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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That cohesion is shear resistance at zero normal stress. an equivalent term in rock mechanics is intrinsic shear strength.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for guizhou province (Keyword) returned 19 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 19
Karst development and the distribution of karst drainage systems in Dejiang, Guizhou Province, China, 1983, Song Linhua, Zhang Yaoguang, Fang Jinfu, Gu Zhongxong,
The nature of karstification of two contrasting areas on the north Guizhou Plateau (south China) is shown to be controlled by structure, lithology, geomorphic history and tectonics, and causes significant differences to arise in the subsurface drainage systems of the areas.The Shaqi area lies in a syncline of Permo-Triassic limestones underlain by an insoluble sandy shale which forms the local base level. Karst landforms are strongly influenced by the presence of four erosion levels corresponding to four periods of rejuvenation of the drainage systems. Drainage is concentrated along the syncline axis, and one system (Naoshuiyan) has been pirating another (Lengshuiyan) by headward retreat. Cave passages are typically phreatic.The Dejiang Town area lies in an anticline of Cambrian dolomite and Ordovician limestone. Three large subsurface drainage systems have developed along parallel faults, and have typically vadose cross-sections

Karst Geomorphology and Subterranean Drainage in South Dushan, Guizhou Province, China, 1986, Song Linhua

Four areas with different styles of fenglin (tower and cone karst) are investigated using morphometric techniques in the Shuicheng area of Guizhou Province. The karsts were formed in the Neogene and were uplifted during the Quaternary, to present elevations of about 1800 m. Measurements were made of the characteristics of 745 cones using maps and aerial photographs supplemented by field investigations. The karst cones are found to be of almost constant slope angle (45-degrees to 47-degrees) regardless of structure, but with a tendency for slightly lower slopes to occur where the carbonates have impure interbeds. Although generally symmetrical in plan, elongation of both cones and intervening depressions appears controlled by major elements of the structure and the general slope of the topography. Spatial analysis shows the cones to be relatively uniformly distributed in three of the four cases studied. Morphometric evidence points strongly to parallel slope evolution of cones. A model is offered of landscape evolution in which sequential development occurs through stages of karst-tableland with dolines to fencong-depression to fenglin-depression and finally to fenglin-plain. Geological control becomes less influential as this development proceeds, with the smaller and more widely spaced cones of the later stages becoming increasingly symmetrical in form

The Caves of Doshan, Guizhou Province, China, 1993, Dunton B. , Laverty M.

Gypsum karst in China., 1996, Cooper Anthony, Yaoru Lu
The Peoples Republic of China has the largest gypsum resources in the world and a long history of their exploitation. The gypsum deposits range in age from Pre-Cambrian to Quaternary and their genesis includes marine, lacustrine, thermal (volcanic and metasomatic), metamorphic and secondary deposits. The gypsum is commonly associated with other soluble rocks such as carbonates and salt. These geological conditions, regional climate differences and tectonic setting strongly influence the karstification process resulting in several karst types in China. Well developed gypsum palaeokarst and some modem gypsum karst is present in the Fengfeng Formation (Ordovician) gypsum of the Shanxi and Hebei Provinces. Collapse columns filled with breccia emanate upwards from this karst and affect the overlying coalfields causing difficult and hazardous mining conditions. Gypsum karst is also recorded in the middle Cambrian strata of Guizhou Province and the Triassic strata of Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces. Gypsum-salt lake karst has developed in the Pleistocene to Recent enclosed basin deposits within the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau.

A stepped karst unconformity as an Early Silurian rocky shoreline in Guizhou Province (South China), 1996, Jiayu R. , Johnson M. E. ,
There succeeded by marine strata, karst unconformities signify a former rocky coastline. Such relationships may help sort out relative sea-level changes and aspects of local geography controlling facies distribution. An exceptional example of an early Silurian karst shore is well exposed near the village of Wudang in central Guizhou Province, near the capital city of Guiyang in South China. Here the Lower Silurian Kaochaitien Formation oversteps 63 m of paleotopographic relief in limestones belonging to the Llanvirn Guniutan Formation and Caradoc to early Ashgill Huanghuachong Formation (Ordovician). The corresponding rise in sea level took place coeval with tectonic uplift, as confirmed by a regionally diachronous relationship in the Ordovician-Silurian boundary across a 250 km track from central to northern Guizhou Province. The change in sea level also fits with a global rise of sea level in late Aeronian (later Llandovery, early Silurian) time. Borings of the ichnofossil, Trypanites, are reported from the karst surface of the Huanghuachong Formation and Silurian strata hh sink holes in this unit over 5 m deep. The Silurian karst shoreline near Wudang is integrated with other regional data to construct a paleogeographic map covering the northern half of Guizhou Province


