Community news

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That fault cave is a cave developed along a fault or fault zone [10].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

What is Karstbase?



Browse Speleogenesis Issues:

KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
See all featured articles from other geoscience journals

Search in KarstBase

Your search for host (Keyword) returned 305 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 305
Speleothems and paleoglaciers, , Spotl Christoph, Mangini Augusto,
Ice and speleothems are widely regarded as mutually exclusive as the presence of liquid water is a fundamental prerequisite for speleothem deposition. Here we show that speleothems may form in caves overlain by a glacier, as long as the temperature in the cave is above freezing and the conduits are not completely flooded by melt water. Carbonate dissolution is accomplished via sulfide oxidation and the resultant speleothems show high [delta]13C values approaching and locally exceeding those of the parent host rock (lack of soil-derived biogenic C). The [delta]18O values reflect the isotopic composition of the melt water percolating into the karst fissure network and carry an atmospheric (temperature) signal, which is distinctly lower than those of speleothems formed during periods when soil and vegetation were present above the cave. These `subglacial' speleothems provide a means of identifying and dating the former presence of warm-based paleoglaciers and allow us to place some constraints on paleotemperature changes

The `human revolution' in lowland tropical Southeast Asia: the antiquity and behavior of anatomically modern humans at Niah Cave (Sarawak, Borneo), , Barker G, Barton H, Bird M, Daly P, Datan I, Dykes A, Farr L, Gilbertson D, Harrisson B, Hunt C,
Recent research in Europe, Africa, and Southeast Asia suggests that we can no longer assume a direct and exclusive link between anatomically modern humans and behavioral modernity (the `human revolution'), and assume that the presence of either one implies the presence of the other: discussions of the emergence of cultural complexity have to proceed with greater scrutiny of the evidence on a site-by-site basis to establish secure associations between the archaeology present there and the hominins who created it. This paper presents one such case study: Niah Cave in Sarawak on the island of Borneo, famous for the discovery in 1958 in the West Mouth of the Great Cave of a modern human skull, the `Deep Skull,' controversially associated with radiocarbon dates of ca. 40,000 years before the present. A new chronostratigraphy has been developed through a re-investigation of the lithostratigraphy left by the earlier excavations, AMS-dating using three different comparative pre-treatments including ABOX of charcoal, and U-series using the Diffusion-Absorption model applied to fragments of bones from the Deep Skull itself. Stratigraphic reasons for earlier uncertainties about the antiquity of the skull are examined, and it is shown not to be an `intrusive' artifact. It was probably excavated from fluvial-pond-desiccation deposits that accumulated episodically in a shallow basin immediately behind the cave entrance lip, in a climate that ranged from times of comparative aridity with complete desiccation, to episodes of greater surface wetness, changes attributed to regional climatic fluctuations. Vegetation outside the cave varied significantly over time, including wet lowland forest, montane forest, savannah, and grassland. The new dates and the lithostratigraphy relate the Deep Skull to evidence of episodes of human activity that range in date from ca. 46,000 to ca. 34,000 years ago. Initial investigations of sediment scorching, pollen, palynomorphs, phytoliths, plant macrofossils, and starch grains recovered from existing exposures, and of vertebrates from the current and the earlier excavations, suggest that human foraging during these times was marked by habitat-tailored hunting technologies, the collection and processing of toxic plants for consumption, and, perhaps, the use of fire at some forest-edges. The Niah evidence demonstrates the sophisticated nature of the subsistence behavior developed by modern humans to exploit the tropical environments that they encountered in Southeast Asia, including rainforest


The formation of the Oligocene « calcaires à Astéries » in the region of « Entre-deux-Mers » is affected by a karstification with subhorizontal caves that drained rivers from swallow-holes to resurgences. Observations in quarries show that ghost-rock alterites are present. This paper describes the ghost-rocks in the quarry of Piquepoche exploiting the Frontenac stone. We have studied horizontally developed ghost-rocks with vertical extensions still containing the residual alterite. They can be badly consolidated calcarenites up to soft material which has been sampled. Speleogenesis is reviewed in the frame of the mechanical erosion of the alterite of a horizontal ghost-rock followed by an incision by free-flowing waters which form a passage with promontories and potholes. Finally, we show that ceiling anastomoses can form by ghost-rock karstification.

