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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That sublimation is the direct conversion of water from its solid state to the vapor phase [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for forestry (Keyword) returned 9 results for the whole karstbase:
Results of Survey levelling at Bungonia Caves, New South Wales, 1973, Anderson, Edward G.

During 1971, members of the University of N.S.W. Speleological Society (UNSWSS) were working on a project to determine water table levels, as represented by sumps, in some of the Bungonia Caves. It was soon realised that the accuracy of heights determined from the available surface surveys, usually "forestry compass" traverses, was insufficient. The author was asked to provide more accurate surface levels and, consequently, two trips were organised on 24-25 July and 31 July 1971 with the aim of establishing a differential levelling net in the plateau area. Personnel on the first trip comprised E.G. Anderson and A.J. Watson (Senior Photogrammetrist, N.S.W. Lands Department), surveyors, and A.J. Pavey and M. Caplehorn, UNSWSS, assistants. On the second trip, M. Caplehorn was replaced by A. Culberg, UNSWSS.


Towards a Forestry Commission Karst and Karst Catchment Management Policy, 1984, Kiernan K.

The Source of the Jenolan River, 1988, Kiernan, Kevin

Geomorphological and Hydrological investigation of un-mapped limestone outcrops and enclosed depressions that occur between North Wiburds Bluff and the headwaters of Bindo Creek has confirmed the presence of significant karst well to the north of the boundary of the Jenolan Caves Reserve and that karst drainage could conceivably breach the Great Dividing Range. The limestone becomes progressively less well dissected northwards with the karst being very subdued at the northern end of the belt. Fluoroscein testing has shown that a streamsink at the southern end of this area drains directly to Central River in Mammoth Cave, and thence to imperial Cave and Blue Lake. This indicates that at least some of the limestone in this area is continuous beneath the surficial covers with the main Northern Limestone rather than being a discrete lens. The situation has important management implications in view of expanding forestry operations in the area since these have the potential to seriously increase the sediment load of waters that pass through wild caves and the Jenolan tourist caves complex.


Impacts of agricultural land use on some Hungarian karst regions, 1999, Brnykevei Ilona
The karst regions are found in the medium altitude mountains of Hungary. Their land use types are natural and sustainable forestry, grazing and vineyards. In international comparison, Hungary belongs to those countries of Europe where arable land is abundant, therefore, in the future its extension has to be reduced. That means agricultural activity has to be restricted on the sensitive karst surfaces. This paper presents ways of sustainable forestry and other land use types for three karst regions of Hungary.

Working with knowledge at the science/policy interface: a unique example from developing the Tongass Land Management Plan, 2000, Shawiii Charles G. , Everest Fred H. , Swanston Douglas N. ,
An innovative, knowledge-based partnership between research scientists and resource managers in the U.S. Forest Service provided the foundation upon which the Forest Plan was developed that will guide management on the Tongass National Forest for the next 10-15 years. Criteria developed by the scientists to evaluate if management decisions were consistent with the available information base were applied to major components of the emerging final management strategy for the Forest. While the scientists remained value neutral on the contents of the Forest Plan and the management directions provided in it, their evaluation indicated that the decisions it contained for riparian and fish sustainability, wildlife viability, karst and cave protection, slope stability, timber resources, social/economic effects, and monitoring achieved a high degree of consistency with the available scientific information. The Forest Plan, revised to conform with existing scientific knowledge, represents a management strategy designed to sustain the diversity and productivity of the ecosystem while producing goods and services commensurate with the agency’s multiple-use mandate. Execution of this research/management partnership highlighted the role of scientific knowledge in forestry decision-making and provided a new mechanism to input such information into the decision making process. The partnership continues as the scientists are addressing high priority information needs generated by the planning effort in order to have additional information available for plan implementation and revision through adaptive management over the next 3-5 years

Landscape-ecological problems in Aggtelek National Park with special regard to sustainable silviculture, 2001, Baranykevei I, Botos C,
The Aggtelek National Park is situated in Northern Hungary. Thus, from the North, the National Park has joint border with the Slovak Karst Protected Landscape Area in the Slovak Republic. Considering the geology, landscape geography and cultural history of the region, these two protected areas form an integral unit and both were declared as biosphere reserves in 1979 (UNESCO's Man and Biosphere Program). The area of the Aggtelck National Park has being protected by law since 1978 and was declared as a National Park in 1985. The caves of the Slovak Karst and the Aggtelck Karst were inscribed in the UNESCO's World Heritage List in 1995. In our presentation we investigate the problems of the land use types of the Aggtelck National Park with special regard to the sustainable silviculture. The presentation shows a planning method which is based on forestry as well as ecological factors, and applies Arc/Info GIS software

