolution rate is around 0,06 to 0,075 mm/year of which 1 to 25% are suspended materials, the rest being transported under dissolved form. The flushed material does not correspond exactly with the lithology of the aquifer: for the dissolved material, Mg is in excess compared to the Mg in the carbonates (exchange of cations Ca-Mg); for the suspended material, the clay minerals clearly out-weight the quartz (selection by different sizes and forms).

COMPARISON OF THE C-14 ACTIVITY OF GROUNDWATER AND RECENT TUFA FROM KARST AREAS IN YUGOSLAVIA AND CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 1989, Horvatincic N. , Srdoc D. , Silar J. , Tvrdikova H. ,
C-14 activity of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water and in recent tufa samples in several karst areas of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia was measured. Groundwater from 11 karst springs were measured for their isotopic content (C-14, H-3, C-13), chemical composition (HCO3, Ca2, Mg2) and physico-chemical properties (temperature, pH). Seasonal variations of the C-14 activity of DIC in two karst springs in Plitvice Lakes area, Yugoslavia, were measured systematically from 1979-1987. C-14 activity of recent tufa samples from several locations downstream were also measured. The activity of DIC in karst spring water in both countries ranged from 63-87 pMC, which is attributed to differences in geologic structure of the recharge area, topsoil thickness and composition. Grouping of C-14 activities of DIC ca (824)% is evident. Tritium activity at all the springs indicated short mean residence time (1-10 yr). Concentration of HCO3, Ca2 and Mg2 in spring water varied with geomorphology. C-14 activity of streamwater and recent tufa increased downstream from karst springs due to the exchange between atmospheric CO2 and DIC

Water exchange in hydrogeological structures of the Ukraine. Water exchange under natural conditions, 1989,

STABLE ISOTOPES IN CAVE POOL SYSTEMS - CARLSBAD-CAVERN, NEW-MEXICO, USA, 1990, Ingraham N. L. , Chapman J. B. , Hess J. W. ,
The stable isotopic ratios of drip water, pool water and water vapor collected in remote areas of Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico, were used to develop a conceptual model of the hydrologic conditions of the cave pools. When considered in terms of open and closed pool systems, the data indicate that the pools in Carlsbad Cavern appear to leak more water than they evaporate. The pools in Carlsbad Cavern range between -43 and -31% in delta-D, -7.4 and -5.9% in delta-O-18, and have EC-values of 365-710 mu-S cm(-1). The water vapor is consistently 80-82% more depleted in D than associated pool water and appears to be under direct isotopic control by the pools. Most of the drip water ranges between -51 and -44% in delta-D, between -8.0 and -6.9% in delta-O-18, and have EC-values of 310-350 mu-S cm(-1), regardless of location of collection in the cave. Drip water collected on popcorn formations (which in this case are formed by evaporation of wall seep) have stable isotopic compositions similar to local pool water; however, they have EC-value of up to 1060 mu-S cm(-1). In addition, a small, closed pool near the Lake of the Clouds has stable isotopic compositions similar to those of the Lake and elevated EC-values of up to 9500 mu-S cm(-1). The degree of stable isotopic enrichment that evaporating waters can obtain in the Cavern is limited by exchange with the water vapor which, in turn, appears to be controlled by the pools

KINETIC ENRICHMENT OF STABLE ISOTOPES IN CRYOGENIC CALCITES, 1992, Clark Id, Lauriol B,
The C-13 and O-18 contents of cryogenic calcites formed by expulsion during the freezing of bicarbonate groundwaters are examined. Samples from karst caves within the permafrost region of northern Yukon, Canada, have deltaC-13-values as high as 17.0 parts per thousand, representing the most isotopically enriched freshwater carbonates yet reported. To account for such enrichments, calcium bicarbonate solutions were frozen and sublimated under controlled laboratory conditions. The rapid rate of reaction is shown to effectively preclude isotopic equilibration during bicarbonate dehydration, resulting in a kinetic partitioning of C-13 between CO2 and CaCO3. We find a value of 31.2 1.5 parts per thousand for 1000ln13alpha(KIE)(13alpha(KIE) = 1.032), which is considerably greater than the equilibrium fractionation factor (13epsilon(CaCO3-CO2)) of 10.3 parts per thousand at 0-degrees-C. This kinetic isotope effect (KIE) represents the ratio of the absolute reaction rate constants (13k(d)/12k(d)) for the two isotopic species during the dehydration of dissolved bicarbonate. Similar results for deltaO-18-values confirm that the reaction proceeds without isotope exchange. The KIE of O-18 is determined to be 1.006 for this reaction at 0-degrees-C. These data are compared with the KIE which occurs during the reverse reaction: CO2 hydroxylation by reaction with OH- in hyperalkaline waters

