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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That hydrocompaction is the process of volume decrease and density increase that occurs when moisture-deficient deposits compact as they are wetted for the first time since burial [21]. synonym: shallow subsidence.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for hawaii (Keyword) returned 21 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 21
An Initial Survey of Caves of the Hawaiian Islands, 1958, Halliday, William R.

Exploration and Geology of some Lava Tube caves on the Hawaiian Volcanoes, 1981, Wood C.

MURUROA ATOLL (FRENCH-POLYNESIA) .1. STRUCTURE AND GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION, 1992, Buigues D, Gachon A, Guille G,
From a geographical point of view, the atoll of Mururoa belongs to the Tuamotu archipelago. In its largest dimension Mururoa (28 x 10 km) is oriented N080-degrees-E, a direction which is different from that of the other atolls of the Tuamotu, generally oriented parallel to the Pacific plate motion, N130-degrees-E. The atoll of Mururoa is built on a submarine plateau of 130 km long and 30 km wide. The western side of this plateau is 90 km long and N080-degrees-E oriented, the eastern one 40 km long and N095-degrees-E oriented. Three deep main structures of the atoll are revealed by strong aeromagnetic anomalies elongated and oriented once more N080-degrees-E. They represent ancient riftzones, similar to the present time Hawaiian ones. The most important of them, situated at southern end of the atoll, is the prolongation of the eastern plateau. The principal petrographic facies have been defined from the numerous drill holes bored in the upper 1,100 m. From the base to the top are represented volcanic deposits, a volcano-sedimentary serie of both carbonate and volcanic origin and finally reefal carbonates (limestones and dolomites). The volcanic facies represent successively submarine, transitional and aerial volcanic activity. They are commonly affected by early stage of hydrothermalism, due to lava-sea-water chemical interaction, and are frequently supported by differentiated dykes, occasionally interrupted by reefal limestones. The main geometrical distribution of the facies through the atoll and the radiochronology lead to the following model of formation : during early stages of the atoll building two main separate edifices emerged before joining and forming a single volcano. This double structure was similar to the present time morphology of Tahiti. The volcanic activity ceased 10.6 Ma ago, an age which perfectly suits a hot spot origin, at present located to the south-east of Pitcairn island

Development and Morphology of Kazumura Cave, Hawaii, 1997, Allred, K. , Allred, C.
Kazumura Cave is a lava tube located in Puna District on the Island of Hawaii. A brief description and history of the cave is included. Compass and tape surveys in 1994 and 1995 extended the system significantly. This provided an excellent opportunity to study a long master lava tube. Lava deposition and thermal erosion are primary factors affecting the cave morphology. This is demonstrated by passage configuration, multiple levels, invasion of extraneous tubes, and the development of lava falls. Other tube features such as windows, balconies, and rafted breakdown are also discussed. Some features in Kazumura Cave are similar to those associated with carbonate caves and surface water streams.

The Hawaiian cave planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae); A model for rapid subterranean speciation?, 1997, Hoch Hannelore
After the successful colonization of a single ancestral species in the Hawaiian Islands, planthoppers of the cixiid genus Oliarus underwent intensive adaptive radiation resulting in 80 described endemic species. Oliarus habitats range from montaneous rain forests to dry coastal biotopes and subterranean environments. At least 7 independant evolutionary lines represented by different species have adapted to lava tubes on Molokai (1), Maui (3), and Hawaii Island (3). Behavioral and morphological studies on one of these evolutionary lines on Hawaii Island, the blind, flight- and pigmentless Oliarus polyphentus have provided evidence for reproductive isolation between allopatric populations which may in fact be separate species. Significant differences in song parameters were observed even between populations from neighbouring lava tubes, although the planthoppers are capable of underground migration through the voids and cracks of the mesocavernous rock system which is extant in young basalt: after a little more than 20 years, lava tubes within the Mauna Ulu 1974 flow had been colonized by O. 'polyphenius" individuals, most probably originating from a near-by forestkipuka. Amazingly, this species complex is found on the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands, with probably less than 0.5 m.y., which suggests rapid speciation processes. Field observations have led to the development of a hypothesis to match underground speciation with the dynamics of vegetational succession on the surface of active volcanoes. Planthopper range partitioning and geographic separation of populations by young lava flows, founder events and small population size may be important factors involved in rapid divergence.

