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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That cave group is a number of caves or cave systems, not interconnected but geographically associated in some relief feature or particular geological outcrop [10]. see also cave series.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Your search for fenglin (Keyword) returned 16 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 16
MORPHOMETRY AND EVOLUTION OF FENGLIN KARST IN THE SHUICHENG AREA, WESTERN GUIZHOU, CHINA, 1992, Xiong K. N. ,
Four areas with different styles of fenglin (tower and cone karst) are investigated using morphometric techniques in the Shuicheng area of Guizhou Province. The karsts were formed in the Neogene and were uplifted during the Quaternary, to present elevations of about 1800 m. Measurements were made of the characteristics of 745 cones using maps and aerial photographs supplemented by field investigations. The karst cones are found to be of almost constant slope angle (45-degrees to 47-degrees) regardless of structure, but with a tendency for slightly lower slopes to occur where the carbonates have impure interbeds. Although generally symmetrical in plan, elongation of both cones and intervening depressions appears controlled by major elements of the structure and the general slope of the topography. Spatial analysis shows the cones to be relatively uniformly distributed in three of the four cases studied. Morphometric evidence points strongly to parallel slope evolution of cones. A model is offered of landscape evolution in which sequential development occurs through stages of karst-tableland with dolines to fencong-depression to fenglin-depression and finally to fenglin-plain. Geological control becomes less influential as this development proceeds, with the smaller and more widely spaced cones of the later stages becoming increasingly symmetrical in form

Field survey and analysis of hillslopes on tower karst in Guilin, southern China, 2000, Tang T. , Day M. J. ,
Limestone dissolution in tropical and subtropical humid southern China created residual hills with steep slopes, a landform that is referred to as tower karst. Two types of tower karst landform feature, fenglin or peak forest (isolated towers) and fengcong or peak cluster (linked-base towers), were identified in Guilin. Previous studies proposed two hypotheses regarding their origin and evolution. One is the sequential evolution model from peak cluster to peak forest. The other is a parallel development model, which postulates that both peak cluster and peak forest have developed simultaneously. Through detailed field survey and analysis of slope forms on tower karst in Guilin, it was found that the mean slope angle of the towers is very high (62.4 degrees) and ranges from 60 degrees to 75 degrees. There is no significant difference in mean slope angle and slope angle distribution between towers in the peak cluster basin and peak forest floodplain areas. Mean slope angle increases with intensified fluvial dissection. Three levels of caves in the towers of the peak forest in Guilin were identified in previous research. The isolated towers of the peak forest as well as scattered residuals of peak cluster are generally distributed in the centre of the Guilin syncline. Favourable circumstances of allogenic water concentration indicate that development of the peak forest resulted from the combined effects of subcutaneous and subterranean dissolution as well as subsequent collapse and recession by fluvial erosion after uplifting. By contrast, peak clusters generally occur on the limbs of the syncline or at the periphery of the Guilin basin with relatively higher elevations. The thick vadose zone and predominantly vertical flow suggests that peak clusters are mainly formed by the combination of intensive uplifting and the enhancement of original dolines. The evidence of slope survey and slope analysis suggests that both isolated towers and linked-base towers developed simultaneously but by different mechanisms of formation and different combinations of development processes. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Chinese karst terminology (Examples from tropical and subtropical karst), 2002, Ravbar Nataš, A

Good knowledge of terminology in different languages is indispensable to be able to present correctly the results of scientific work, for international cooperation of experts and for translating professional texts. Purpose of the present article is to represent the typical Chinese karst landscape and to explain the terms used in the country. Although karst researches in China are carried out separately from the karst-sciences of western countries, terms such as fengcong, fenglin, shilin are enforcing gradually into international karst terminology. Question how to introduce new terms into narrower professional public sphere with old terms already established, is still remaining open. Sometimes this is necessary since a new term is of somehow enriched meaning or is gathering more information and improving the understanding. Appropriateness of such decision should be estimated by further discussions, which should be based upon familiarity with the problem and not upon the sentimentality towards the terms, if these have born more general meaning up to this time.