Geochemistry of submarine warm springs in the limestone cavern of Grotta Azzurra, Capo Palinuro, Italy: evidence for mixing-zone dolomitisation, 1996, Stuben Doris, Sedwick Peter, Colantoni Paolo,
Subtidal springs in and around the submarine limestone cavern of Grotta Azzurra, at Capo Palinuro, Italy, discharge fluids which are warm (-, Na and Mg2, and enriched in Si, alkalinity, Ca2, Sr2, Mn, NH4, PO43- and H2S, relative to surrounding seawater. The compositions of the warm fluid samples collected in and around the cave define mixing lines which suggest dilution of a single thermal fluid (T >= 23[deg]C) by cool overlying seawater (T= 17-17.6[deg]C). The chemical data suggest that the proposed thermal fluid contains two components, one derived from seawater ( 10%). Excess Si, alkalinity, Ca2, Sr2 and Mn relative to seawater are likely derived from the groundwater component or dissolution/hydrothermal alteration of the host rocks. Magnesium has been removed from the seawater component in exchange for Ca2, due to dolomitisation of the limestone and/or hydrothermal alteration reactions. Saturation-state calculations suggest that the vented fluids are near saturation with respect to calcite and supersaturated with respect to dolomite. This and the presence of dolomite in the host rocks and cave-floor sediments suggest that 'mixing-zone' dolomitisation of the limestones is occurring, perhaps kinetically assisted by elevated temperature and/or bacterial mediation in the reducing subseafloor zone. One possible 'end-member' condition is considered for the thermal fluid -- zero-Mg -- which suggests an end-member temperature of 50.5[deg]C and a fluid composition derived from ~ 38% seawater and ~ 62% groundwater. The heat source for the circulating fluids is uncertain, but may involve warm underlying igneous rocks or heating via the geothermal gradient. A continuous in-situ record of vent-fluid temperature, salinity, pH and O2 concentration collected within the cavern is consistent with our interpretation of the fluid origin, and suggests that tidal forcing affects circulation and venting of the warm fluids

The combined use of Sr-87/Sr-86 and carbon and water isotopes to study the hydrochemical interaction between groundwater and lakewater in mantled karst, 1996, Katz B. G. , Bullen T. D. ,
The hydrochemical interaction between groundwater and lakewater influences the composition of water that percolates downward from the surficial aquifer system through the underlying intermediate confining unit and recharges the Upper Floridan aquifer along highlands in Florida. The Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio along with the stable isotopes, D, O-18, and C-13 were used as tracers to study the interaction between groundwater, lakewater, and aquifer minerals near Lake Barco, a seepage lake in the mantled karst terrane of northern Florida. Upgradient from the lake, the Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of groundwater decreases with depth (mean values of 0.71004, 0.70890, and 0.70852 for water from the surficial aquifer system, intermediate confining unit, and Upper Floridan aquifer, respectively), resulting from the interaction of dilute oxygenated recharge water with aquifer minerals that are less radiogenic with depth. The concentrations of Sr2 generally increase with depth, and higher concentrations of Sr2 in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer (20-35 mu g/L), relative to water from the surficial aquifer system and the intermediate confining unit, result from the dissolution of Sr-bearing calcite and dolomite in the Eocene limestone. Dissolution of calcite [delta(13)C = -1.6 permil (parts per thousand)] is also indicated by an enriched delta(13)C(DIC) (-8.8 to -11.4 parts per thousand) in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer, relative to the overlying hydrogeologic units (delta(13)C(DIC) < -16 parts per thousand). Groundwater downgradient from Lake Barco was enriched in O-18 and D relative to groundwater upgradient from the lake, indicating mixing of lakewater leakage and groundwater. Downgradient from the lake, the Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of groundwater and aquifer material become less radiogenic and the Sr2 concentrations generally increase with depth. However, Sr2 concentrations are substantially less than in upgradient groundwaters at similar depths. The lower Sr2 concentrations result from the influence of anoxic lakewater leakage on the mobility of Sr2 from clays. Based on results from mass-balance modeling, it is probable that cation exchange plays the dominant role in controlling the Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of groundwater, both upgradient and downgradient from Lake Barco. Even though groundwater from the three distinct hydrogeologic units displays considerable variability in Sr concentration and isotopic composition, the dominant processes associated with the mixing of lakewater leakage with groundwater, as well as the effects of mineral-water interaction, can be ascertained by integrating the use of stable and radiogenic isotopic measurements of groundwater, lakewater, and aquifer minerals

