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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That mass curve is a graph of cumulative values of a hydrological quantity against time [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for greenland (Keyword) returned 16 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 16
Rillenstein in Northwest Greenland, 1957, Davies, William E.

Observations prliminaires sur les cavits de la rgion du lac Centrum (NE Groenland), 1987, Loubiere, J. F.
CAVES OF CENTRUM LAKE AREA (NE GREELAND) - In 1983, M.Chiron, G.Favre, J-F. Loubire and J-P. Ttard identified a network of caves located in the extreme nord-east of Greenland. A cambro-silurian limestone zone stretches out to the south-west of Kronprins Christians land, the northern extremity of the great range of folded mountains of eastern Greenland. During an era characterised by the absence of permafrost and by a warmer climate favouring underground water circulation, these limestone formations were hollowed out by karstic river system. Such climatic conditions have long ceased to exist. During the major glaciations of the Quaternary period, the cavities were greatly modified. Glacier movements, cutting into the plateau, broke up the networks. The original underground deposits were then altered by allochtonous material of aeolian and morainic composition. Severe and ongoing frost shattering has added to this destructive process. It is hoped that this article will help to draw attention to these caves and to the more general subject of paleo-climates, especially their effects in the polar region during the Plio-Pleistocene transition (Electron Spin Resonance method on stalagmite and discovery of a mycelian hypha into calcite structure).

Origin of major karst-associated celestite mineralization in Karstryggen, central East Greenland, 1990, Scholle Peter A. , Stemmerik Lars, Harpoth Ole,

Palaeokarst systems in the Neoproterozoic of eastern North Greenland in relation to extensional tectonics on the Laurentian margin, 1999, Smith M. P. , Soper N. J. , Higgins A. K. , Rasmussen J. A. , Craig L. E. ,
Palaeokarst, in the form of large, uncollapsed cave systems, is described from the Proterozoic of Kronprins Christian Land, eastern North Greenland. The endokarst, of entirely meteoric origin, is developed in dolostones of the Fyns So Formation (Hagen Fjord Group, Riphean). At one locality, Hjornegletscher, shallow, sub-horizontal phreatic conduits are present below an unconformity surface and are infilled by the overlying Ediacaran Kap Holbaek Formation. In Saefaxi Elv, the unconformity is overlain by the Wandel Valley Formation, an Early Ordovician carbonate sequence that is widely transgressive over northeastern Greenland. Vertical vadose fissures extend down towards the phreas, but the cave systems are again filled by Kap Holbaek Formation sediments. At Hjornegletscher, channels up to 40 m wide incise the phreatic system, pointing to relative base-lever lowering before, or during, deposition of the Kap Holbaek Formation. Recognition of a depositional hiatus between the Fyns So and Kap Holbaek formations, in what was previously thought to be a continuous Vendian Hagen Fjord sequence, has implications for regional correlation and tectonics. The unconformity could represent most of Vendian time, accounting for the absence, in this area, of glaciogenic sedimentary rocks in the Hagen Fjord Group. This permits correlation of the Fyns So Formation with other end-Riphean transgressive carbonate sequences developed in East Greenland, Svalbard and perhaps Scotland, that represent the culmination of a major pre-Iapetan rift-sag cycle. Secondly, recognition of the scale of the sub-Wandel Valley unconformity points to regional uplift and tilting of northeastern Greenland in mid-Cambrian to earliest Ordovician time. This must represent a phase of renewed extension of the Iapetus passive margin that is unique to this corner of Laurentia, not terrane collision as previously suggested

