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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That wash is a small ravine due to outwash by flow in desert regions [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for fluvial deposits (Keyword) returned 7 results for the whole karstbase:
A MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC PALEOKARST UNCONFORMITY AND ASSOCIATED SEDIMENTARY-ROCKS, ELU BASIN, NORTHWEST CANADA, 1991, Pelechaty S. M. , James N. P. , Kerans C. , Grotzinger J. P. ,
A major palaeokarst erosion surface is developed within the middle Proterozoic Elu Basin, northwestern Canada. This palaeokarst is named the sub-Kanuyak unconformity and truncates the Parry Bay Formation, a sequence of shallow-marine dolostones that were deposited within a north-facing carbonate platform under a semi-arid climate. The sub-Kanuyak unconformity exhibits up to 90 m of local relief, and also formed under semi-arid conditions when Parry Bay dolostones were subaerially exposed during a relative sea-level drop of about 180 m. Caves and various karren developed within the meteoric vadose and phreatic zones. Their geometry, size and orientation were largely controlled by northwest- and northeast-trending antecedent joints, bedding, and lithology. Near-surface caves later collapsed forming valleys, and intervening towers or walls, and plains. Minor terra rossa formed on top of highs. Karstification was most pronounced in southern parts of Bathurst Inlet but decreased northward, probably reflecting varying lengths of exposure time along a north-dipping slope. The Kanuyak Formation is up to 65 m thick, and partially covers the underlying palaeokarst. It consists of six lithofacies: (i) breccia formed during collapse of caves, as reworked collapse breccia and regolith; (ii) conglomerate representing gravel-dominated braided-fluvial deposits; (iii) sandstone deposited as braided-fluvial and storm-dominated lacustrine deposits; (iv) interbedded sandstone, siltstone and mudstone of sheet flood origin; (v) dolostones formed from dolocretes and quiet-water lacustrine deposits; and (vi) red-beds representing intertidal-marine mudflat deposits. Rivers flowed toward the northwest and northeast within karst valleys and caves; lakes were also situated within valleys; marine mudflat sediments completely cover the palaeokarst to the north. A regional correlation of the sub-Kanuyak unconformity with the intra-Greenhorn Lakes disconformity within the Coppermine homocline suggests that similar styles of karstification occurred over an extensive region. The Elu Basin palaeokarst, however, was developed more landward, and was exposed for a longer period of time than the Coppermine homocline palaeokarst

La capture de la Moselle : nouvelles donnes chronologiques par datations U/Th sur splothmes, 2001, Losson Benot, Quinif Yves
The Moselle piracy is one of the most important changes of the hydrographic network in Lorraine (France). For a long time, this phenomenon has been presumed to be relatively recent (at the end of the Middle Pleistocene) because of the well preserved fluvial morphologies and deposits. With new relations between the above ground and subterranean parameters in the piracy area, the capture has been dated from 300 ka by the U/Th method on speleothem. This evaluation reveals an earlier time for the phenomenon, and is more precise than those proposed up to now. The latter were derived from the North-european glacial chronology and one thermoluminescence date obtained in the downstream valley of Meuse. In fact, the improvements in absolute datings, through different methods and U/Th in particular, lead geomorphologists to abandon the simple relation between the glacial-interglacial periods and the accumulation-erosion processes in rivers.

The Moselle piracy: new chronological data from U/Th dating of speleothems, 2004, Losson B. , Quinif Y.

The Moselle piracy is one of the most important changes of the hydrographic network in Lorraine (France). For a long time, this phenomenon has been presumed to be relatively recent (at the end of the Middle Pleistocene) because of the well-preserved fluvial morphologies and deposits. With new relations between the surficial and subterranean data in the piracy area, the capture has been dated from 300ka using U/Th method on speleothem. This evaluation reveals an earlier time for the phenomenon, and is more precise than those proposed up to now. The latter were derived from the North-European glacial chronology and one thermoluminescence date obtained in the downstream valley of Meuse. In fact, the improvements in absolute dating, thanks to different methods and U/Th in particular, lead geomorphologists to abandon the simple relation between the glacial-interglacial periods and the accumulation-erosion processes in rivers.


Artesian origin of a cave developed in an isolated horst: a case pf Smocza Jama (Kraków Upland, Poland), 2009, Gradziñ, Ski Michal, Motyka Jacek, Gó, Rny Andrzej

