Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That waste load is the content of wastes by weight of volume transported by or discharged into a river [16].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?

Search KARSTBASE:

keyword
author

Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for expansion (Keyword) returned 46 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 46
Ecology, systematics and distribution of two sympatric in North-Germany living Bathynella species (Crustacea, Syncarida)., 1968, Husmann Siegfried
The sympatric occurrence of two bathynellids previously considered races of Bathynella natans; natans and stammeri; is evaluated as a natural ecological-genetic experiment. Since no hybrids appear in mixed populations, these forms are proven to be full species: Bathynella natans Vejdovsky and Bathynella stammeri (Jakobi). Besides the form of the mandibles, which until now was the only taxonomically useful diagnostic character in the genus Bathynella, 7 additional, suitably applicable morphological characters have been found (Table 3). The Bathynella biotope investigated is assigned to the "eustygopsammal" subterranean life province (Husmann 1966), which is associated with the "Parastenocaris-Bathynella" biocoenosis (Husmann 1962). This particular biocoenosis is evidently resistant to organic pollution of ground water. The sympatric existence of Bathynella natans and B.stammeri can be explained by consideration of the geo-limnological developmental history of the interstitial zone of the North German low plain. Sands and gravels were widely deposited in the North German Basin by northward-retreating glaciers, creating microcavernous living space and passages for the interstitial fauna. This microfauna could find passages in layers of sand under and along the northward-flowing streams. Primitive Ice-Age streams (,,Urstromtler" of Keilhack) formed east-to-west cross-connections between the south-north distributional corridors. The great geographical expansion of the tributary river courses which reached the north German plain before, during, and after the Ice Age suggests that ground water habitats were temporarily separated and later rejoined by orogenic movements of the earth's surface. Such an orogenically caused, geomorphological isolation lasting for a sufficiently long geological period could have led to the result that species, originating in isolation from the same phylogenetic stock, subsequently were brought together again in the same biotope. This is particularly true for bathynellids, which as archaic types (Lebensformtypen) of the ancient, extreme "mesopsammal" biotope (Remane) are quite likely to have become sympatric in such a manner.

Ecology, systematics and distribution of two sympatric in North-Germany living Bathynella species (Crustacea, Syncarida)., 1968, Husmann Siegfried
The sympatric occurrence of two bathynellids previously considered races of Bathynella natans; natans and stammeri; is evaluated as a natural ecological-genetic experiment. Since no hybrids appear in mixed populations, these forms are proven to be full species: Bathynella natans Vejdovsky and Bathynella stammeri (Jakobi). Besides the form of the mandibles, which until now was the only taxonomically useful diagnostic character in the genus Bathynella, 7 additional, suitably applicable morphological characters have been found (Table 3). The Bathynella biotope investigated is assigned to the "eustygopsammal" subterranean life province (Husmann 1966), which is associated with the "Parastenocaris-Bathynella" biocoenosis (Husmann 1962). This particular biocoenosis is evidently resistant to organic pollution of ground water. The sympatric existence of Bathynella natans and B.stammeri can be explained by consideration of the geo-limnological developmental history of the interstitial zone of the North German low plain. Sands and gravels were widely deposited in the North German Basin by northward-retreating glaciers, creating microcavernous living space and passages for the interstitial fauna. This microfauna could find passages in layers of sand under and along the northward-flowing streams. Primitive Ice-Age streams (,,Urstromtler" of Keilhack) formed east-to-west cross-connections between the south-north distributional corridors. The great geographical expansion of the tributary river courses which reached the north German plain before, during, and after the Ice Age suggests that ground water habitats were temporarily separated and later rejoined by orogenic movements of the earth's surface. Such an orogenically caused, geomorphological isolation lasting for a sufficiently long geological period could have led to the result that species, originating in isolation from the same phylogenetic stock, subsequently were brought together again in the same biotope. This is particularly true for bathynellids, which as archaic types (Lebensformtypen) of the ancient, extreme "mesopsammal" biotope (Remane) are quite likely to have become sympatric in such a manner.