Note on cavernicolous beetles of Bulgaria. V., 1965, Gueorguiev Vassil B.
Three caves of the central part of the Bulgarian Balkan (Stara planina, close to the village of Etropol) host cavernicolous beetles of the subfamily Bathysciinae (family of Catopidae) that constitute a new genus of the Brachyscapes group. In this paper the diagnosis of this new troglobe genus together with the description of the type species Balcanobius etropolensis, gen.n., sp.n. are given. The new genus is then inserted in the dichotomic table as defined by R. Jeannel, placing it close to the other two Yugoslavian genus Parapropus and Spelaeodromus.

The world of plants in caves of Lillafured (Hungary)., 1965, Verseghy Klara
The vegetation of the Forrs and Istvn caves at Lillafured in Hungary is composed of algae, micro- and macrofungi and mosses. The algae in both caves are represented by unicellular Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta with small species numbers. The macrofungi are Coprinus and Polyporacea spp. while it was impossible to identify the microfungi. The moss flora is richly developed and it can be supposed to represent a secondary vegetation at the artificially illuminated places of the caves. In Forrs cave 7, and in Istvn cave 15 different mosses were found, only 3 of which proved to be common to both caves: Rhynchostegium murale, Eucladium verticillatum and Pohlia sp. A rare and interesting species: Fissidens minutulus occurred at several localities in Forrs cave.

Haptolana trichostoma, a new genus and species of troglobitic cirolanid isopod from Cuba., 1966, Bowman Thomas E.
Haptolana trichostoma, described from 2 specimens collected in a cave in Camaguey Province, Cuba, is distinguished especially by the expanded peduncle of antenna 1, the posteriorly directed mandibular palp, and in having all 7 pereopods prehensile. This is the second recorded occurrence of a troglohitic cirolanid in Cuba and the eighth species reported from the Western Hemisphere.

Branchiobdellids (Annelida: Clitellata) from some Eastern North American caves, with descriptions of new species of the Genus Cambarincola., 1973, Holt Perry C.
Branchiobdellids are found as epizoites on crustaceans of the orders Isopoda and Decapoda (cambarine crayfishes) in caves of eastern North America. Species that may be considered as troglobites, since they are not known from epigean waters, appear to be confirmed to truly troglobitic isopods and possibly a few troglobitic crayfishes from Florida and the Tennessee-Kentucky Highland Rim cave belt. The majority of the records of branchiobdellids from caves are of representatives of common epigean forms epizootic un crayfishes. Cross-referenced lists of branchiobdellids, their hosts and cave localities are presented. Some of the new species described are apparently troglobitic or troglophilic, but they present no consistent phylogenetic or geographical pattern and separate origins for them from primitive stocks of the genus Cambarincola are postulated.

Branchiobdellids (Annelida: Clitellata) from some Eastern North American caves, with descriptions of new species of the Genus Cambarincola., 1973, Holt Perry C.
Branchiobdellids are found as epizoites on crustaceans of the orders Isopoda and Decapoda (cambarine crayfishes) in caves of eastern North America. Species that may be considered as troglobites, since they are not known from epigean waters, appear to be confirmed to truly troglobitic isopods and possibly a few troglobitic crayfishes from Florida and the Tennessee-Kentucky Highland Rim cave belt. The majority of the records of branchiobdellids from caves are of representatives of common epigean forms epizootic un crayfishes. Cross-referenced lists of branchiobdellids, their hosts and cave localities are presented. Some of the new species described are apparently troglobitic or troglophilic, but they present no consistent phylogenetic or geographical pattern and separate origins for them from primitive stocks of the genus Cambarincola are postulated.

