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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That microkarst is 1. karst area with small morphological features. term is not easily applied because it lacks limits [20]. 2. karst topography in which all surficial features are small; an area dominated by minor karst features [10]. compare macrokarst.?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for heavy metals (Keyword) returned 18 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 18
Groundwater pollution by sewage, creamery waste heavy metals in the Horse Cave area, Kentucky, 1983, Quinlan J. F.

Heavy metals in sediments_'problems concerning determination of the anthropogenic influence. Study in the Krka River estuary, eastern Adriatic coast, Yugoslavia, 1989, Prohi'_ Esad, Jura' I'_,

Recent measurements of water quality in Mrzlek spring, 2000, Jug Tjaš, A, Vudrag Marko, Franko Mladen

Recent investigations of drinking water quality related to the spring Mrzlek near Solkan, Slovenia are described. Multielemental analyses of 66 elements and anions such as nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, chloride, phosphate, bromide and fluoride in water from the spring Mrzlek and the river Soča, as well as determination of trihalomethanes in chlorinated water, were carried out to reveal eventual impacts of environmental pollution on the quality of drinking water from spring Mrzlek. It was observed that the pollution of the river Soča with heavy metals is recently decreasing, while the concentrations of trihalomethanes in drinking water are relatively low and have not increased during the last five years. At present the quality of drinking water from the spring Mrzlek meets all the standards. Higher concentrations of nitrate in the spring, however, indicate potential pollution from farming on the Banjšice plateau. In general, quite similar concentrations of most elements and anions were observed in the spring Mrzlek and the river Soča. Higher concentrations of Ca, Fe, Zn, nitrate and chloride were observed in the spring, while concentrations of Mn, Mg, Ba, As, and sulphate were significantly higher in the river.


On flow and transport of miscible tracers in the vadose zone, 2000, Loboferreira J. P. , Leitã, O Teresa, Quigley Seá, N P. , Theves Thomas

The paper presents a synthesis of LNEC's contribution to the European Commission (DGXII) Contract n° CI1*-CT94-0014 (DG 12 HSMU), based on the results reported by Lobo-Ferreira et al. (1998). The main contribution of LNEC to the project was the development of flow and transport experiments, for different flow type conditions (i.e. saturated and unsaturated). These included experiments at: (1) different scales (two scales in the laboratory and one in a medium scale - artificial aquifer), (2) different saturation conditions, and (3) different tracers (MgCl2, CaCl2, NO3-, Ni, Cd). The goals of the experiments were threefold: (1) analysis and quantification of the physical parameters that control circulation in this zone (hydraulic conductivity correspondent to the degree of saturation etc.); (2) determination and quantification of the more important processes that control the chemical behaviour of heavy metals and nitrate, and (3) to obtain data for calibrating the numerical models.


Research on the effect of sludge fertilizer on farmland and the safety of heavy metals in a karst area, 2001, Xie Qinglin, Zhang Xuehong, Wang Dunqiu, Li Jincheng, Qin Yiyong, Chen Yudao,

ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE GEOCHEMISTRY OF SEDIMENTS AND PERCOLATING WATERS IN THE MODRI] CAVE, CROATIA, 2002, Miko Slobodan, Kuhta Mladen, Kapelj Sanja

A comprehensive study of Modrić cave was undertaken to evaluate the baseline conditions before its utilization for tourism. Silty loams with guano contain abundant quartz, illite and taranakite and minor vivianite and high concentrations of Cu (2869 mg/kg), Zn (951 mg/kg) and Cd (28 mg/kg). Also sediments mixed with guano are enriched with light REE as well as elevated concentrations of U, Th, Rb and Hg. Sediments with bone fragments contain abundant quartz, illite, calcite and hydroxylapatite and minor carndallite and lower contents of heavy metals. All sediments analysed showed various degrees of contamination by Cu and Zn from dispersed guano. Most of the Zn and Cu in cave sediments and the hydroxyl-apatite crusts are mainly controlled by the iron and manganese hydroxide and the organic fractions, the organic fraction plays an important role in sediment samples with direct influence of guano and in hydroxylapatite crusts while in samples with bone fragments the hydroxide control is dominant. Guano influence on the percolating waters was observed in two cases in the left channel where due to the higher content of orthophosphates saturation in respect to hydroxyl-apatite is present.