Hydrogeologic Constraints on Yucatan's Development, 1974, Doehring Do, Butler Jh,
The Republic of Mexico has an ambitious and effective national water program. The Secretaria de Recursos Hidraulicos (SRH), whose director has cabinet rank in the federal government, is one of the most professionally distinguished government agencies of its kind in the Americas. Resources for the Future, Inc., has been assisting the World Bank with a water planning study which the Bank is undertaking jointly with the Mexican government. The study is intended to provide guidelines for the development of government policies and projects designed to bring about the most efficient use of Mexico's water resources. However, to date, their study has not been directed toward the growing problems of the northern Yucataan Peninsula which are discussed here.LeGrand (13) suggested that man has inherited a harsh environment in carbonate terranes. In the case of the northern Yucatan Peninsula, the physical environment creates a set of hydrogeologic constraints to future economic and social development. Planning for intermediate and long-range land use on the peninsula must be related directly to the limited and fragile groundwater source. Continued contamination will make future aquifer management a difficult challenge for federal, state, and territorial agencies. We conclude that any strategy for long-range land use in the study area should include establishment of a regional aquifermonitoring network for long-term measurements of key hydrogeologic parameters, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, water table elevations, and water quality. Information from this network would flow into a central facility for storage, interpretation, and analysis. At present the SRH is collecting some of these data. Expansion of the existing program to provide sound information for regional planning will greatly benefit present as well as future generations. If such a program is implemented, it will represent a model for regional planning in other tropical and subtropical karstic terrains

Paleo-distribution of Macroderma gigas in the South West of Western Australia, 1975, Bridge, P. J.

A study of the distribution of Macroderma remains in the caves of the southwest of Western Australia has shown greater past bat concentrations than previously recorded and that the distribution of skeletal remains and guano piles indicates a series of expansions and contractions of the Macroderma range during the Holocene.


Biogeographical and Paleobiogeographical Problems in Stenasellids (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota of Underground Waters)., 1981, Magniez Guy
Considering their systematic isolation among present Asellota, their strong burrowing behaviour, their aptitude for interstitial life and their wide north-tropical present distribution, the history of Stenasellid Crustaceans seems to be marked by the antiquity of their settlements in continental groundwaters (Middle Cretaceous period?) and a long stage of life in phreatic waters on permanently emerged paleotropical continents during the Cenozoic Era. The resemblance between some forms of the Guinean shield and Mexico sets the problem of the anteriority of their continental conquest to South Atlantic drift. The repartition of Mediterranean European forms appears as a consequence of paleogeographical changes in Tertiary Times. The distribution of continental European forms has been marked by Quaternary climatic alterations: severe curtailment of settlements, endemicity in Glacial periods but wide Holocene expansion for the forms adapted to new climatic conditions.

Superiority of the comprehensive evaluation method in the stability estimation of surrounding rocks of karst caves -- a practice in the expansion and reinforcement of a natural karst bridge : Chang Sh, 1986, Chang Shibiaa, Zhang Wenqing

