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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

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That geomorphic process is the process responsible for the formation and alteration of the earth's surface [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for herbicides (Keyword) returned 11 results for the whole karstbase:
Herbicides in karst groundwater in southeast West Virginia, 1996, Pasquarell G. C. , Boyer D. G. ,
A field study was conducted to determine the karst groundwater impact of herbicide application to feed crops in support oil livestock production in southeast West Virginia, Grab samples were taken on a weekly/biweekly schedule at three resurgences for two agriculturally intensive karst watersheds. Two surface water sites were also sampled, The samples were analyzed for the presence of 12 different analytes: atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), its two metabolites, desethylatrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-amino-1,2,5-triazine) and desisopropylatrazine (2-chloro-4-amino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), and nine additional triazine herbicides. Little impact was detected at the two surface water sites. In contrast, 6 of the 10 herbicides were detected in at least two of the three resurgences. Three of them, atrazine (ATR), metolachlor [2-chloro-N(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-acetamide], and simazine [2-chloro-4-6-(ethylamino)-s-triazine], were detected in more than 10% of all samples at all three resurgences, ATR and desethylatrazine (DES) were detected in more than 50% of samples at all three resurgences; median ATR values were 0.060, 0.025, and 0.025 mu g/L. DAR* the ratio of DES to ATR plus DES, was used to differentiate atrazine leaching following storage for long periods in the soil, from transport that bypassed deethylation in the soil through sinkholes and other solutionally developed conduits. DAR* was low (median of <0.5) and highly varied during the periods immediately following ATR application, indicating that significant quantities of ATR were present. In the winter, a release of ATR metabolites from the soil was evidenced by a steadier, and higher DAR* (median of 0.64). The maximum detected ATR concentration was 1.20 mu g/L, which is within the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 3 mu g/L

Occurrence of selected herbicides and herbicide degradation products in Iowa's ground water, 1995, 1997, Kolpin D. W. , Kalkhoff S. J. , Goolsby D. A. , Sneckfahrer D. A. , Thurman E. M. ,
Herbicide compounds were prevalent in ground water across Iowa, being detected in 70% of the 106 municipal wells sampled during the summer of 1995, Herbicide degradation products were three of the four most frequently detected compounds for this study. The degradation product alachlor ethanesulfonic acid was the most frequently detected compound (65.1%), followed by atrazine (40.6%), and the degradation products deethylatrazine (34.9%), and cyanazine amide (19.8%). The corn herbicide acetochlor, first registered for widespread use in the United States in March 1994, was detected in a single water sample, No reported herbicide compound concentrations for this study exceeded current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels or health advisory levels for drinking water, although the herbicide degradation products examined have get to have such levels established. The occurrence of herbicide compounds had a significant, inverse relation to well depth and a significant, positive relation to dissolved-oxygen concentration. It is felt that both well depth and dissolved oxygen are acting as rough surrogates to ground-water age, with younger ground water being more likely to contain herbicide compounds. The occurrence of herbicide compounds was substantially different among the major aquifer types across Iowa, being detected in 82.5% of the alluvial, 81.8% of the bedrock/ karst region, 40.0% of the glacial-drift, and 25.0% of the bedrock/nonkarst region aquifers. The observed distribution was partially attributed to variations in general ground-water age among these aquifer types. A significant, inverse relation was determined between total herbicide compound concentrations in ground water and the average soil slope within a 2-km radius of sampled wens. Steeper soil slopes may increase the likelihood of surface runoff occurring rather than ground-water infiltration-decreasing the transport of herbicide compounds to ground water. As expected, a significant positive relation was determined between intensity of herbicide use and herbicide concentrations in ground water