Dissolved organic carbon in precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, soil solution, and stream water at the Guandaushi subtropical forest in Taiwan, 2003, Liu C. P. , Sheu B. H. ,
The concentration and flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were measured in precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, soil solution, and stream water for three types of subtropical forest stands, a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation, a secondary hardwood, and a natural hardwood stand in Guandaushi forest in central Taiwan from January 1998 to December 1998. The mean DOC concentration in precipitation was 4.7 mg l(-1). However, in the rain passing through the tree canopies and barks as throughfall and stemflow, the mean concentrations were 7.0 and 30.8, 9.9 and 10.0, and 8.3 and 7.2 mg l(-1) in the Chinese fir plantation, the secondary hardwood, and the natural hardwood, respectively. Mean DOC concentrations in soil solution were lower in the Chinese fir plantation than both hardwoods, and decreased with depth of soil profiles. Stemflow DOC flux (132.4 kg ha(-1)) in the Chinese fir plantation was much higher than the other hardwood stands (15.3 and 6.7 kg ha(-1) in secondary and natural hardwood, respectively). The monthly variations of DOC concentrations were very similar in throughfall and stemflow at the three stands, showing an increase in the beginning of the growing season in April. No clear monthly variations in soil solution DOC concentrations (mean from 3.2 to 21.3 mg l(-1) in different stands and for different depths) were found in our study. DOC concentrations (mean 2.7 mg l(-1)) in the stream draining the watershed were higher in spring and in winter. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Cambial growth of Swietenia macrophylla King studied under controlled conditions by high resolution laser measurements, 2003, Dunisch O, Schulte M, Kruse K,
The kinetics of phloem and xylem formation of two-year-old plants of Swietenia macrophylla King (true mahogany) was studied in a model system along the shoot circumference (experiment 1) and along the shoot axis (experiment 2). The radius increment of the shoot was registered by high resolution laser measurements (accuracy: 2 mum) in a spatial resolution of 7.8 to 41.3 mum along the stem circumference and 1.5 mm along the stem axis. The temporal resolution of the measurements was 2 s in experiment 1 and 20 s in experiment 2. The radius increment of the shoot detected by the laser measurements was predominately due to the radial enlargement of the phloem and xylem derivatives. On the phloem side the reinitiation of radial cell enlargement after a cambial dormancy occurred first in sieve tubes with contact to ray parenchyma cells, while on the xylem side the radial cell enlargement of vessels and paratracheal parenchyma was induced almost simultaneously along the shoot circumference. In the phloem and xylem derivatives, which were formed first after the cambial reactivation, radial cell enlargement was induced almost simultaneously along the shoot axis. In more advanced phases of phloem and xylem formation, radial cell enlargement of phloem and xylem derivatives was induced shoot downwards with a rate of approximately 13 mm per min. The mean rate of radial cell enlargement of the phloem and xylem derivatives was 2.26 and 4.37 mum per min, respectively. These findings suggest that the kinetics of cambial growth of tropical tree species differ significantly from kinetics observed in trees from temperate regions. The laser measurements might provide a useful experimental approach for studies of cambial activity in situ

Ecology and hydrology of a threatened groundwater-dependent ecosystem: the Jewel Cave karst system in Western Australia, PhD Thesis, 2005, Eberhard, S. M.