High-resolution temporal record of Holocene ground-water chemistry; tracing links between climate and hydrology, 1996, Banner Jl, Musgrove M, Asmerom Y, Edwards Rl, Hoff Ja,
Strontium isotope analysis of precisely dated calcite growth layers in Holocene speleothems from Barbados, West Indies, reveals high-resolution temporal variations in ground-water composition and may provide a new approach to documenting the links between climate variability and fluctuations in the hydrologic cycle such as recharge rates and flow paths. The speleothems grew in a cave that developed in a fresh-water aquifer in uplifted Pleistocene reef limestones. Three periods of ground-water Sr isotope evolution are observed: 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values decreased from 6 to 4 ka, increased from 4 to 1 ka, and decreased again after 1 ka. The Sr isotope oscillations appear to record periodic variations in the relative Sr fluxes to ground water from exchangeable soil sites vs. carbonate mineral reactions, as reflected in 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values of modern Barbados ground waters. A hydrologic model that explains changes in ground-water flow routes in karst aquifers as a function of amount of rainfall recharge can account for the speleothem Sr isotope record. Independent Holocene climate records that indicate a major period of aridity at around 1.3-1.1 ka in the American tropics correspond with periodic variations in rainfall on Barbados that are predicted by this hydrologic model

Precipitation kinetics of calcite in the system CaCO3-H2O-CO2: The conversion to CO2 by the slow process H?->CO2? as a rate limiting step, 1997, Dreybrodt W, Eisenlohr L, Madry B, Ringer S,
Precipitation rates of CaCO3 from supersaturated solutions in the H2O - CO2 - CaCO3 system are controlled by three rate-determining processes: the kinetics of precipitation at the mineral surface, mass transport of the reaction species involved to and from the mineral surface, and the slow kinetics of the overall reaction HCO3- H --> CO2 H2O. A theoretical model by Buhmann and Dreybrodt (1985a,b) taking these processes into account predicts that, due to the slow kinetics of this reaction, precipitation rates to the surface of CaCO3 minerals depend critically on the ratio V/A of the volume V of the solution to the surface area A of the mineral in contact with it, for both laminar and turbulent flow. We have performed measurements of precipitation rates in a porous medium of sized particles of marble, limestone, and synthetic calcite, with V/A ratios ranging from 3.10(-4) to 1.2-10(-2) cm at 10 degrees C. Calcite was precipitated from supersaturated solutions with [Ca2] approximate to 4 mmol/L and an initial P-CO2 of 5.10(-3) or 1.10(-3) atm, respectively, using experimental conditions which prevented exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere, i.e., closed system. The results are in qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions. Agreement with the observed data, however, is obtained by modifying the rate law of Plummer et al. (1978) to take into account surface-controlled inhibition effects. Experiments with supersaturated solutions containing carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme which enhances the conversion of HCO3- into CO2, yield rates increased by a factor of up to 15. This provides for the first time unambiguous experimental evidence that this reaction is rate limiting. We have also measured precipitation rates in batch experiments, stirring sized mineral particles in a solution with V/A ranging from 0.03 to 0.75 cm. These experiments also give clear evidence on the importance of the conversion of HCO3- into CO2 as rate limiting step. Taken together our experiments provide evidence that the theoretical model of Buhmann and Dreybrodt (1985a,b) can be used to predict reliable rates from the composition of CaHCO3- solutions with low ionic strength in many geologically relevant situations. Copyright (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd

Tracing recharge from sinking streams over spatial dimensions of kilometers in a karst aquifer, 1997, Greene E. A. ,
Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen were used to trace the sources of recharge from sinking streams to wells and springs several kilometers downgradient in the karst Madison aquifer near Rapid City, South Dakota. Temporal sampling of streamflow above the swallets identified a distinct isotopic signature that was used to define the spatial dimensions of recharge to the aquifer. When more than one sinking stream was determined to be recharging a well or spring, the proportions were approximated using a two-component mixing model. From the isotopic analysis, it is possible to link sinking stream recharge to individual wells or springs in the Rapid City area and illustrate there is significant lateral movement of ground water across surface drainage basins. These results emphasize that well-head protection strategies developed for carbonate aquifers that provide industrial and municipal water supplies need to consider lateral movement of ground-water flow from adjacent surface drainage basins

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