Finding minimal herbicide concentrations in ground water? Try Looking for their degradates, 2000, Kolpin D. W. , Thurman E. M. , Linhart S. M. ,
Extensive research has been conducted regarding the occurrence of herbicides in the hydrologic system, their fate, and their effects on human health and the environment. Few studies, however, have considered herbicide transformation products (degradates). In this study of Iowa ground water, herbicide degradates were frequently detected. In fact, herbicide degradates were eight of the 10 most frequently detected compounds. Furthermore, a majority of a herbicide's measured concentration was in the form of its degradates - ranging from 55 to over 99%. The herbicide detection frequencies and concentrations varied significantly among the major aquifer types sampled. These differences, however, were much more pronounced when herbicide degradates were included. Aquifer types presumed to have the most rapid recharge rates (alluvial and bedrock/karst region aquifers) were those most likely to contain detectable concentrations of herbicide compounds. Two indirect estimates of ground-water age (depth of well completion and dissolved-oxygen concentration) were used to separate the sampled wells into general vulnerability classes (low, intermediate, and high). The results show that the herbicide detection frequencies and concentrations varied significantly among the vulnerability classes regardless of whether or not herbicide degradates were considered. Nevertheless, when herbicide degradates were included, the frequency of herbicide compound detection within the highest vulnerability class approached 90%, and the median total herbicide residue concentration increased over an order of magnitude, relative to the parent compounds alone, to 2 mu g/l. The results from this study demonstrate that obtaining data on herbicide degradates is critical for understanding the fate of herbicides in the hydrologic system. Furthermore, the prevalence of herbicide degradates documented in this study suggests that to accurately determine the overall effect on human health and the environment of a specific herbicide its degradates should also be considered. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Occurrence of cyanazine compounds in groundwater: Degradates more prevalent than the parent compound, 2001, Kolpin D. W. , Thurman E. M. , Linhart S. M. ,
A recently developed analytical method using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate the occurrence of cyanazine and its degradates cyanazine acid (CAC), cyanazine amide (CAM), deethylcyanazine (DEC), and deethylcyanazine acid (DCAC) in groundwater. This research represents some of the earliest data on the occurrence of cyanazine degradates in groundwater. Although cyanazine was infrequently detected in the 64 wells across Iowa sampled in 1999, cyanazine degradates were commonly found during this study. The most frequently detected cyanazine compound was DCAC (32.8%) followed by CAC (29.7%), CAM (17.2%), DEC (3.1%), and cyanazine (3.1%). The frequency of detection for cyanazine or one or more of its degradates (CYTOT) was more than 12-fold over that of cyanazine alone (39.1% for CYTOT Versus 3.1% for cyanazine). Of the total measured concentration of cyanazine, only 0.2% was derived from its parent compound-with DCAC (74.1%) and CAC (18.4%) comprising 92.5% of this total. Thus, although DCAC and CAC had similar frequencies of detection, DCAC was generally present in higher concentrations. No concentrations of cyanazine compounds for this study exceeded water-quality criteria for the protection of human health. Only cyanazine, however, has such a criteria established. Nevertheless, because these cyanazine degradates are still chlorinated, they may have similar toxicity as their parent compound-similar to what has been found with the chlorinated degradates of atrazine. Thus, the results of this study documented that data on the degradates for cyanazine are critical for understanding its fate and transport in the hydrologic system. Furthermore, the prevalence of the chlorinated degradates of cyanazine found in groundwater suggests that to accurately determine the overall effect on human health and the environment from cyanazine its degradates should also be considered. In addition, because CYTOT was found in 57.6% of the samples collected from alluvia[ aquifers, about 2-5 times more frequently than the other major aquifer types (glacial drift, bedrock/karst, bedrock/nonkarst) under investigation, this finding has long-term implications for the occurrence of CYTOT in streams. It is anticipated that low-level concentrations of CYTOT will continue to be detected in streams for years after the use of cyanazine has terminated (scheduled for the year 2000 in the United States), primarily through its movement from groundwater into streams during base-flow conditions

Results from the Big Spring basin water quality monitoring and demonstration projects, Iowa, USA, 2001, Rowden R. D. , Liu H. B. , Libra R. D. ,
Agricultural practices, hydrology, and water quality of the 267-km(2) Big Spring groundwater drainage basin in Clayton County, Iowa, have been monitored since 1981. Land use is agricultural; nitrate-nitrogen (-N) and herbicides are the resulting contaminants in groundwater and surface water. Ordovician Galena Group carbonate rocks comprise the main aquifer in the basin. Recharge to this karstic aquifer is by infiltration, augmented by sinkhole-captured runoff. Groundwater is discharged at Big Spring, where quantity and quality of the discharge are monitored. Monitoring has shown a threefold increase in groundwater nitrate-N concentrations from the 1960s to the early 1980s. The nitrate-N discharged from the basin typically is equivalent to over one-third of the nitrogen fertilizer applied, with larger losses during wetter years. Atrazine is present in groundwater all year; however, contaminant concentrations in the groundwater respond directly to recharge events, and unique chemical signatures of infiltration versus runoff recharge are detectable in the discharge from Big Spring. Education and demonstration efforts have reduced nitrogen fertilizer application rates by one-third since 1981. Relating declines in nitrate and pesticide concentrations to inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides at Big Spring is problematic. Annual recharge has varied five-fold during monitoring, overshadowing any water-quality improvements resulting from incrementally decreased inputs

