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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 11 Jul, 2012
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That vesicular is containing small circular cavities [16].?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

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Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy), Dimuccio, L.A.; Rodrigues, N.; Larocca, F.; Pratas, J.; Amado, A.M.; Batista de Carvalho, L.A.
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Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
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Your search for inception fracture (Keyword) returned 3 results for the whole karstbase:
The top-down, middle-outwards model of cave development in central Scandinavian marbles, 2007, Faulkner, Trevor.
The epigean marble caves in the glaciated metamorphic Caledonides of central Scandinavia provide a rare environment in which endokarstic morphologies and other internal cave attributes have been studied against variations in foliation dip and topographical characteristics, to produce a common static internal model of cave existence. This paper proposes a dynamic model to explain the sequential developments of cave passage elements from inception fractures that are created seismically during isostatic uplift. The speleogenesis is driven by Cenozoic glacial cycles consisting of periods of glaciation, deglaciation and interglaciation. The more complex caves have evolved top-downwards in deglacial phreatic conditions under ice-dammed lakes and subsequently along their lowest levels in interglacial vadose conditions, with later extensions upstream and downstream. Glacial erosion also removes passages in a topdown order, but with passage extremities being eroded away inwards.

THE ONE-EIGHTH RELATIONSHIP THAT CONSTRAINS DEGLACIAL SEISMICITY AND CAVE DEVELOPMENT IN CALEDONIDE MARBLES, 2007, Faulkner, T.

The formation of karst caves in Caledonide metamorphic limestones in a repeatedly-glaciated 40000km2 region in cen­tral Scandinavia was initiated by tectonic inception, a process in which open fracture routes, primarily created by deglacial seismicity, provided the opportunity for subsequent dissolution and enlargement into cave passages in both deglacial and inter­glacial environments. The tectonic inception model built on re­ports of a ‘partially detached’ thin upper crustal layer in similar settings in Scotland and this paper shows that the present maxi­mum subsurface cave distance (i.e. the distance of a passage to the nearest land surface) is commonly less than one-eighth of the depth of the local glaciated valley. This suggests that frac­ture generation was related to the scale of isostatic uplift and was partly determined by the magnitude of seismicity caused by the differential pressure change and differential uplift that occurred along valley walls as the ice margin of each of the ma­jor Pleistocene icesheets receded from west to east. The maxi­mum one-eighth relationship is also commonly maintained in other Caledonide marble terranes in Scandinavia, Scotland and New England (USA), suggesting that many of the caves in these areas were formed by similar processes.


An external model of speleogenesis during Quaternary glacial cycles in the marbles of central Scandinavia, 2010, Faulkner, T.

The marble caves of the Central Scandinavian Caledonides were formed from open fractures that were created primarily by deglacial seismicity at the culmination of each of the many complex Quaternary glaciations that the region has experienced. Subsequent inundation by deglacial ice-dammed lakes enabled phreatic enlargement by dissolution, with passages either becoming relict during the following interglacial or else being entrenched by (mainly) vadose processes if recharged by allogenic streams. Because the distance of the contemporary fractures and therefore the cave passages from the nearest land surface is commonly constrained to be less than one-eighth of the depth of the local glaciated valley, the caves are rather epigean in nature. This subsurface cave distance is of the same order of magnitude as the thickness of rock removed from valley walls and floors at each major glaciation, suggesting that, when viewed over several glacial cycles, caves are involved in a race to develop deeper during deglaciation and the following interglacial before their upper levels are removed by erosion at the next glaciation. Indeed, relatively few cave passages in the study area can have survived from the previous, Eemian, interglacial.
This paper examines evidence for the interglacial and erosional processes and utilises a 'black box' approach to provide an external model for cave development and removal. It proposes that Caledonide marble caves in stripe karst outcrops should especially be considered as four-dimensional objects throughout their commonly intermittent existence. Mainly vadose caves are regarded as 'half-cycle' caves that developed primarily in the Holocene. Relict caves (primarily phreatic) and combination caves (with both phreatic and vadose elements) are commonly 'single-cycle' caves that developed their relict phreatic passages during Weichselian deglaciation, and only a few are 'multi-cycle' caves that have experienced several Pleistocene glacial cycles. The existing caves are more numerous and commonly larger than those that were present during previous interglacials.


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