A 3000-year high-resolution stalagmitebased record of palaeoclimate for northeastern South Africa, 1999, Holmgren K. , Karlen W. , Lauritzen S. E. , Leethorp J. A. , Partridge T. C. , Piketh S. , Repinski P. , Stevenson C. , Svanered O. , Tyson P. D. ,
High-resolution stable isotope variations and growth structure analyses of the last three millennia of a 6600-year stalagmite record at Cold Air Cave, Makapansgat Valley, South Africa, are presented. Growth layers, which are measurable over the last 250 years, are shown to be annual. The correlation between the width of growth layers and precipitation is strongly positive. Changes in{delta}18O and{delta}13C are positively correlated and inversely correlated to changes in the colour of the growth layers in the stalagmite. Variations in colour are directly correlated with mean annual temperature. Dark colouration is the product of increased temperature and mobilization of organic matter from the soil, and is associated with wetter summers and enhanced growth of C4 grasses. Darker colouring and enriched{delta}18O and{delta}13C reflect a warmer, wetter environment, whereas lighter colouring and depleted isotopic values are indicative of cooler, drier conditions. The dominant episode in the 3000-year record is the cool, dry 500-year manifestation of the Little Ice Age', from ad 1300 to about 1800, with the lowest temperatures at around ad 1700. The four centuries from ad 900 to 1300, experiencing above-average warming and high variability, may be the regional expression of the medieval warming. Other cool, dry spells prevailed from around ad 800 to 900 and from about ad 440 to 520. The most prolonged warm, wet period occurred from ad 40 to 400. Some extreme events are shown to correspond well with similar events determined from the Greenland GISP2 ice-core record and elsewhere. Distinct periodicities occur within the record at around 120, 200-300, 500-600 and at about 800 years BP

Holocene Forcing of the Indian Monsoon Recorded in a Stalagmite from Southern Oman, 2003, Fleitmann D, Burns Sj, Mudelsee M, Neff U, Kramers J, Mangini A, Matter A,
A high-resolution oxygen-isotope record from a thorium-uranium-dated stalagmite from southern Oman reflects variations in the amount of monsoon precipitation for the periods from 10.3 to 2.7 and 1.4to 0.4thousand years before the present (ky B.P.). Between 10.3 and 8 ky B.P., decadal to centennial variations in monsoon precipitation are in phase with temperature fluctuations recorded in Greenland ice cores, indicating that early Holocene monsoon intensity is largely controlled by glacial boundary conditions. After [~]8 ky B.P., monsoon precipitation decreases gradually in response to changing Northern Hemisphere summer solar insolation, with decadal to multidecadal variations in monsoon precipitation being linked to solar activity

Tropical response to the 8200 yr B.P. cold event? Speleothem isotopes indicate a weakened early Holocene monsoon in Costa Rica, 2004, Lachniet Matthew S. , Asmerom Yemane, Burns Stephen J. , Patterson William P. , Polyak Victor J. , Seltzer Geoffrey O. ,
A {delta}18O monsoon rainfall proxy record from a U-Th-dated Costa Rican stalagmite (8840-4920 yr B.P.) documents an early Holocene dry period correlative with the high-latitude 8200 yr B.P. cold event. High {delta}18O values between ca. 8300 and 8000 yr B.P. demonstrate reduced rainfall and a weaker monsoon in Central America. A relatively wetter and more stable monsoon was established ca. 7600 yr B.P. The early Holocene dry event suggests a tropical-extratropical teleconnection to the 8200 yr B.P. cold event and a possible association of isthmian rainfall anomalies with high-latitude climate changes. The likely source of such a tropical anomaly is a decrease in Atlantic thermohaline circulation and atmospheric perturbations associated with drainage of proglacial lakes and freshwater discharge into the North Atlantic. A weaker monsoon at 8200 yr B.P. may be linked to wetland contraction and a decrease in methane observed in Greenland ice cores