The earliest Chinese karstologist Xu Xiake, 2003, Ravbar Nataš, A

The first real scientific exploration of karst and karst caves in south China was undertaken by Xu Xiake (1587 - 1641). Chinese karst was studied by Xu Xiake for more than thirty years. He described his journeys to almost half of the territory of the Ming dynasty in his book ĹXu Xiake's travels« (ĹXu Xiake youji«), that was first published in 1642. He dedicated a lot of time to the research of the underground world by describing subterranean rivers and lakes as water resources. He also made ground plans of some caves, marked their entrances and described different shapes of speleothems. He first described different ways of climbing in caves and methods for cave research. Altogether he visited over 300 caves. Xu Xiake first described different types of the tropical karst and focused on the characteristics and reasons of the tower hills origin. He introduced the term fenglin (peak forest), which is still used in the scientific literature. However, he is not only the father of the modern speleology, karstology, geomorphology and geography in the Chinese scale but in a worldwide sense.


Speleogenesis of selected caves beneath the Lunan Shilin and caves of fenglin Karst in Qiubei, Yunnan, 2004, Sebela S. , Slabe T. , Liu H. , Pruner P. ,
Yunnan is famous for its attractive karst landscapes especially shilins, fengcong and fenglin. The development of caves beneath the shilins in the vicinity of Liman is closely connected with the formation of shilins. Most of the waters percolating through shilins run through the caves beneath them and are responsible for their formation. The study of cave speleogenesis deepens knowledge about both the development of shilins and karst structure. ln the vicinity of the Lunan Shilin, speleological, morphological and structural geological studies of four karst caves have been accomplished. At Puzhehei, Qiubei, which is characterised by numerous fenglin, fengcong and caves, speleological and morphological studies have been performed. Cave sediments for paleomagnetic analyses have been taken from all studied areas (samples CH 1-9). Karst caves in SE Yunnan are probably much older than the age of the cave sediments (<780,000 years B.P.). The studied areas are located in the vicinity of the Xiaojiang fault (N-S direction) and the Red River fault (NW-SE direction). The general directions of both active faults are assumed to influence the direction of the most frequent fissures as well as the cave passages near the Liman Shilin. The Maojiang fault more strongly influences cave passage orientation, while the more distant Red River fault most strongly influences fissure orientation

Cave un-roofing as a large-scale geomorphic process, 2006, Klimchouk Alexander
A morphogenetic approach appears to be the most sensible in defining the tiankeng as a typological category. Tiankengs are giant collapse dolines formed over large river caves, with continuous precipitous perimeter and a diameter-to-depth ratio between 0.5 and 2. The term bears an evolutionary meaning, referring to the youthful stage of open collapse doline development, and the relationship of tiankengs to large underground rivers. The latter criterion separates tiankengs from other types of giant collapse features, such as caprock collapses over evaporates or large collapses over hydrothermal cavities. The South China karst offers evidence that un-roofing of caves is a large-scale geomorphic process playing an important role in the formation of cone and tower karst. It is probably the major process in the origin of large depressions, gorges and valleys in tropical karst, although other geomorphic processes contribute to shaping and maturation of a landscape and eventually obscure the origin in unroofed caves. Many saddles between hills and towers in fengcong and fenglin karst may owe their origin to cave un-roofing.

Tiankengs in the karst of China, 2006, Zhu Xuewen, Chen Weihai
China has the most extensive and diversified karst terrains in the world and most of them are rich in caves and dolines. The cone karst (fengcong) and tower karst (fenglin) developed in the humid climate in southern China form the most distinctive karst landscapes. Tiankengs are giant dolines that are a feature in some areas of the cone karst. In recent years, more than fifty tiankengs have been discovered in the cone karst in southern China, notably in the provinces of Chongqing, Guangxi, Sichuan and Guizhou. Current research indicates that tiankengs develop in specific environments of geomorphology, geology and hydrogeology, and are therefore distinguished from normal karst dolines.

Tiankengs in the karst of China, 2006, Zhu Xuewen, Chen Weihai

China has the most extensive and diversified karst terrains in the world and most of them are rich in caves and dolines. The cone karst (fengcong) and tower karst (fenglin) developed in the humid climate in southern China form the most distinctive karst landscapes. Tiankengs are giant dolines that are a feature in some areas of the cone karst. In recent years, more than fifty tiankengs have been discovered in the cone karst in southern China, notably in the provinces of Chongqing, Guangxi, Sichuan and Guizhou. Current research indicates that tiankengs develop in specific environments of geomorphology, geology and hydrogeology, and are therefore distinguished from normal karst dolines.