Using GIS to Manage Two Large Cave Systems, Wind and Jewel Caves, South Dakota, 2002, Ohms, R. , Reece, M.
The length and complexity of Wind and Jewel Caves offer unique challenges for cave managers. Determining the location of specific cave passages in relation to surface features is a key management tool, which is now greatly facilitated by Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This has been particularly useful at Wind and Jewel, where the complexity of the caves and their lack of obvious relation to the overlying surface make visualization of their locations difficult. GIS has also been used at both Wind and Jewel to display data tied to cave survey stations (such as feature inventories and control points). At Jewel Cave, GIS has been used to aid in management decisions regarding the use of herbicides above cave resources, and to better identify where the cave crosses political boundaries. At Wind Cave, GIS has been used to plan a parking lot replacement project and to create a model of the caves potential extent.

Degradates provide insight to spatial and temporal trends of herbicides in ground water, 2004, Kolpin D. K. , Schnoebelen D. J. , Thurman E. M. ,
Since 1995, a network of municipal wells in Iowa, representing all major aquifer types (alluvial, bedrock/karst region, glacial drift, bedrock/nonkarst region), has been repeatedly sampled for a broad suite of herbicide compounds yielding one of the most comprehensive statewide databases of such compounds currently available in the United States. This dataset is ideal for documenting the insight that herbicide degradates provide to the spatial and temporal distribution of herbicides in ground water. During 2001, 86 municipal wells in Iowa were sampled and analyzed for 21 herbicide parent compounds and 24 herbicide degradates. The frequency of detection increased from 17% when only herbicide parent compounds were considered to 53% when both herbicide parents and degradates were considered. Thus, the transport of herbicide compounds to ground water is substantially underestimated when herbicide degradates are not considered. A significant difference in the results among the major aquifer types was apparent only when both herbicide parent compounds and their degradates were considered. In addition, including herbicide degradates greatly improved the statistical relation to the age of the water being sampled. When herbicide parent compounds are considered, only 40% of the wells lacking a herbicide detection could be explained by the age of the water predating herbicide use. However, when herbicide degradates were also considered, 80% of the ground water samples lacking a detection could be explained by the age of the water predating herbicide use. Finally, a temporal pattern in alachlor concentrations in ground water could only be identified when alachlor degradates were considered

Natural and anthropogenic hazards in karst areas of Albania, 2004, Parise M. , Qiriazi P. , Sala S. ,
In Albania, about one quarter of the country is occupied by outcroppings of soluble rocks; thus, karst represents an important and typical natural environment. Today karst areas are seriously threatened by a number of hazards, of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Many problems are related to agricultural practices: the use of heavy machinery, ever-increasing in recent years, results at many sites in destruction of the original karst landscapes. Use of pesticides and herbicides, in addition, causes the loss of karst ecosystems of great biological relevance, as has been observed in the Dumre district, where about 80 lakes of karst origin are present in the evaporites of Permian-Triassic age. Agricultural practice performed on slopes with medium to high gradient is a further factor which greatly predispose the slopes to erosion. The cave heritage of Albania (estimated so far in about 1000 caves) is at risk because of the uncontrolled quarrying activities which determine the total or partial destruction of karst caves, including many of naturalistic, archaeological and speleological interest. Many caves have also become sites of illegal disposal of solid and liquid wastes, which causes pollution of the karst ecosystems and of the aquifer therein present, with heavy negative consequences on the quality of water. Even though most of the cases here mentioned are related to anthropogenic activities, the natural hazards, such as subsidence phenomena, floods, and the development of sinkholes, have not to be disregarded