Late Pleistocene paleoclimate in the Black Hills of South Dakota from isotope records in speleothems, 2004, Serefiddin Feride, Schwarcz Henry P. , Ford Derek C. , Baldwin Steve,
Two coeval speleothems from the Black Hills are used to investigate [delta]18O and [delta]13C variations within Reed's Cave and reconstruct climate during the Wisconsin glacial period from 82[punctuation space]000 to 24[punctuation space]000 years ago. Variation in growth rates between the two speleothems reveals a strong control of hydrology and surface vegetation on isotopic variability and response of [delta]18O to climate. High-resolution [delta]18O and [delta]13C data show that local environmental conditions can produce an offset of [delta]18O values of up to 4[per mille sign] in coeval speleothems but still reveal important climate events. The transition from warmer to cooler periods results in an increase in [delta]18O of calcite ([delta]18Oct) in sample RC2 while in sample RC20, another equilibrium deposit coeval to part of the RC2 record, [delta]18Oct is offset from RC2 by between 0 and -3.5[per mille sign], and shows much higher frequency isotopic variation. Speleothem RC2 records interglacial/glacial transitions and interstadial events that are also present in speleothems from North America and Europe. Spectral analysis of the [delta]18Oct records for both speleothems reveals periodicity at 1000 to 2000 years, similar to millennial scale variability seen in the North Atlantic sediments and the Greenland ice cores

14C Activity and Global Carbon Cycle Changes over the Past 50,000 Years, 2004, Hughen K. , Lehman S. , Southon J. , Overpeck J. , Marchal O. , Herring C. , Turnbull J. ,
A series of 14C measurements in Ocean Drilling Program cores from the tropical Cariaco Basin, which have been correlated to the annual-layer counted chronology for the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice core, provides a high-resolution calibration of the radiocarbon time scale back to 50,000 years before the present. Independent radiometric dating of events correlated to GISP2 suggests that the calibration is accurate. Reconstructed 14C activities varied substantially during the last glacial period, including sharp peaks synchronous with the Laschamp and Mono Lake geomagnetic field intensity minimal and cosmogenic nuclide peaks in ice cores and marine sediments. Simulations with a geochemical box model suggest that much of the variability can be explained by geomagnetically modulated changes in 14C production rate together with plausible changes in deep-ocean ventilation and the global carbon cycle during glaciation

High-resolution absolute-dated Indian Monsoon record between 53 and 36 ka from Xiaobailong Cave, southwestern China, 2006, Cai Y, An Z, Cheng H, Edwards Rl, Kelly Mj, Liu W, Wang X, Shen Cc,
The oxygen isotopic record of stalagmite XBL-1 from southwestern China reveals millennial-scale variability of the Indian Monsoon between 53 and 36 ka, synchronous with changes in the East Asian Monsoon recorded at Hulu Cave and similar to Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles recorded in Greenland ice. Our record, in general, confirms the chronology of Hulu Cave. If our correlations between Greenland and the Xiaobailong Cave record are correct, both the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 and Greenland Ice Core Project (ss09sea) chronologies are accurate within quoted errors. A dry interval that we correlate with Heinrich Event 5 (H5) and the Greenland stadial preceding Greenland Interstadial 12 (GIS 12) is centered ca. 48.0 ka and a shift to drier conditions, correlated to the end of GIS 12, is ca. 43.5 ka. Overall, the variability of the Indian Monsoon, from XBL-1 data, on millennial scales is similar to and correlated with high-latitude ice core rec ords from the Northern Hemisphere. However, some Indian Monsoon characteristics more closely resemble, but are anticorrelated with, features in the Antarctic record, suggesting some link to climate of the high southern latitudes, in addition to the clear link to the climate of the high northern latitudes