China has the worlds largest proven gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) resources in the world. The gypsum ranges from pre-Cambrian to Quaternary in age and occurs in varied geological environments. The rapid dissolution rate of gypsum means that gypsum karst development can be very fast, resulting in progressively worsening geohazards. This paper reviews the characteristics of the gypsum deposits and their associated geohazards in China.Three kinds of gypsum karst are discussed. These include karst in massive thick beds of gypsum, karst in thin-bedded gypsum and compound karst in gypsum and carbonate rocks. Some site-specific problems are also examined. In the Shanxi coalfield, breccia pipes, or collapse columns, caused by the dissolution of Ordovician gypsum, penetrate the overlying Carboniferous and Permian coal-bearing sequences resulting in difficult coal mining conditions. In Guizhou Province re-activated gypsum karst is associated with leakage of water through the gypsum from a reservoir. Remedial engineering works have been carried out, but leakage still occurs. Groundwater abstraction from gypsiferous sequences is also problematical. It can yield sulphate-polluted water and cause subsidence problems both through gypsum dissolution and groundwater drawdown.

Element geochemistry of weathering profile of dolomitite and its implications for the average chemical composition of the upper-continental crust - Case studies from the Xinpu profile, northern Guizho, 2000, Ji H. B. , Ouyang Z. , Wang S. J. , Zhou D. Q. ,
Geochemical behavior of chemical elements is studied in a dolomitite weathering profile in upland of karst terrain in northern Guizhou. Two stages can be recognized during the process of in situ weathering of dolomitite: the stage of sedentary accumulation of leaching residue of dolomitite and the stage of chemical weathering evolution of sedentary soil. Ni, Cr, Mo, W and Ti are the least mobile elements with reference to Al. The geochemical behavior of REE is similar to that observed in weathering of other types of rocks. Fractionation of REE is noticed during weathering, and the two layers of REE enrichments are thought to result from downward movement of the weathering front in response to changes in the environment. It is considered that the chemistry of the upper part of the profile, which was more intensively weathered, is representative of the mobile components of the upper curst at the time the dolomitite was formed, while the less weathered lower profile is chemically representative of the immobile constitution. Like glacial till and loess, the 'insoluble' materials in carbonate rocks originating from chemical sedimentation may also provide valuable information about the average chemical composition of the upper continental crust

The FAST/SKA site selection in Guizhou province, 2001, Zhu B. , Nie Y. , Nan R. , Peng B. ,

Karst conduit flow and its hydrodynamic characteristics - Houzhai River drainage basin in Puding, Guizhou, China as an example, 2001, Wang L. C. , Zhang Y. Z. ,
Conduit flow is a special geomorphologic and hydrological phenomenon in karst area. Houzhai River drainage basin in Puding, Guizhou Province is a large-scale test field in the main and broad karst area in the southern part of China, where conduit flow is a general reserve and drainage system for groundwater. Based on the great deal of field investigation and indoor research work during the 1970s-1980s, pulse tests were done four times there during 1988-1991 in wet and dry seasons. It shows that water level at each observation site changes from 10 to 1800 mm, with the larger variation in upper stream and at karst windows than in lower reaches and at each exit along subterraneous rivers. The average flow velocity in conduit system is determined within 200 - 800 m/h, with the less change from flood to dry seasons, and it is higher in principal conduits and in upper stream area. Also, the reliable divided discharge ratio among each hydrological conduit of sunken system has been got. Thus, combined with detailed field survey in this area, the river system has been exposed finally

Isotopic compositions of strontium in river water of Guizhou karst areas, China, 2001, Han G. L. , Liu C. Q. ,
We have carried out a study on the variation of strontium isotope composition of river waters, Wujiang and Yuangjiang River, in karst areas of Guizhou Province, China. The results obtained permit us to characterize the geochemistry of the river draining karst terrain and obtain a better understanding of main controls of catchment geology, chemical weathering of different rocks, and evaluate impact of human activities on the environment. The isotopic ratios of dissolved Sr in all rivers are between Sr-87/Sr-86 = 0.7077 and 0.7110, totally lower than the weighted average of Sr-87/Sr-86 = 0.7119 for the world large rivers. The Wujiang River waters have Sr concentrations from 1.0 to 6.1 mu mol/L, while the Yuanjiang River waters have much lower Sr concentrations ranging from 0.28 to 1.3 mu mol/L. Most of the river waters from the Wujiang river are characterized by low Ca/Sr and Mg/Sr, and Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios, in which a majority of river waters are of Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios lower than the average Sr isotope ratio (Sr-87/Sr-86 = 0.709) of present seawater. The higher Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios are observed in the river waters in the lower reach of the Wujiang River, where the lithology is dominated by detrital rocks and dolomite. The water from Yuanjiang River show higher Ca/Sr, Mg/Sr and Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios due to weathering of silicates, as compared to the river waters from Wujiang river