Distribution of Indiana cavernicolous crayfishes and their ecto-commensal Ostracods., 1975, Hobbs Iii Horton H.
Six species and subspecies of crayfishes and four species of entocytherid ostracods are known to inhabit the subterranean streams of southern Indiana. Cambarus (E.) Iaevis (troglophile) appears to be the most widely distributed crayfish and occurs in both karst areas within the State. The troglobite, Orconectes inermis (2 subspecies), is restricted to the larger karst area in solution cavities of Mississippian carbonate rocks. The remaining crayfishes, Orconectes immunis, Orconectes propinquus and Orconectes sloanii, are not common inhabitants of cave waters and are probably trogloxenes. All of the crayfishes except O. sloanii were found to host at least one species of ostracod. From data presented, Sagittocythere barri might be expected to be found commonly in association with Orconectes inermis, Donnaldsoncythere donnaldsonensis, Uncinocythere xania and Dactylocythere susanae, however, are more commonly associated with C. (E) laevis, indicating a near host-specific relationship among these taxa. Whether these are host-specific associations or ones imposed by certain ecological parameters will require additional investigations. Although a fair understanding of the distribution of these crustaceans in the larger, Mississippian limestone belt has been obtained, additional field work on the perimeter of the spelean ranges of the several species will probably prove productive. Furthermore, considerable cave exploration and biospeleological surveys are needed in the Silurian-Devonian limestones of southeast Indiana before our knowledge of these crayfishes, entocytherids and other cave-dwelling species approaches that for the Mississippian karst of the State.

Geomorphology of the North Karst, South Nahanni River Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, PhD Thesis, 1976, Brook, George Albert,

First investigated on the ground in June 1972, the Nahanni karst of northern Canada is the most complex karst terrain yet reported from high latitudes. It is centered at 61°28' N, longitude 124°05' W and lies within the zone of discontinuous permafrost. Mean annual temperature is 24°F and mean total precipitation 22.3 inches. Principal karst forms are fracture-located karst streets and irregularly-shaped closed depression called karst platea which may be up to 600 feet in depth. Platea often contain karst towers which are residuals of wall recession. Vertical-walled pond dolines up to 120 feet deep are common in bare karst areas while subjacent karst collapse, subsidence and suffosion depressions occur on marginal shale- and drift-mantled surfaces. Three small poljes have been identified, two produced entirely by solution, the other a structural form. These are periodically inundated. There are several peripheral fluvial canyons up to 3,000 feet deep that are blocked by glacial drift and which presently drain underground. Similarity in the hydrogeological properties of Nahanni Formation limestones at a variety of scales has led to the development of morphologically-identical karst forms which range in size from inches up to hundreds of feet. Furthermore, many of these landforms are part of a developmental sequence that at one scale links vertical-walled dolines, karst streets, platea and poljes; and at another links solution pits, grikes and joint hollows on limestone pavements. The evidence suggests that poljes form by the coalescence of dolines and uvalas just as Cvijic suggested in 1918. In attempting to explain the almost "tropical" nature of the sub-arctic Nahanni karst landform assemblage, a number of facts are of importance.
(a) The Nahanni Formation limestones have been highly warped and intensively fractures during the past one million years. Open fractures have encouraged karstification by allowing easy movement of water underground. Warping has provided the relief necessary for the development of solutional forms with a distinct vertical component.
(b) The karst can not be considered relict because it was glaciated during the Pleistocene. In addition the hydrological activity in it today is comparable with that in many humid tropical karst areas.
(c) Solutional denudation rates governed by aspects of surficial and bedrock geology may in some localized areas be equivalent to rates in humid tropical carbonate regions.
(d) At present rates, the most highly developed forms could have been produced within the last 200,000 years and because there is evidence to indicate that the karst may not have been glaciated for up to 250,000 years, such a period has been available for solutional development.
Because the Nahanni region has not been glaciated for an extremely long period, it may be one of only a few high-latitude carbonate terrains that have had time to develop fully. Its very existence questions the validity of the concept that the intensity and direction of karst development is climate-controlled. In the Nahanni at least, the structural and lithological properties of the host limestone appear to have been of greater importance. The labyrinth karst type present in regions of humid-tropical to sub-arctic climate, is an outstanding example of a structurally-controlled karst landscape. It may well be that the same controls also influence the distributions of other karst types.