History and Status of the Moiliili Karst, Hawaii, 1998, Halliday, W. R.
The Moiliili Karst occurs in Pleistocene reef limestone located in a populous, low-elevation area of Honolulu, Hawaii. A 1934 construction excavation intersected a previously unknown karstic master conduit at a depth of -7 m msl. Temporary dewatering of over 3.7 x 109 L caused considerable economic loss due to collapses and subsidences in a wedge-shaped area about 1 km on each side. These outline a previously unrecognized dendritic karst drainage. Considerable retrograde flow of salt water also occurred. Subsequent urbanization again lowered the water table and dewatering phenomena are still occurring. A section of Moiliili Water Cave is the only clearly karstic feature that remains available for study. It serves as a floodwater conduit. Surprisingly, its water quality has improved since 1983. Its protection should be a prototype for other Hawaiian karsts and pseudokarsts. Other sections of Honolulu also are underlain by reef limestone and may be at risk.

Hollow volcanic tumulus caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii., 1998, Halliday William R.
In addition to lava tube caves with commonly noted features, sizable subcrustal spaces of several types exist on the floor of Kilauea Caldera. Most of these are formed by drainage of partially stabilized volcanic structures enlarged or formed by injection of very fluid lava beneath a plastic crust. Most conspicuous are hollow tumuli, possibly first described by Walker in 1991. Walker mapped and described the outer chamber of Tumulus E-I Cave. Further exploration has revealed that it has a hyperthermic inner room beneath an adjoining tumulus with no connection evident on the surface. Two lengthy, sinuous hollow tumuli also are present in this part of the caldera. These findings support Walkers conclusions that hollow tumuli provide valuable insights into tumulus-forming mechanisms, and provide information about the processes of emplacement of pahoehoe sheet flows.

'Pit Craters'', lava tubes, and open vertical volcanic conduits in Hawaii: a problem in terminology., 1998, Halliday William R.
Almost from the 1849 publication of the term pit crater, volcanologists have disagreed about the parameters differentiating these features from other vertical volcanic structures. Kaluaiki is a jameo giving entry to Thurston Lava Tube in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Long-standing misidentification of it as a pit crater is an example of misunderstandings arising from the lack of a clear definition of pit crater. In general, pit craters are unrelated to lava tube caves genetically, but two special cases are discussed. One probably is genetically related to a rift tube deep below the surface; the other is a complex of a small pit crater with a partial rim of accreted plates plus an ordinary-seeming lava tube cave. The term pit crater should be redefined in such a way that it excludes collapses or subsidences related to ordinary superficial lava tubes and open vertical volcanic conduits. Otherwise, a non-definition like that currently listed for agglomerate may be appropriate.

Sheet flow caves of Kilauea Caldera, Hawaii County, Hawaii., 1998, Halliday William R.
Terminal lobes of sheet flows of pahoehoe lava sometimes form three-dimensional nests, initially separated by partitions consisting of accreted 'skins" of each lobe. Melting breaks down these partitions, forming a uniform flow unit. In Kilauea Caldera we have found and mapped sizable drained cavities in low-slope sheet flows. Their general pattern includes three-dimensional nests, with partially melted septa evident in some examples. Christmas Cave is the most extensive found to date, with 632 meters surveyed on two levels. It is located at the lower end of an inflated sheet flow tongue which underwent local deflation as a result of drainage through the cave after its parameters were partially fixed. Small conduit remnants persist in its boundary ridges. The major part of the cave consists of wide, low nestled chambers. Meltdown of such partitions is one of the few emplacement mechanisms of thermal erosion which may not involve any mechanical element. Additional caves in this caldera are being identified and studied.

Leg Attenuation and Seasonal Femur Length: Mass Relationships in Cavernicolous Crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae and Rhaphidophoridae), 2002, Studier, E. H. , Lavoie, K. H. , Howarth, F. G.
We report here some factors that affect the relationship between hind femur length (HFL) to crop-empty live weight (CELW) and propose a quantitative, non-lethal measurement ratio that has potential as an index of extent of adaptation to a cavernicolous existence in crickets. Curvilinear relationships exist between HFL and CELW for camel crickets (Ceuthophilus stygius) and cave crickets (Hadenoecus subterraneus). The relationships differ significantly between the species and also by gender within both species and, in cave crickets, by season as well. In C. stygius, females of small HFL are slightly lighter, and those of large HFL slightly heavier than males. In H. subterraneus, females have progressively greater CELW than males as HFL increases. In adult H. subterraneus of identical HFLs, CELW is greatest in fall and least in spring, i.e., individuals are most robust in the Fall in these long-lived crickets, probably due to seasonal constraints on surface feeding. An attenuation index of CELW/HFL? yields a ratio that ranks the extent of adaptation to cave life in these two and eight other species of variously adapted cavernicolous and epigean crickets. Lower values of the attenuation index indicate greater adaptation to cavernicolous existence. The three gryllid species from Hawaii Island are closely related and include the blind, obligate cave cricket, Caconemobius varius, and two surface species, the lava flow cricket, Caconemobius fori, and the marine littoral cricket, Caconemobius sandwichensis. The latter two species are nocturnal scavengers on barren rock habitats. The lower CELW/HFL? ratio in lava flow crickets suggest they use caves more frequently for daytime roosts than does the marine littoral species.