Application of carbon isotope for discriminating sources of soil CO2 in karst area, Guizhou, 2001, Li T. Y. , Wang S. J. ,
Using carbon isotope of soil CO2 this paper discussed the sources of soil CO2 in karst area, Guizhou Province, China. Oxidation-decomposition of organic matter, respiration of plant root and activity of microbe are thought to be the major sources of soil CO2. However, in karst area, the contribution of dissolution of underlying carbonate rock to soil CO2 should be considered as in acidic environment. Atmospheric CO2 is the major composition Of Soil CO2 in surface layer of soil profiles and its proportion in Soil CO2 decreases with increase of soil depth. CO2 produced by dissolution of carbonate rock contributes 34%-46% to soil CO2 below the depth of 10cm in the studied soil profiles covered by grass

Evaporite karst and resultant geohazards in China, 2002, Lu Y. R. , Zhang F. E. , Qi J. X. , Xu J. M. , Guo X. H. ,
The main kinds of evaporite karst, both sulphate karst and halide karst, are widely distributed in China. Gypsum karst is especially widespread, because China contains the largest gypsum resources in the world. These gypsum deposits range in age from Precambrian to Quaternary, and they were deposited in many environments, including marine, lacustrine, thermal process, metamorphic, and also as secondary deposits. Halide karst is developed in rock salt and salt-water lakes, the latter related to more than 300 salt-water lakes distributed in the Qinghai Plateau of Xizang (Tibet) province. Gypsum and halite are easily dissolved; therefore, development of evaporite karst is somewhat different when compared with carbonate karst, which has developed many typical features in China. This paper discusses the mechanism and development of evaporite karst in sulphate rocks and in halides, and makes comparisons between evaporite karst and carbonate karst based upon field investigations and new tests in the laboratory. The geohazards of evaporite karst usually are triggered by natural karst processes, but often they are exaggerated by artificial (human) actions and engineering impacts that cause flesh groundwater or surface water to come in contact with the evaporite rocks. Some examples of evaporite-karst geohazards are described in this paper; they are present in Shandong, Sichuan, and Guizhou Provinces, and in the Qinghai Plateau of China

Karst collapse related to over-pumping and a criterion for its stability, 2003, He K. Q. , Liu C. L. , Wang S. J. ,
Karst collapse, caused by natural or artificial abstraction of groundwater, has been an environmental geological problem. The origin of karst collapse has been described by the potential erosion theory and the vacuum absorption erosion theory. However, a mathematical prediction criterion for karst collapse cannot be established by these two theories. This paper, from a new perspective, attempts to explain the microcosmic mechanism of karst collapse on the basis of these two theories. At a certain point in the unconsolidated soil covered on karst caves, when shearing stress surpasses shear strength of the soil, it fails under the mechanic effects of water and gas as well as gravity pressure. With an increase in damage points, a break plane appears and the soil overlying the karst caves is completely damaged and, thus, the ground surface collapses. On the basis of Mohr-Coulomb damage theory and previous studies, a prediction criterion of karst collapse is presented. An example displays the calculating process of the model and proves its reliability by analyzing nine typical collapses caused by a pumping test in Guizhou Province, China

Heterogeneity of parent rocks and its constraints on geochemical criteria in weathering crusts of carbonate rocks, 2004, Wang S. J. , Feng Z. G. ,
Owing to the low contents of their acid-insoluble components, carbonate rocks tend to decrease sharply in volume in association with the formation of weathering crust. The formation of a 1 m-thick weathering crust would usually consume more than ten meters to several tens of meters of thickness of parent rocks. The knowledge of how to identify the homogeneity of parent rocks is essential to understand the formation mechanism of weathering crust in karst regions. especially that of thick-layered red weathering crust. In this work the grain-size analyses have demonstrated that the three profiles studied are the residual weathering crust of carbonate rocks and further showed that there objectively exists the, heterogeneity of parent rocks in the three studied weathering crusts. The heterogeneity of parent rocks can also be. reflected in geochemical parameters of major elements, just as the characteristics of frequency plot of pain-size distribution. Conservative trace element ratios Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta are proven to be unsuitable for tracing the heterogeneity of parent rocks of weathering crust, but its geochemical mechanism is unclear. The authors strongly suggest in this paper that the identification of the homogeneity of parent rocks of weathering crust in karst regions is of prime necessity

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