A Geomorphological Assessment of the Chillagoe Karst Belt, Queensland, 1976, Marker, Margaret E.

The geomorphological characteristics of the Chillagoe karst belt are analysed in terms of an evolution controlled by seasonally arid climatic conditions and lithological variation in the metamorphosed host rock.

Classification of Pseudokarst forms in Czechoslovakia., 1983, Vitek Jan
The paper is a geomorphological classification of pseudokarst forms in Czechoslovakia/Bohemien Massif and the Carpathians. In the author's opinion, forms occurring in non-carbonate rocks, are morphologically and often genetically analogous to the forms of karst relief, and are pseudokarst phenomena. They are divided according to their size into macroforms in sandstone morphostructures of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin some types of rocky valleys, water-shed plains and ridges, forming rock cities in some places, mesoforms with six types of caves, sinkholes, rock perforations and several rock phenomena and microforms such as weather pits and niches, lapies, etc.. The most prominent pseudokarst phenomena have been formed in the sandstones of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin whose relief may be considered "pseudokarst". They are also common in other sediments; in neovolcanic rocks and granitic rocks, as well as in other types of rocks. Pseudokarst forms are the product of geomorphological processes, especially weathering and denudation, block rock slides, erosion, suffosion, etc. Most of them have been developing in the recent mild humid climatic conditions.

The Coxco Deposit; a Proterozoic mississippi valley-type deposit in the McArthur River District, Northern Territory, Australia, 1983, Walker R. N. , Gulson B. , Smith J. ,
Strata-bound dolomite-hosted lead-zinc deposit. Crusts of colloform sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and marcasite (stage I mineralization) were deposited on the surfaces of the karst-produced solution cavities. Reduced sulfur was produced by sulfate-reducing bacteria within the karst system. A second stage of mineralization consisting of coarsely crystalline sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and marcasite occurs in veins and as the matrix for dolomite breccias.--Modified journal abstract

Une morphologie karstique typique en zone intertropicale : les karsts du Bas Zare, 1985, Quinif, Y.
A TYPICAL MORPHOLOGY OF TROPICAL KARSTS: THE KWILU BASIN IN THE LOWER-ZAIRE - The Kwilu basin, in the region of Bas-Zaire, shows typical landscapes of tropical karsts: cone and tower karsts shaped in precambrian limestones of the "Groupe schisto-calcaire". These precambrian series are little tectonised. They are covered with cenozoic formations which are important in the evolution of the karst. Different types of cavities are studied and replaced in the morphostructural context: old caves, originating in phreatic zone and now cut by the erosion, river streams in tunnel-caves, network under the water table. The superficial forms are interpreted as successive evolutive steps: dissection of a surface (morphological or structural) by a dendritic hydrographic network, birth of a cone-karst being transformed in tower-karst overlooking a new surface. We insist on the morphogenetic importance of the paleoclimatic changes and on the existence of an intertropical karstic morphology in stable craton.

Le karst de Bourgogne, 1988, Delance, J. H.
THE KARST OF BURGONDY (France) - Karst of Burgundy is located between karst of Paris Basin, to which it is connected by its western and northern margins and karst of Jura. The burgundian karst forms an original entity in close relationship with the geological structure of the area, which had defined its distribution and density and the system's amplitudes. Karst of Burgundy develops in calcareous marine formations of Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous (chalk). The karstic landscapes are remarkable by their abundant dry valleys. Caves are characterised by their shallow depths (less than 100m) and the important spreading of the active systems. They can be graded into three types: mesokarstic, holokarstic and cutaneous caves. Deepest and greatest caves (up to 22km) are of holokarstic type. In Burgundy, the majority of caving range from Miocene to Pleistocene; cutaneous caves were only developed during cold phases of Quaternary. Fillings of caves are important, the most interesting fillings are Quaternary bone breccias, rich in paleontological and prehistoric data.

Results 1 to 15 of 305
You probably didn't submit anything to search for