Groundwater is a significant component of the world’s water balance and accounts for >90 % of usable freshwater. Around the world groundwater is an important source of water for major cities, towns, industries, agriculture and forestry. Groundwater plays a role in the ecological processes and ‘health’ of many surface ecosystems, and is the critical habitat for subterranean aquatic animals (stygofauna). Over-abstraction or contamination of groundwater resources may imperil the survival of stygofauna and other groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs). In two karst areas in Western Australia (Yanchep and Leeuwin-Naturaliste Ridge), rich stygofauna communities occur in cave waters containing submerged tree roots. These aquatic root mat communities were listed as critically endangered because of declining groundwater levels, presumably caused by lower rainfall, groundwater abstraction, and/or forest plantations. Investigation of the hydrology and ecology of the cave systems was considered essential for the conservation and recovery of these threatened ecological communities (TECs). This thesis investigated the hydrology and ecology of one of the TECs, located in the Jewel Cave karst system in the Leeuwin-Naturaliste Ridge. A multi-disciplinary approach was used to explore aspects pertinent to the hydrology and ecology of the groundwater system.
Thermoluminescence dating of the limestone suggested that development of the karst system dates from the Early Pleistocene and that caves have been available for colonisation by groundwater fauna since that time. Speleogenesis of the watertable maze caves occurred in a flank margin setting during earlier periods of wetter climate and/or elevated base levels. Field mapping and leveling were used to determine hydrologic relationships between caves and the boundaries of the karst aquifer. Monitoring of groundwater levels was undertaken to characterise the conditions of recharge, storage, flow and discharge. A hydrogeologic model of the karst system was developed.
The groundwater hydrograph for the last 50 years was reconstructed from old photographs and records whilst radiometric dating and leveling of stratigraphic horizons enabled reconstruction of a history of watertable fluctuations spanning the Holocene to Late Pleistocene. The watertable fluctuations over the previous 50 years did not exceed the range of fluctuations experienced in the Quaternary history, including a period 11,000 to 13,000 years ago when the watertable was lower than the present level.
The recent groundwater decline in Jewel Cave was not reflected in the annual rainfall trend, which was above average during the period (1976 to 1988) when the major drop in water levels occurred. Groundwater abstraction and tree plantations in nearby catchments have not contributed to the groundwater decline as previously suggested. The period of major watertable decline coincided with a substantial reduction in fire frequency within the karst catchment. The resultant increase in understorey vegetation and ground litter may have contributed to a reduction in groundwater recharge, through increased evapotranspiration and interception of rainfall. To better understand the relationships between rainfall, vegetation and fire and their effects on groundwater recharge, an experiment is proposed that involves a prescribed burn of the cave catchment with before-after monitoring of rainfall, leaf-area, ground litter, soil moisture, vadose infiltration and groundwater levels.
Molecular genetic techniques (allozyme electrophoresis and mitochondrial DNA) were used to assess the species and population boundaries of two genera and species of cave dwelling Amphipoda. Populations of both species were largely panmictic which was consistent with the hydrogeologic model. The molecular data supported the conclusion that both species of amphipod have survived lower watertable levels experienced in the caves during the Late Pleistocene. A mechanism for the colonization and isolation of populations in caves is proposed.
Multi Dimensional Scaling was used to investigate patterns in groundwater biodiversity including species diversity, species assemblages, habitat associations and biogeography. Faunal patterns were related to abiotic environmental parameters. Investigation of hydrochemistry and water quality characterized the ecological water requirements (EWR) of the TEC and established a baseline against which to evaluate potential impacts such as groundwater pollution.
The conservation status of the listed TEC was significantly improved by increasing the number of known occurrences and distribution range of the community (from 10 m2 to > 2 x 106 m2), and by showing that earlier perceived threatening processes (rainfall decline, groundwater pumping, tree plantations) were either ameliorated or inoperative within this catchment. The GDE in the Jewel Cave karst system may not have been endangered by the major phase of watertable decline experienced 1975-1987, or by the relatively stable level experienced up until 2000. However, if the present trend of declining rainfall in southwest Western Australia continues, and the cave watertable declines > 0.5 m below the present level, then the GDE may become more vulnerable to extinction.
The occurrence and distribution of aquatic root mat communities and related groundwater fauna in other karst catchments in the Leeuwin-Naturaliste Ridge is substantially greater than previously thought, however some of these are predicted to be threatened by groundwater pumping and pollution associated with increasing urban and rural developments. The taxonomy of most stygofauna taxa and the distribution of root mat communities is too poorly known to enable proper assessment of their conservation requirements. A regional-scale survey of stygofauna in southwest Western Australia is required to address this problem. In the interim, conservation actions for the listed TECs need to be focused at the most appropriate spatial scale, which is the karst drainage system and catchment area. Conservation of GDEs in Western Australia will benefit from understanding and integration with abiotic groundwater system processes, especially hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes.


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