Evaluation of a peat filtration system for treating highway runoff in a karst setting, 2003, Zhou W. F. , Beck B. F. , Green T. S. ,
The deleterious character of highway runoff, especially following long periods without precipitation, has been well documented in the literature. It transports hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and other contaminants from highways, contributing to the pollution of surface water and groundwater. Groundwater is particularly vulnerable in karst areas where highway runoff is transferred quickly into subsurface conduit networks through open sinkholes and/or sinking streams. The difficulties in remediating contaminated karst aquifers make it crucial for karst aquifers to receive only uncontaminated water. A peat filtration system was constructed at the I-40/I-640 interchange in eastern Knoxville, Tennessee, USA, to remove highway runoff contaminants prior to being transported into karst aquifers.- Recent field tests indicate that the system can significantly decrease the concentrations of analyzed constituents including PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons), popper, and zinc. However, the removal efficiency depends on the concentration of the contaminants in the runoff. Long-term monitoring is required to determine the true effectiveness of the designed filtration system and its reliability

Metal transport to karst springs during storm flow: an example from Fort Campbell, Kentucky/Tennessee, USA, 2003, Vesper D. J. , White W. B. ,
Low levels of heavy metals were investigated in a series of springs discharging from the Mississippian limestone aquifer underlying the Fort Campbell Army Base in western Kentucky/Tennessee. Springs were sampled at short time intervals through periods of storm discharge. Unfiltered samples were digested and analysed by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Metals detected at the mug/l level included As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb. Metal concentrations exhibited a pronounced maximum coincident with the peak of the storm hydrograph in contrast to carbonate species (Ca, Mg) which dipped to a minimum at the peak of the storm hydrograph. Metal concentrations track with aluminium and iron suggesting that the metal transport is mainly by adsorption onto suspended particulates which are mobilized during storm flow.

Fens in karst sinkholes - Archives for long lasting 'immission' chronologies, 2003, Hettwer K. , Deicke M. , Ruppert H. ,
Fens in karst sinkholes are excellent archives for the reconstruction of vegetation, land use and emission rates over millennia. The reasons are the usually good preservation of pollen, the high portion of low density organic material with very low background concentrations of heavy metals, and the circum-neutral pH-values in most of these mires preventing migration of heavy metals. Immissions of dust and of harmful elements can easily be correlated with changes in vegetation ('immission' is a synonym for the deposition or impact of pollutants from the atmosphere on a receptor surface). One 13 m core from a similar to5000 yr old karst sinkhole fen (Silberhohl, western margin of the Harz Mountains, central Germany) was investigated by geochemical analysis, pollen analysis and dated by C-14 and palynological data. The core consists of organic material with a few percent of CaCO3 precipitated from groundwater and a small amount of atmospheric detritus. As early as the Iron Age (first pre-Christian millennium), slight but significant enrichments of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd are observed. After 400 AD stronger enrichments occurred culminating in the High Middle Ages (similar to1200-1300 AD). Maximum values are 1250 mug g(-1) Pb, 214 mug g(-1) Cu, 740 mug g(-1) Zn, and 3.8 mug g(-1) Cd. The enrichments are caused by emissions during smelting of sulfidic lead-zinc ores from the adjacent Hercynian deposits to extract Ag and Cu. Except for cadmium, these values were never exceeded in modern times. Since the Iron Age 23 g technogenic Pb, 5.3 g Cu, 27 g Zn and 0.2 g Cd have been deposited per square meter. Palynological investigations show a strong correlation between decreasing red beech pollens (Fagus sylvatica) and increasing demand on wood for smelting in the Middle Ages. Simultaneously, the pollen share of pioneer trees such as birch (Betula pubescens) and of cereal grains (e.g. Secale) increases. Since the beginning of the 14th century, the decline of agriculture and population is reflected in the decreasing contents of Secale and heavy metals in the fen deposits

Spring and conduit sediments as storage reservoirs for heavy metals in karst aquifers, 2004, Vesper D. J. , White W. B. ,

Further dates of heavy metal content on the soil and vegetation of Aggtelek Karst (Hungary), 2004, Kaszala Rita, Bá, Rá, Nykevei Ilona, Polyá, K Klá, Ra

During the previous investigation of the Aggtelek Karst we published physical and chemical parameters of the soils and the microelement content of the greenery. The presentation now gives further information about the soil (e.g. EDTA soluble heavy metal content), and the greenery (more species, more elements). The presentation shows the relationship between the heavy metal content of the karstic soil, and the sprout of plants.