Using Multiple Chemical Indicators to Assess Sources of Nitrate and Age of Groundwater in a Karstic Spring Basin, 2005, Katz Brian, Copeland Rick, Greenhalgh Tom, Ceryak Ron, Zwanka Warren,
Human health and ecological concerns have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations during the past 40 years in Fannin Springs (0.3-4.7 mg/L), a regional discharge point with an average flow of >2.8 m3/second (>100 ft3/second) for water from the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple chemical indicators (major dissolved species, 15N and 18O of nitrate, dissolved gases, 78 pesticides and degradates, and 67 organic compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater) and transient tracers (3H/3He, chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs], sulfur hexafluoride [SF6]) were analyzed in water samples from nine wells along three transects and in spring water to assess groundwater age and potential contaminant sources. Land use is predominantly agricultural (52 percent) and forest (31 percent) in the 320 km2 (124 mi2) spring basin, which was delineated from a potentiometric-surface map of the UFA using high-resolution water-level data. Nitrate-N concentrations were highly variable in the oxic UFA and ranged from <0.02 to 4.7 mg/L. {delta}15N-NO3 values (3.4-9.9 per mil) indicated that nitrate contamination originated from inorganic sources (synthetic fertilizer) and organic sources (manure spreading or waste disposal). Higher nitrate concentrations and the younger age of spring water relative to water from upgradient wells indicate better communication with N sources at the surface. Apparent ages of groundwater correlated positively with well depth (P < 0.05) and were younger in water from wells nearer to the spring (<8 years) compared with other wells (10-50 years). Most transient tracer concentrations were consistent with binary mixing curves representing mixtures of water recharged during the past 10 years and older water (recharged before 1940). Young water mixing fractions ranged from 0.07 to 0.90. Trace levels of herbicides found in groundwater and spring water were indicative of applications for vegetative control in agricultural and other land-use types

Water quality improvement program effectiveness for carbonate aquifers in grazed land watersheds, 2005, Boyer Dg,
Water quality indicators of two agriculturally impacted karst areas in southeastern West Virginia were studied to determine the water quality effects of grazing agriculture and water quality trends following initiation of water quality improvement programs. Both areas are tributaries of the Greenbrier River and received funding for best management practices under the President's Initiative for Water Quality and then under the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). After 11 years of study there was little evidence to suggest that water quality improved in one area. Three and a half years of study in the other area showed little evidence of consistent water quality improvement under EQIP. Lack of consistent water quality improvement at the catchment scale does not imply that the voluntary programs were failures. Increased livestock numbers as a result of successful changes in forage management practices may have overridden water quality improvements achieved through best management practices. Practices that target well defined contributing areas significantly impacting aquifer water quality might be one way to improve water quality at catchment scales in karst basins. For example, a significant decrease in fecal coliform concentrations was observed in subterranean drainage from one targeted sinkhole after dairy cattle were permanently excluded from the sinkhole

Contaminant Transport in Two Central Missouri Karst Recharge Areas, 2011, Lerch, R. N.

Karst watersheds with significant losing streams represent a particularly
vulnerable setting for groundwater contamination because of the direct connection to surface water. Because of the existing agricultural land-use and future likelihood of urbanization, two losing-stream karst basins were chosen for intensive monitoring in Boone County, Missouri: Hunters Cave and Devils Icebox. Both caves were formed in Burlington Limestone and have similar recharge areas (33 to 34 km2) and land uses. Year-round monitoring was conducted from April 1999 through March 2002 to characterize the water quality of the main cave streams relative to herbicide, nutrient, and sediment contamination. Water sampling entailed grab samples at regular intervals and runoff-event samples collected using automated sampling equipment. Total nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment concentrations and loads were consistently higher in the Devils Icebox stream compared to Hunters Cave. Median total N fluxes were 96 g km22 d21 at Devils Icebox and 30 g km22 d21 at Hunters Cave, while median total P fluxes were 8.5 g km22 d21 at Devils Icebox and 3.3 g km22 d21 at Hunters Cave. Herbicides or their metabolites were detected in more than 80% of the samples from both cave streams, and herbicide concentrations and areal loss rates were generally similar between the sites. Overall, the greater loads and mass flux of contaminants in the Devils Icebox recharge area compared to Hunters Cave was a result of both greater stream discharge and the occurrence of more cropped fields (94%) on claypan soils with high runoff potential. These claypan soils are known to be especially problematic with respect to surface transport of contaminants. Prevailing land use has significantly degraded the water quality in both recharge areas, but a watershed plan has been developed for the Bonne Femme watershed, which encompasses these two recharge areas. With the baseline data collected in this study, the impact of changing land uses and the implementation of management practices or new ordinances designed to improve water quality can be documented.


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