Civil engineering difficulties in the karst of China, 1988, Waltham A. C. , Smart P. L. ,
Karst landscapes, developed by solutional erosion of massive limestones, are characterized by underground drainage and the development of closed depressions. In tropical areas, with high solution rates, long uninterrupted periods of erosion and a lack of glacial planation, the expansion and deepening of these closed depressions creates a rugged relief dominated by either conical hills or steeper-sided towers. The form of the cones and towers is a function of both the carbonate lithology and the erosional history; the towers develop only in massive, mechanically strong, compact limestones where erosional planation and tectonic uplift have kept pace over a long period of time (Smart et al 1986). These karst landscapes are characteristic of huge areas of southern China, largely in the provinces of Guangxi and Guizhou (Fig. 1) and the spectacular scenery of the limestone has often been represented in classical Chinese painting. They are now also becoming a major tourist attraction, with Guilin, in Guangxi, frequently visited by Westerners. These terrains do, however, pose serious difficulties to the civil engineer. Where relief is not great, or where rates of uplift have been low, corridors of flatter ground have often been created by lateral planation at the water table. These corridors may be lithologically or structurally controlled, and form obvious routes through the karst. Where the relief is higher and the regional water table is not intersected, coalescence of the depressions to form flatter ground is rare, and road and rail development is more problematic. In order to avoid excessive and ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Reactivated interstratal karst--example from the Late Silurian rocks of western Lake Erie (U.S.A.), 1992, Carlson Eh,
Interstratal karst developed in the Late Silurian rocks of western Lake Erie that, after a long interruption, was exhumed and reactivated. The dissolution front of the G evaporite of the Salina Group receded in the downdip direction during these two well-documented periods of subaerial exposure. The karst features that developed in the overlying Bass Islands Dolomite (Pridolian) consist of a large tabular body of collapse breccia and a number of smaller features including breccia pipes, partially filled pipes, blister caves and collapse dolines.The tabular breccia body and the breccia pipes, which originated penecontemporaneously during post-Silurian and pre-Middle Devonian subaerial exposure, occur along the updip edge of the present outcrop belt of the dolostone. They are monolithologic, fragment-supported rubble breccias, with the pipes exhibiting a greater fragment displacement, rotation and rounding, and a smaller fragment size. The matrix sediment of the tabular body is a quartz sand, an equivalent of the basal sandstone that filtered down from the erosion surface. The presence in the matrix sediment of nodular celestite, a later replacement of evaporites that formed when the sediment was still soft, indicates that a sabkha environment existed at the time the breccia was infilled. The partially filled pipes, which form cylindrical caves that are lined with late diagenetic celestite, are believed to be cogenetic with the collapse breccias.The blister caves and dolines occur downdip from the breccias, postdating Pleistocene glaciation and predating isostatic rebound. These caves are isolated, crescent- or oval-shaped openings with domed roofs, averaging about 60 m in width and 4 m in height. The hydration and resulting expansion of lenticular bodies of anhydrite along the receding solution front of the G unit is believed to be the cause of doming. The numerous crescentic caves, originating from the dissolution of this gypsum and the subsequent collapse of the domed roofs, are expressed at the surface as shallow dolines

REACTIVATED INTERSTRIATAL KARST EXAMPLE FROM THE LATE SILURIAN ROCKS OF WESTERN LAKE ERIE (USA), 1992, Carlson Eh,
Interstratal karst developed in the Late Silurian rocks of western Lake Erie that, after a long interruption, was exhumed and reactivated. The dissolution front of the G evaporite of the Salina Group receded in the downdip direction during these two well-documented periods of subaerial exposure. The karst features that developed in the overlying Bass Islands Dolomite (Pridolian) consist of a large tabular body of collapse breccia and a number of smaller features including breccia pipes, partially filled pipes, blister caves and collapse dolines. The tabular breccia body and the breccia pipes, which originated penecontemporaneously during post-Silurian and pre-Middle Devonian subaerial exposure, occur along the updip edge of the present outcrop belt of the dolostone. They are monolithologic, fragment-supported rubble breccias, with the pipes exhibiting a greater fragment displacement, rotation and rounding, and a smaller fragment size. The matrix sediment of the tabular body is a quartz sand, an equivalent of the basal sandstone that filtered down from the erosion surface. The presence in the matrix sediment of nodular celestite, a later replacement of evaporites that formed when the sediment was still soft, indicates that a sabkha environment existed at the time the breccia was infilled. The partially filled pipes, which form cylindrical caves that are lined with late diagenetic celestite, are believed to be cogenetic with the collapse breccias. The blister caves and dolines occur downdip from the breccias, postdating Pleistocene glaciation and predating isostatic rebound. These caves are isolated, crescent- or oval-shaped openings with domed roofs, averaging about 60 m in width and 4 m in height. The hydration and resulting expansion of lenticular bodies of anhydrite along the receding solution front of the G unit is believed to be the cause of doming. The numerous crescentic caves, originating from the dissolution of this gypsum and the subsequent collapse of the domed roofs, are expressed at the surface as shallow dolines