Cave un-roofing as a large-scale geomorphic process, 2006, Klimchouk, Alexander

A morphogenetic approach appears to be the most sensible in defining the tiankeng as a typological category. Tiankengs are giant collapse dolines formed over large river caves, with continuous precipitous perimeter and a diameter-to-depth ratio between 0.5 and 2. The term bears an evolutionary meaning, referring to the youthful stage of open collapse doline development, and the relationship of tiankengs to large underground rivers. The latter criterion separates tiankengs from other types of giant collapse features, such as caprock collapses over evaporates or large collapses over hydrothermal cavities. The South China karst offers evidence that un-roofing of caves is a large-scale geomorphic process playing an important role in the formation of cone and tower karst. It is probably the major process in the origin of large depressions, gorges and valleys in tropical karst, although other geomorphic processes contribute to shaping and maturation of a landscape and eventually obscure the origin in unroofed caves. Many saddles between hills and towers in fengcong and fenglin karst may owe their origin to cave un-roofing.


Cave un-roofing as a large-scale geomorphic process, 2006, Klimchouk Alexander
A morphogenetic approach appears to be the most sensible in defining the tiankeng as a typological category. Tiankengs are giant collapse dolines formed over large river caves, with continuous precipitous perimeter and a diameter-to-depth ratio between 0.5 and 2. The term bears an evolutionary meaning, referring to the youthful stage of open collapse doline development, and the relationship of tiankengs to large underground rivers. The latter criterion separates tiankengs from other types of giant collapse features, such as caprock collapses over evaporates or large collapses over hydrothermal cavities. The South China karst offers evidence that un-roofing of caves is a large-scale geomorphic process playing an important role in the formation of cone and tower karst. It is probably the major process in the origin of large depressions, gorges and valleys in tropical karst, although other geomorphic processes contribute to shaping and maturation of a landscape and eventually obscure the origin in unroofed caves. Many saddles between hills and towers in fengcong and fenglin karst may owe their origin to cave un-roofing.

Tiankengs in the karst of China, 2006, Zhu Xuewen, Chen Weihai
China has the most extensive and diversified karst terrains in the world and most of them are rich in caves and dolines. The cone karst (fengcong) and tower karst (fenglin) developed in the humid climate in southern China form the most distinctive karst landscapes. Tiankengs are giant dolines that are a feature in some areas of the cone karst. In recent years, more than fifty tiankengs have been discovered in the cone karst in southern China, notably in the provinces of Chongqing, Guangxi, Sichuan and Guizhou. Current research indicates that tiankengs develop in specific environments of geomorphology, geology and hydrogeology, and are therefore distinguished from normal karst dolines.

Fengcong, fenglin, cone karst and tower karst, 2008, Waltham, Tony.
Fengcong and fenglin are the two major types of karst terrain as defined in Chinese literature. They correlate only loosely with the Western terms of cone and tower karst respectively. With its isolated towers rising from a karst plain, fenglin is the most extreme form of karst landscape, and much of it may evolve from fengcong where tectonic uplift is critically slow, but overall it appears to be polygenetic. It is suggested that fengcong and fenglin are more useful karst terms with genetic implications and should take precedence, whereas cones and towers should be used purely as descriptive terms.

Reflections on fengcong and fenglin, 2010, Day, Mick And Wei Huang

Reflections on fengcong and fenglin, 2010, Waltham, Tony

Fengcong, fenglin, cone karst and tower karst, 2011, Waltham, Tony

Fengcong and fenglin are the two major types of karst terrain as defined in Chinese literature. They correlate only loosely with the Western terms of cone and tower karst respectively. With its isolated towers rising from a karst plain, fenglin is the most extreme form of karst landscape, and much of it may evolve from fengcong where tectonic uplift is critically slow, but overall it appears to be polygenetic. It is suggested that fengcong and fenglin are more useful karst terms with genetic implications and should take precedence, while cones and towers should be used purely as descriptive terms.


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