Timing and dynamics of the last deglaciation from European and North African [delta]13C stalagmite profiles--comparison with Chinese and South Hemisphere stalagmites, 2006, Genty D, Blamart D, Ghaleb B, Plagnes V, Causse C, Bakalowicz M, Zouari K, Chkir N, Hellstrom J, Wainer K, Bourges F,
The last deglaciation and its climatic events, such as the Bolling-Allerod (BA) and the Younger-Dryas (YD), have been clearly recorded in the [delta]13C profiles of three stalagmites from caves from Southern France to Northern Tunisia. The three [delta]13C records, dated by thermal ionization mass spectrometric uranium-thorium method (TIMS), show great synchroneity and similarity in shape with the Chinese cave [delta]18O records and with the marine tropical records, leading to the hypothesis of an in-phase (between 15.5 and 16 ka ~0.5 ka) postglacial warming in the Northern Hemisphere, up to at least 45[deg]N. The BA transition appears more gradual in the speleothem records than in the Greenland records and the Allerod seems warmer than the Bolling, showing here close similarities with other marine and continental archives. A North-South gradient is observed in the BA trend: it cools in Greenland and warms in our speleothem records. Several climatic events are clearly recognizable: a cooler period at about 14 ka (Older Dryas (OD)); the Intra-Allerod Cold Period at about ~13.3 ka; the YD cooling onset between 12.7 and 12.90.3 ka. Similar to the BA, the YD displays a gradual climate amelioration just after its onset at 12.750.25 ka, up to the Preboreal, and is punctuated by a short climatic event at 12.15 ka. Even though the Southern Hemisphere stalagmite records seem to indicate that the postglacial warming started about ~3 ka1.8 ka earlier in New Zealand (~41 [deg]S), and about ~1 to ~2 ka earlier in South Africa (24.1 [deg]S), large age uncertainties, essentially due to slow growth rates, make the comparison still perilous. The overall [delta]13C speleothem record seems to follow a baseline temperature increase controlled by the increase in insolation and punctuated by cold events possibly due to the N-America freshwater lake discharges

Chronology and paleoenvironment of Marine Isotope Stage 3 from two high-elevation speleothems, Austrian Alps, 2006, Spotl Christoph, Mangini Augusto, Richards David A. ,
A new high-resolution stable isotope record from the alpine Kleegruben Cave (2165 m, Central Alps) is presented. This record largely duplicates a previously reported speleothem record from this site. High-precision U-series thermal ionization mass spectrometry dates constrain the growth history of this new sample (56-48 ka) to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. Both stalagmites reveal highly similar variations in O isotopes that can be directly compared to O isotope variability associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials recorded in the Greenland ice cores (Greenland Interstadials, GIS). Based on the new record we refine our previous age assignments of the GIS during this time interval, i.e. GIS 15b at 55.7 ka, GIS 15a at 55.3 ka, onset (mid-point) of the prominent GIS 14 at 54.5 yr and onset of GIS 12 at ~48 ka. The overall uncertainties associated with these ages are 0.1-0.3 ka. The timing of these Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials is within 0.2 ka of the newly proposed GRIP.SFCP04 timescale.The age data for both Kleegruben stalagmites demonstrate that liquid water was at least seasonally present in the shallow sub-surface allowing calcite precipitation to continue even during stadials of MIS 3. Given the present-day low temperature (.4 [deg]C) we propose that these unusual speleothems formed in a karst system overlain by a warm-based glacier

Stalagmite evidence for the precise timing of North Atlantic cold events during the early last glacial, 2007, Drysdale Rn, Zanchetta G, Hellstrom Jc, Fallick Ae, Mcdonald J, Cartwright I,
Evidence of millennial-scale cold events following the last interglacial are well preserved in North Atlantic marine cores, Greenland ice, and pollen records from Europe. However, their timing was previously undetermined by radiometric dating. We report the first precise radiometric ages for two such events, C23 (105.1 {} 0.9 ka to 102.6 {} 0.8 ka) and C24 (112.0 {} 0.8 ka and 108.8 {} 1.0 ka), based on stable carbon and oxygen isotope measurements on a stalagmite from Italy (CC28). In addition to providing new information on the duration of these events in southern Europe, the age data provide invaluable tuning points for the Melisey I (C24) and Montaigu (C23) pollen zones identified in western Europe. The former event is of particular significance because it represents the end of the Eemian interglacial forest phase in western Europe. The new age data will also allow fine tuning of the timing and duration of Greenland stadial 24 (equivalent to C23) in the North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core and, via a common gasage chronology, tuning of the Vostok and EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) ice cores

NALPS: a precisely dated European climate record 12060 ka, 2011, Boch R. Cheng H. , Spotl C. , Edwards R. L. , Wang X. , Hauselmann Ph.