POLYGENETIC ORIGIN OF HRAD-VALLIS REGION OF MARS, 1992, Dehon Ra,
Hrad Vallis is located in the transition zone between Elysium Mons and Utopia Planitia. Near its origin, at the northern edge of Elysium lavas, Hrad Vallis is characterized by a low-sinuousity channel within a north-northwest-trending, broad, flat-floored valley. A nearby flat-floored valley is parallel to the Hrad trend and parallel to elongate depressions, fissures, and faults in the region. An apparent hierarchy of landforms provides insight into the origin of the features associated with Hrad Vallis. The sequence leading to the development of Hrad Vallis consists of the following (1) formation of isolated depressions as either karst depressions or thermokarst valleys along faults and fissures in response to circulating ground water; (2) expansion of depressions along structural trends to coalesce as composite valleys, and (3) incision of a channel on the floor of Hrad valley by continued discharge of water from the subsurface after its initial formation by nonfluvial processes. Mud flows, polygonally fractured terrain, and chaotic terrain near the head of the major valleys suggest thixotropic behavior of saturated, clay-rich materials. An extended period of time is indicated during which freely circulating water existed on id beneath the surface of Mars. Karst and thermokarst processes imply very different climatic regimes and different host materials. The presence of karst topography implies extensive deposition of carbonates or other soluble rocks, whereas the presence of thermokarst basins implies the existence of porous, water/ice-saturated clastic or volcaniclastic materials

RESOURCE USE IN THE TROPICAL KARSTLANDS OF CENTRAL BELIZE, 1993, Day M,
Rural tropical ecosystems are subject to many traditional land uses that employ the indigenous karst resources: rock, water, soil, vegetation, and wildlife. Individual resource pressures often arc subtle, but their combined impact can precipitate instability in the tropical karst environment, potentially resulting in disruption of food, water, and fuel supplies. The karst of central Belize was used intensively for some six centuries by Maya farmers. but between the 10th and 19th centuries AD most of it reverted to secondary forest. Commercial logging dominated the 19th and early 20th centuries, followed by the expansion of subsistence and commercial agriculture after 1945. In the 1980s resource use has accelerated as population and other pressures increase. Much karst remains forested, but there is increasing clearance for agricultural uses, particularly for citrus cultivation and small-scale mixed agriculture. Soil depletion has begun to occur, water resources are increasingly taxed, and some wildlife is threatened by habitat destruction and increased hunting. Lime production for the citrus industry has promoted quarrying, water extraction, and fuelwood use. Environmental stresses currently do not exceed the threshold of instability, but the rapidly developing rural economy warrants careful monitoring of resource pressures

POLLUTION OF LIMESTONE AQUIFER DUE TO URBAN WASTE-DISPOSAL AROUND RAIPUR, MADHYA-PRADESH, INDIA, 1994, Bodhankar N, Chatterjee B,
During the rainy season deterioration in the quality of water, supplied through dug wells and tube wells, near an abandoned limestone quarry was reported. The abandoned quarry is now being used as an urban waste disposal site. The problem was further complicated by hospitalization of several inhabitants who were using this water for domestic purposes. Looking into the consequences, chemical analysis of water from the quarry, dug wells and tube wells was carried out. The water was found to be contaminated. The transportation of pollutants from the quarry to the groundwater system was facilitated by karst features. Furthermore, four major sources domestic waste disposal, water conservation structures, landfills, and water wells contributing to pollution were identified. This case study is an attempt to provide an understanding of how the karst features facilitate groundwater contamination. It will help us answer a few questions such as why karst hydrogeology deserves special attention in urban expansion and what protective measures should be planned in view of rapid urbanization