Contribution to knowledge of the content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd) in speleological objects in the Risnjak national park (Croatia), 2004, Vrbek Boris, Buzjak Nenad

Samples of silt were taken from six speleological objects in the Risnjak National Park in Gorski kotar area (NW Croatia). The samples were taken from almost inaccessible rock fissures and shafts in order to find the most natural sediment outside the reach of anthropogenic pollution. The samples were examined in the Laboratory of the Forest Research Institute, where standard pedological analyses were performed, and the content of several heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd) was determined. The results indicate relatively low values of the content of lead, copper and zinc, while the values of cadmium in the sediment were increased above the limit level of 2 mgkg-1 in the majority of speleological objects. The content of other heavy metals (Pb, Cu and Zn) in mgkg-1 was lower than previously determined in samples taken from other speleological objects on the Croatian territory. Also, the content of heavy metals was lower in relation to surface soil samples taken from the humus horizon and mineral part of the soil under the parent rock of limestone, when sampling the soils of the Risnjak National Park


Cave Aragonites of New South Wales [abstract], 2006, Rowling Jill
Aragonite is unstable in fresh water and usually reverts to calcite, but it is actively depositing as a secondary mineral in the vadose zone of some caves in New South Wales. Aragonite deposits were examined to determine whether the material is or is not aragonite. Substrates to the aragonite were examined, as was the nature of the bedrock. The physical, climatic, chemical and mineralogical influences on calcium carbonate deposition in the caves were investigated. The study sites are all located in Palaeozoic rocks within the Lachlan Fold Belt tectonic region of New South Wales. Several factors were found to be associated with the deposition of aragonite instead of calcite speleothems. They included the presence of ferroan dolomite, calcite-inhibitors (in particular ions of magnesium, manganese, phosphate, sulfate and heavy metals), and both air movement and humidity. Chemical inhibitors work by physically blocking the positions on the calcite crystal lattice which would have otherwise allowed calcite to develop into a larger crystal. Often an inhibitor for calcite has no effect on the aragonite crystal lattice, thus aragonite may deposit where calcite deposition is inhibited. Another association with aragonite in some NSW caves appears to be high evaporation rates allowing calcite, aragonite and vaterite to deposit. Vaterite is another unstable polymorph of calcium carbonate, which reverts to aragonite and calcite over time. Vaterite, aragonite and calcite were found together in cave sediments in areas with low humidity.

Extended Abstract: Cave Aragonites of New South Wales, 2006, Rowling, Jill

Aragonite is unstable in fresh water and usually reverts to calcite, but it is actively depositing as a secondary mineral in the vadose zone of some caves in New South Wales. Aragonite deposits were examined to determine whether the material is or is not aragonite. Substrates to the aragonite were examined, as was the nature of the bedrock. The physical, climatic, chemical and mineralogical influences on calcium carbonate deposition in the caves were investigated. The study sites are all located in Palaeozoic rocks within the Lachlan Fold Belt tectonic region of New South Wales. Several factors were found to be associated with the deposition of aragonite instead of calcite speleothems. They included the presence of ferroan dolomite, calcite-inhibitors (in particular ions of magnesium, manganese, phosphate, sulfate and heavy metals), and both air movement and humidity. Chemical inhibitors work by physically blocking the positions on the calcite crystal lattice which would have otherwise allowed calcite to develop into a larger crystal. Often an inhibitor for calcite has no effect on the aragonite crystal lattice, thus aragonite may deposit where calcite deposition is inhibited. Another association with aragonite in some NSW caves appears to be high evaporation rates allowing calcite, aragonite and vaterite to deposit. Vaterite is another unstable polymorph of calcium carbonate, which reverts to aragonite and calcite over time. Vaterite, aragonite and calcite were found together in cave sediments in areas with low humidity.


The mineralogy and trace element chemistry of black manganese oxide deposits from caves, 2009, White W. B. , Vito C. , And Scheetz B. E.

Free surface streams in caves and their surface infeeders often contain pebbles and cobbles coated with black manganese oxide minerals. Coating thicknesses vary from fractions of a millimeter to a few millimeters. In addition, a few caves contain loose masses of black oxide material. The results reported here are based on examination of 39 specimens and detailed chemical analyses of 18 of them. Most of the coatings are amorphous to x-rays, with at best, only a few broad diffraction lines. Infrared spectroscopy shows that most of the specimens are birnessite, with evidence for romanechite, ranceite, and pyrolusite in a few specimens. All specimens contain both iron and manganese, but the Mn/Fe ratio varies widely. Many specimens are enriched in Ba but depleted in Sr. The manganese and iron oxides contain the transition metals Co, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn in concentrations greater than 0.5 wt% in some specimens. Minor Cr and Mo also occur. Given the extremely low concentrations of these elements expected in freshwater streams in carbonate terrains, the manganese oxides exert a dramatic amplifying effect over the expected background. Manganese oxides appear to act as a dosimeter for heavy metals in karst waters.


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