Accurate and precise chronologies are essential in understanding the rapid and recurrent climate variations of the Last Glacial – known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events – found in the Greenland ice cores and other climate archives. The existing chronological uncertainties during the Last Glacial, however, are still large. Radiometric age data and stable isotopic signals from speleothems are promising to improve the absolute chronology. We present a record of several precisely dated stalagmites from caves located at the northern rim of the Alps (NALPS), a region that favours comparison with the climate in Greenland. The record covers most of the interval from 120 to 60 ka at an average temporal resolution of 2 to 22 yr and 2_-age uncertainties of ca. 200 to 500 yr. The rapid and large oxygen isotope shifts of 1 to 4.5‰ occurred within decades to centuries and strongly mimic the Greenland D-O pattern. Compared to the updated Greenland ice-core timescale (GICC05modelext) the NALPS record confirms the timing of rapid warming and cooling transitions between 118 and 106 ka, but suggests younger ages for D-O events between 106 and 60 ka. As an exception, the timing of the rapid transitions into and out of the stadial following GI 22 is earlier in NALPS than in the Greenland ice-core timescale. In addition, there is a discrepancy in the duration of this stadial between the icecore and the stalagmite chronology (ca. 2900 vs. 3650 yr). The short-lived D-O events 18 and 18.1 are not recorded in NALPS, provoking questions with regard to the nature and the regional expression of these events. NALPS resolves recurrent short-lived climate changes within the cold Greenland stadial and warm interstadial successions, i.e. abrupt warming events preceding GI 21 and 23 (precursor-type events) and at the end of GI 21 and 25 (rebound-type events), as well as intermittent cooling events during GI 22 and 24. Such superimposed events have not yet been documented outside Greenland. 


NALPS: a precisely dated European climate record 12060 ka, 2011, Boch R. , Cheng H. , Spotl C. , Edwards R. L. , Wang X. , Hauselmann Ph.

Accurate and precise chronologies are essential in understanding the rapid and recurrent climate variations of the Last Glacial – known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events – found in the Greenland ice cores and other climate archives. The existing chronological uncertainties during the Last Glacial, however, are still large. Radiometric age data and stable isotopic signals from speleothems are promising to improve the absolute chronology. We present a record of several precisely dated stalagmites from caves located at the northern rim of the Alps (NALPS), a region that favours comparison with the climate in Greenland. The record covers most of the interval from 120 to 60 ka at an average temporal resolution of 2 to 22 yr and 2_-age uncertainties of ca. 200 to 500 yr. The rapid and large oxygen isotope shifts of 1 to 4.5‰ occurred within decades to centuries and strongly mimic the Greenland D-O pattern. Compared to the updated Greenland ice-core timescale (GICC05modelext) the NALPS record confirms the timing of rapid warming and cooling transitions between 118 and 106 ka, but suggests younger ages for D-O events between 106 and 60 ka. As an exception, the timing of the rapid transitions into and out of the stadial following GI 22 is earlier in NALPS than in the Greenland ice-core timescale. In addition, there is a discrepancy in the duration of this stadial between the icecore and the stalagmite chronology (ca. 2900 vs. 3650 yr). The short-lived D-O events 18 and 18.1 are not recorded in NALPS, provoking questions with regard to the nature and the regional expression of these events. NALPS resolves recurrent short-lived climate changes within the cold Greenland stadial and warm interstadial successions, i.e. abrupt warming events preceding GI 21 and 23 (precursor-type events) and at the end of GI 21 and 25 (rebound-type events), as well as intermittent cooling events during GI 22 and 24. Such superimposed events have not yet been documented outside Greenland.

 


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