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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That maze cave is a cave with an essentially horizontal network of interconnecting and mainly contemporaneous passage loops. three broad types of maze cave have been described - anastomotic, network and spongework - and these may be subdivided on the basis of how they developed by slow-moving water, restricted to a confined, artesian aquifer, or by water that is ponded due to backflooding. a mechanism of potentially great importance, particularly in the context of the inception of network maze caves, is multiple, diffuse input from adjacent, permeable but noncavernous rocks. spectacular jointguided maze caves such as knock fell caverns and the devis hole mine caverns occur in the thin yoredale limestones of the northern pennines, but the most extensive mazes are in the black hills of dakota, usa (including jewel cave) and in the ukrainian gypsum karst (including optimisticeskaja) [9]. see also maze cave pattern.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for field conditions (Keyword) returned 6 results for the whole karstbase:
STRESS ON TROPICAL KARST CULTIVATED WITH WET RICE - BOHOL, PHILIPPINES, 1993, Urich P. B. ,
Wet rice cultivation represents one of the most intensive uses of tropical karst. Under wet field conditions karstlands can be highly resilient, but nevertheless vulnerable to change. The karst environment in this study has been cultivated for at least five centuries. However, the post-World War II era has fostered a host of pressures that have altered the local ecology. Resulting stress in the irrigation systems and society threaten the maintenance of this viable karst-based agricultural economy

ESTIMATION OF PREFERENTIAL MOVEMENT OF BROMIDE TRACER UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS, 1994, Jabro J. D. , Lotse E. G. , Fritton D. D. , Baker D. E. ,
Leaching of agricultural chemicals from the root and vadose zones into groundwater is an important environmental concern. To procure a better understanding of the movement and transport of agricultural chemicals through the soil profile, a field research study was conducted to estimate bromide leaching losses under saturated conditions where preferential flow is occurring. The field data were then used to evaluate the LEACHM model. Eighteen double-ring infiltrometers were used to apply a pulse (100 mm depth) of bromide tracer on two previously saturated soils located in a karst region of southeastern Pennsylvania. Internal drainage over the next seven days resulted in nearly 51 % of the applied Br- being leached to a depth below 0.80 m. The LEACHM model was used to simulate the amount of bromide leached in each infiltrometer. The model predicted, accurately, an average of 46% of the applied Br- leached below the 0.80 m depth. Mcan values of bromide concentration in the soil profile were predicted within two standard deviations of the measured mean for all depths except for the 0.20-0.40 m depth increment where the model overpredicted the bromide concentration. The model predictions of Br- leached were tested against field measurements using several statistical tests. The LEACHM model performed adequately under preferential flow conditions, perhaps because the infiltration rate at each site was used as a model input. This, actually, is some measure of the macropore flow process and suggests that simple models such as LEACHM can be used in the field, as long as a distribution of infiltration rates is used as an input

SEISMIC-electric effect method on guided and reflected waves, 2000, Boulytchov A,
Measurements of seismic-electric effect (SEE) in laboratory and field conditions either on guided or reflected waves were carried out. SEE signals were distinctly traced on receiver that was advantage for treatment. The SEE method was successfully used on reflected waves in a deep cave interior to determine the sediment thickness and on karst massifs to predict the dome cave cavities. In similar difficult attainable places the method is preferable to be used for it does not require a complex apparatus. SEE values dependence on productivity of kimberlites rocks, on permeability of oil-water saturated collectors were investigated on guided waves in laboratory experiments. SEE value allows to distinguish oil, oil-water saturated rocks and only water-saturated rocks from each other. SEE value allows to differ productive kimberlites from non productive ones and from surrounding rocks

THE EXPERIMENTAL MONITORING OF WATER REGIME IN THE REKA RIVER, 2002, Brilly M. , Mikoš, M. , Petkovš, Ek G. , Š, Raj M. , Kogovš, Ek J. , Drobne D. , Š, Travs L.

The river Reka, with 422 square kilometres of drainage area sinks into the Škocijan Cave system, which was proclaimed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1986. In the seventies, the Reka river was one of most polluted rivers in Slovenia. During floods in 1999 and 2000, experimental measurements of velocity, water level, suspended sediment transport, chemical parameters and toxicity tests were conducted. The main tasks in the first stage of the investigation: check the equipment in field conditions and test the toxicity of water in particular cross sections. In the paper, the measurements and some discussion of the results and applicability of equipment are presented.


Correlating specific conductivity with total hardness in limestone and dolomite karst waters, 2006, Krawczyk W. E. , Ford D. C. ,
Under field conditions modern digital conductivity meters give standardized, rapid and reproducible measurements. Here we investigate the accuracy of their estimates of the composition of karst waters, as total hardness (TH, as mg/L CaCO3) for limestone and dolomite. These are the fundamental measures of process in carbonate karst geomorphology. PHREEQC theoretical curves for the dissolution of pure calcite/aragonite and dolomite in water at 25 degrees C are compared with water analyses from karst studies worldwide. Other principal ions encountered are sulphates, nitrates and chlorides (the 'SNC' group). From carbonate karsts, 2309 spring, well and stream samples were divided into uncontaminated (SNC < 10%), moderately contaminated (10 < SNC < 20%), and contaminated (SNC > 20%) classes. Where specific conductivity (SpC) is less than 600 mu S/cm, a clear statistical distinction can be drawn between waters having little contamination and substantially contaminated waters with SNC > 20%. As sometimes claimed in manufacturers' literature, in 'clean' limestone waters TH is close to 1/2SpC, with a standard error of 2-3 mg/L. The slope of the best-fit line for 1949 samples covering all SNC classes where SpC < 600 mu S/cm is 1.86, very close to the 1.88 obtained for clean limestone waters; however, the value of the intercept is ten times higher. The regression line for clean limestone waters where SpC > 600 mu S/cm helps to distinguish polluted waters from clean waters with possible endogenic sources of CO2. In the range 250 < SpC < 600 mu S/cm, dolomite waters can be readily distinguished from limestone waters. Copyright (C) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Evaluation of permeability and non-Darcy flow in vuggy macroporous limestone aquifer samples with lattice Boltzmann methods, 2013, Sukop M. C. , Huang H. , Alvarez P. F. , Variano E. A. , Cunningham K. J.

Lattice Boltzmann flow simulations provide a physics-based means of estimating intrinsic permeability from pore structure and accounting for inertial flow that leads to departures from Darcy’s law. Simulations were used to compute intrinsic permeability where standard measurement methods may fail and to provide better understanding of departures from Darcy’s law under field conditions. Simulations also investigated resolution issues. Computed tomography (CT) images were acquired at 0.8 mm interscan spacing for seven samples characterized by centimeter-scale biogenic vuggy macroporosity from the extremely transmissive sole-source carbonate karst Biscayne aquifer in southeastern Florida. Samples were as large as 0.3 m in length; 7–9 cm-scale-length subsamples were used for lattice Boltzmann computations. Macroporosity of the subsamples was as high as 81%. Matrix porosity was ignored in the simulations. Non-Darcy behavior led to a twofold reduction in apparent hydraulic conductivity as an applied hydraulic gradient increased to levels observed at regional scale within the Biscayne aquifer; larger reductions are expected under higher gradients near wells and canals. Thus, inertial flows and departures from Darcy’s law may occur under field conditions. Changes in apparent hydraulic conductivity with changes in head gradient computed with the lattice Boltzmann model closely fit the Darcy-Forchheimer equation allowing estimation of the Forchheimer parameter. CT-scan resolution appeared adequate to capture intrinsic permeability; however, departures from Darcy behavior were less detectable as resolution coarsened.


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