The cave of Smocza Jama located in the centre of Kraków is developed in the Wawel Horst built of Upper Jurassic limestone and surrounded by grabens with Miocene clays. The cave is composed of two series: the old one has been known for ages and the new one was discovered when an artificial shaft was mined in 1974. The new series comprises small chambers separated by intervening thin walls while the old series consists of three connected together spatial chambers. The cave abounds in extensively developed solution cavities – cupolas and ceiling pockets. The internal fine-grained deposits, predominantly representing clay fraction are built of illite, mixed layer illite- smectite, kaolinite and iron oxides. They are probably the residuum after dissolution of Jurassic limestone. The cave originated in phreatic condition due to water input from below. The new series represents juvenile stage of cave evolution. The water rose through fissure-rifts located in chamber bottoms, circulated convectionally within particular chambers, finally led to bleaching of intervening walls, and hence to connection of the neighbouring chambers. The evolution of the old series is far more advanced. The rounded solution cavities imply that the cave was formed by water of elevated temperature. The lack of coarse-grained fluvial deposits, Pleistocene mammal remains and Palaeolithic artefacts prove that the cave was isolated since its inception till Holocene time. The cave originated due to artesian circulation, when the Wawel Horst was covered by impermeable Miocene clays. A foreland basin with carbonate basement, filled with fine-grained molasse-type deposits seems to be particularly favourable for the development of artesian caves.


Characterization of quaternary tufas in the Serra do Andr Lopes karst, southeastern Brazil , 2012, Filho William Sallun, Almeida Luis Henrique Sapiensa, Boggiani Paulo Cesar, Karmann Ivo

Active tufas in the form of waterfalls and dams occur along drainage channels in the Serra do André Lopes region (State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil) and are associated with the karst system that developed on a dolomitic plateau with a superhumid subtropical climate. The predominance of autogenic waters enables the groundwater to become enriched in calcium carbonate, with low terrigenous sediment content. The tufas that were studied are composed of calcite and have high calcium contents and low magnesium contents. Eroded tufa beds that originate from changes in the position of fluvial channels or river flow rates also occur in this region. In the Sapatú deposit, phytohermal tufas with complex morphologies are arranged in levels constituting various temporally repeated sequences that were deposited between 10,570 and 4,972 cal years BP. In the Frias deposit, distal fluvial deposits of tufa are massive with a relatively greater quantity of terrigenous material and show evidence of dissolution and reprecipitation. The base of this deposit is composed of a cemented breccia dated at 25,390 years BP, which is younger than the overlying tufas (>42,000 years BP). In the two deposits, the levels of terrigenous sediments (quartz sand and lithic pebbles) and terrestrial gastropod shells are interpreted as phases of increased flow rate of rivers during intervals of higher rainfall.

 


Characterization of quaternary tufas in the Serra do Andr Lopes karst, southeastern Brazil , 2012, William Sallun Filho, Luis Henrique Sapiensa Almeida, Paulo Cesar Boggiani, Ivo Karmann

Active tufas in the form of waterfalls and dams occur along drainage channels in the Serra do André Lopes region (State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil) and are associated with the karst system that developed on a dolomitic plateau with a superhumid subtropical climate. The predominance of autogenic waters enables the groundwater to become enriched in calcium carbonate, with low terrigenous sediment content. The tufas that were studied are composed of calcite and have high calcium contents and low magnesium contents. Eroded tufa beds that originate from changes in the position of fluvial channels or river flow rates also occur in this region. In the Sapatú deposit, phytohermal tufas with complex morphologies are arranged in levels constituting various temporally repeated sequences that were deposited between 10,570 and 4,972 cal years BP. In the Frias deposit, distal fluvial deposits of tufa are massive with a relatively greater quantity of terrigenous material and show evidence of dissolution and reprecipitation. The base of this deposit is composed of a cemented breccia dated at 25,390 years BP, which is younger than the overlying tufas (>42,000 years BP). In the two deposits, the levels of terrigenous sediments (quartz sand and lithic pebbles) and terrestrial gastropod shells are interpreted as phases of increased flow rate of rivers during intervals of higher rainfall.

 


Rockmagnetic and palaeomagnetic studies of unconsolidated sediments of Bukovynka Cave ( Chernivtsi region, Ukraine), 2014, Bondar K. , Ridush B.

Rockmagnetic, palaeomagnetic, and paleontological studies of loamy non-consolidated sediments of the Bukovynka Cave (Chernivtsi region, Ukraine) have been carried out. The sections include three main types of deposits: 1 – fluvial deposits containing travertine grus derived from the karst massif, 2 – fluvial deposits derived from temporary waterflows from outside the cave, 3 – aeolian deposits. Deposits of type 2 and 3 were examined in Sections 1 and 2 in the Trapeznyi Chamber. Their low field magnetic susceptibility (χ) reflects climatic conditions in the Late Pleistocene. The layer with cave hyena bones has higher magnetic susceptibility and appeared to indicate warmer climate. Deposits of type 1 and 2 were investigated in the Section 3 in the Dry Chamber of the cave. Low-field magnetic susceptibility of fluvial deposits, derived from inside of the karst massif, is much higher than for deposits derived from outside the cave. Deposits in Section 3 sharply differ in χ, NRM intensity and Keonigsberger ratio. The fluvial strata of type 1 in Section 3, dated using paleontological remains as Holocene, contains the record of palaeosecular variations of the geomagnetic field. The Etrussia excursion dated 2.8 ka BP was found at 1 m depth in Section 3. The lowest layer has anomalous polarity.
 


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