Raw sewage and solid waste dumps in lava tube caves of Hawaii Island, 2003, Halliday, W. R.
Lava tubes on the island of Hawaii (and elsewhere) are possible subsurface point sources of contamination in addition to more readily identifiable sources on the surface. Human and animal waste, and hazardous and toxic substances dumped into lava tube caves are subject to rapid transport during flood events, which are the dominant type of groundwater flow through Hawaiian lava tubes. Although these waste materials may not be a major source of pollution when compared with some surface sources, this potential hazard should be evaluated much as in the case of karstic floodwater conduits.

Pa'auhau Civil Defense Cave on Mauna Kea, Hawaii - A lava tube modified by water erosion, 2003, Kempe, S. , Bauer, I. , Henschel, H. V.
In 2000 and 2001, 2 large (1000 m long) cave systems were surveyed on the eastern, heavily eroded flank of Mauna Kea: The Paauhau Civil Defense Cave and the Kukaiau Cave. Both caves occur in the Hamakua Volcanics, 200-250 to 65-70 ka old. They are the first substantial caves documented for lavas of this volcano and the first caves on the island of Hawaii showing extensive morphological signs of water erosion. All observations lead to the conclusion that the Kukaiau Cave is erosional in origin (Kempe & Werner 2003). These observations include: missing lava tube features, a graded hydraulic profile, a base layer along which the major section of the cave seems to have developed, and allophane and halloysite that sealed the primary porosity causing a locally perched water table. In contrast to this feature, the Paauhau Civil Defense Cave originated as a lava tube. This is attested to by the presence of the typical morphologic elements of a lava tube, such as secondary ceilings, linings, base sheets, lava stalactites, and lava falls. Nevertheless, the cave was heavily modified by a stream that entered upslope and traversed much, but not all, of the cave. It left waterfall walls, large plunge pools, stream potholes, scallops, flutes, gravel, rounded blocks, and mud. The finding of water-erosional caves in the lavas of Hawaii offers a new view on deep-seated water courses in volcanic edifices.

The Kukaiau Cave, Mauna Kea, Hawaii, Created by Water Erosion: A New Hawaiian Cave Type, 2003, Kempe, S. , Werner, M. S.
In 2000 and 2001, two large (each ca. 1000 m long) cave systems have been surveyed on the eastern, heavily eroded, flank of Mauna Kea: The Paauhau Civil Defense Cave and the Kukaiau Cave (at first called ThatCave/ThisCave System). Both caves occur in the Hamakua Volcanics, 200-250 to 65-70 ka old. They are the first substantial caves documented for lavas of Mauna Kea and the first caves on Hawaii showing extensive morphological signs of water erosion. The Paauhau Civil Defense Cave is a lava tube, as attested by the presence of the typical morphological elements of lava tubes, including secondary ceilings, linings, base sheets, stalactites and lava falls. Subsequently, the cave was modified erosionally by a stream which entered upslope and traversed much, but not all, of the cave, leaving waterfalls, waterfall ponds, scallops, gravel, rounded blocks and mud (Kempe et al. 2003). In contrast the Kukaiau Cave a still active stream cave with a vadose and phreatic section - is essentially erosional in origin. This is concluded from the geology of the strata exposed in the cave and from its morphology: At the upper entrance the cave is situated in a thick series of aa and the lower section was created by removing aa and diamict layers, therefore excluding the possibility that the cave developed from a precursor lava tube. Also, in its phreatic section, the cave makes several right angle turns and moves upward through a series of pahoehoe sheets, unlike any lava tube. Furthermore, a base layer can be followed along which the major section of the upper cave has developed. Allophane and halloysite minerals produced by weathering - helped in sealing the primary porosity of this base layer causing a locally perched water table. Water moving along this base layer on a steep hydraulic gradient through the interstices of aa and through small pahoehoe tubes exerted a high pressure on the porous diamict of the lower cave, causing its erosional removal. Our observations of water erosional caves in lavas of Hawaii offer a new perspective on deep-seated water courses in volcanic edifices.

Hawaii Lava Tube Caves, United States, 2004, Halliday W. R.

Hawaiian Islands: Biospeleology, 2004, Howarth F. G.

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