USING GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR TO INVESTIGATE A SUBSURFACE KARST LANDSCAPE IN NORTH-CENTRAL FLORIDA, 1994, Collins Me, Cum M, Hanninen P,
Doline formation in karst areas has been a major concern in Florida. Recently, there has been increased interest in investigating the subsurface conditions that influences preferential flow in these karst landscapes. This information is necessary to improve transport and fate models of contaminants. In addition, there is interest in knowing if the formation and expansion of dolines can be predicted by studying subsurface conditions and flow patterns. The soils on the Newberry Limestone Plain are typically sandy above a thin or absent phosphatic, clayey Hawthorne Formation. Underlying this formation is the Crystal River Limestone. A field survey with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was conducted on the Newberry Limestone Plain at a site with recently formed dolines. The objectives were (i) to investigate the subsurface materials, (ii) to ascertain subsurface landscape variability, (iii) to relate the subsurface landscapes to subsurface flow patterns, and (iv) to predict doline growth and formation in the study area. The results of this study indicated that the subsurface features; presence of clay over limestone, location of solution pipes and paleo-dolines are variable. In general, the subsurface landscape does not follow the surface topography. Subsurface solute movement can be estimated in these landscapes assuming the clay layer that drapes the limestone acts as an aquatarde. Thus, subsurface modeling of flow at the study site is improved. Locations of paleo-dolines and solution pipes were obvious in the radar data. Predictions, though, of future doline formation and growth at the study site were difficult with GPR. Fracture patterns, e.g. dips in the limestone, can be evaluated and weak zones where paleo-dolines have formed can be identified. This study would not have been possible without the use of the GPR. The radar was able to obtain continuous information on 16% of the site to a depth of 3 m. A highly detailed soil survey using conventional methods would have provided only 0.8% coverage of the site

Using ground-penetrating radar to investigate a subsurface karst landscape in north-central Florida, 1994, Collins M. E. , Cure M. , Hanninen P.

Doline formation in karst areas has been a major concern in Florida. Recently, there has been increased interest in investigating the subsurface conditions that influences preferential flow in these karst landscapes. This information is necessary to improve transport and fate models of contaminants. In addition, there is interest in knowing if the formation and expansion of dolines can be predicted by studying subsurface conditions and flow patterns. The soils on the Newberry Limestone Plain are typically sandy above a thin or absent phosphatic, clayey Hawthorne Formation. Underlying this formation is the Crystal River Limestone. A field survey with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was conducted on the Newberry Limestone Plain at a site with recently formed dolines. The objectives were (i) to investigate the subsurface materials, (ii) to ascertain subsurface landscape variability, (iii) to relate the subsurface landscapes to subsurface flow patterns, and (iv) to predict doline growth and formation in the study area. The results of this study indicated that the subsurface features; presence of clay over limestone, location of solution pipes and paleo-dolines are variable. In general, the subsurface landscape does not follow the surface topography. Subsurface solute movement can be estimated in these landscapes assuming the clay layer that drapes the limestone acts as an aquatarde. Thus, subsurface modeling of flow at the study site is improved. Locations of paleo-dolines and solution pipes were obvious in the radar data. Predictions, though, of future doline formation and growth at the study site were difficult with GPR. Fracture patterns, e.g. dips in the limestone, can be evaluated and weak zones where paleo-dolines have formed can be identified. This study would not have been possible without the use of the GPR. The radar was able to obtain continuous information on 16% of the site to a depth of 3 m. A highly detailed soil survey using conventional methods would have provided only 0.8% coverage of the site


Les caractristiques socio-dmographiques des splologues franais, 1997, Jovignot, Franois
The data come from three main sources: public data, an extract from the computer file of the members of the French Federation of Speleology (FFS) and a survey carried out among 285 FFS members. The importance of independent practice out of the FFS must be stressed as well as the difficulty to keep new members loyal to the federation because of a high "turn-over". France ranks high among nations as regards the numbers of practising people. Like many other federations of natural outdoors activities, FFS cavers are mostly men. The average age is over 30. Like most sportsmen, speleologists are generally well-to-do or belong to the middle class, with a fairly high academic background. The geographical breakdown of speleologists shows contradictory results: today cavers tend to be more numerous in the vicinity of caves ("countryside caving"), but statistics show that cavers are also mostly town-dwellers, like the great majority of sportsmen. It should be noted that, contrary to sportsmen, the increase in the number of FFS members is due to the expansion of rural speleology rather than to urban recruitment. Present day speleology is going through a period of transition. The large urban teams who have promoted speleology so far, are progressively being replaced by small size teams, living close to caves: such a change has been made possible thanks to new technology.

Results 1 to 15 of 46
You probably didn't submit anything to search for