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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That karst hydrology is 1. the branch of hydrology dealing with hydrological phenomena on and in regions and areas composed totally or in part of rocks which are soluble in water, such as limestones, dolomites, gypsum, and halite [20]. 2. the drainage phenomena of karstified limestones, dolomites, and other slowly soluble rocks [10]. synonyms: (french.) hydrologie karstique; (german.) hydrologie des karsts; (greek.) karstike hydrologia; (italian.) idrologia carsica; (russian.) gidrologija karsta; (spanish.) hidrologia karstica; (turkish.) karst hidrolojisi; (yugoslavian.).?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
See all featured articles
Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for indicator bacteria (Keyword) returned 8 results for the whole karstbase:
Transport and variability of fecal bacteria in carbonate conglomerate aquifers, , Goeppert N. , Goldscheider N.

Clastic sedimentary rocks are generally considered non-karstifiable and thus less vulnerable to pathogen contamination than karst aquifers. However, dissolution phenomena have been observed in clastic carbonate conglomerates of the Subalpine Molasse zone of the northern Alps and other regions of Europe, indicating karstification and high vulnerability, which is currently not considered for source protection zoning. Therefore, a research program was established at the Hochgrat site (Austria/Germany), as a demonstration that karst-like characteristics, flow behavior and high vulnerability to microbial contamination are possible in this type of aquifer. The study included geomorphologic mapping, comparative multi-tracer tests with fluorescent dyes and bacteria-sized fluorescent microspheres, and analyses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in spring waters during different seasons. Results demonstrate that (i) flow velocities in carbonate conglomerates are similar as in typical karst aquifers, often exceeding 100 m/h; (ii) microbial contaminants are rapidly transported towards springs; and (iii) the magnitude and seasonal pattern of FIB variability depends on the land use in the spring catchment and its altitude. Different ground water protection strategies than currently applied are consequently required in regions formed by karstified carbonatic clastic rocks, taking into account their high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability.

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Bacteria in the Castleton karst, Derbyshire, England, 1997, Tranter J. , Gunn J. , Hunter C. , Perkins J. ,
The Castleton area contains an extensive and complex karst drainage system. Recharge is provided by allogenic stream sinks and by infiltration into a soil covered autogenic catchment. Concentrations of the sanitary indicator bacteria faecal coliform (FC) were measured weekly over a 84-week period at three stream-sinks (P6, P7 and P8) and at two contrasting springs (Russet Well and Peak Cavern Rising). Russet Well drains the allogenic catchment, but also receives some autogenic recharge whereas Peak Cavern Rising receives only autogenic recharge except at high stage when it functions as an overflow spring for the Russet Well system. Over the year as a whole and during each three-month season, median FC concentrations at P6 were significantly higher than at Russet Well. The difference was greatest during summer/autumn and was lowest in winter/spring and it appears that FC concentrations at the rising are a complex function of faecal inputs and flow-through time. The relationship between FC concentrations at Russet Well and at Peak Cavern Rising proved to be complex. Over the sampling period as a whole and during the spring and autumn there was no significant difference between median FC concentrations at the two risings; during the winter, when discharge was highest, median FC concentrations at Russet Well were significantly higher than at Peak Cavern Rising; and during the summer FC concentrations at Peak Cavern Rising were significantly higher than at Russet Well. The high FC concentrations in the sinking streams and at the risings suggest that there could be a health risk to cavers, especially during storm events and the summer. Furthermore, the fact that the waters from both springs contain significant concentrations of FC bacteria indicates that even soil covered karat systems are unable to filter out potentially harmful micro-organisms

Evidence for rapid groundwater flow and karst-type behaviour in the Chalk of southern England, 1998, Macdonald A. M. , Brewerton L. J. , Allen D. J. ,
With the growing importance of groundwater protection, there is increasing concern about the possibility of rapid groundwater flow in the Chalk of southern England and therefore in the frequency and distribution of karstic' features. Pumping test data, although useful in quantifying groundwater resources and regional flow, give little information on groundwater flow at a local scale. Evidence for rapid groundwater flow is gathered from other, less quantifiable methods. Nine different strands of evidence are drawn together: tracer tests; observations from Chalk caves; Chalk boreholes that pump sand; descriptions of adits; the nature of water-level fluctuations; the Chichester flood; the nature of the surface drainage; geomorphological features; and the presence of indicator bacteria in Chalk boreholes. Although the evidence does not prove the widespread existence of karstic features, it does suggest that rapid groundwater flow should be considered seriously throughout the Chalk. Rapid groundwater flow is generally more frequent close to Palaeogene cover and may also be associated with other forms of cover and valley bottoms

Symposium Abstract: Faecal indicator bacteria in the Castleton caves, Derbyshire, 1999, Gunn J. , Tranter J.

Transport of free and particulate-associated bacteria in karst, 2000, Mahler B. J. , Personne J. C. , Lods G. F. , Drogue C. ,
Karst aquifers, because of their unique hydrogeologic characteristics, are extremely susceptible to contamination by pathogens. Here we present the results of an investigation of contamination of a karst aquifer by fecal indicator bacteria. Two wells intercepting zones with contrasting effective hydraulic conductivities, as determined by pump test, were monitored both during the dry season and in response to a rain event. Samples were also collected from the adjacent ephemeral surface stream, which is known to be impacted by an upstream wastewater treatment plant after rainfall. Whole water and suspended sediment samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms and enterococci. During the dry season, pumping over a 2-day period resulted in increases in concentrations of fecal coliforms to greater than 10,000 CFU/100 mi in the high-conductivity well; enterococci and total suspended solids also increased, to a lesser degree. Toward the end of the pumping period, as much as 50% of the fecal coliforms were associated with suspended sediment. Irrigation of an up-gradient pine plantation with primary-treated wastewater is the probable source of the bacterial contamination. Sampling after a rain event revealed the strong influence of water quality of the adjacent Terrieu Creek on the ground water. Bacterial concentrations in the wells showed a rapid response to increased concentrations in the surface water, with fecal coliform concentrations in ground water ultimately reaching 60,000 CFU/100 mi. Up to 100% of the bacteria in the ground water was associated with suspended sediment at Various times. The results of this investigation are evidence of the strong influence of surface water on ground water in karst terrain, including that of irrigation water. The large proportion of bacteria associated with particulates in the ground water has important implications for public health, as bacteria associated with particulates may be more persistent and more difficult to inactivate. The high bacterial concentrations found in both wells, despite the difference in hydraulic conductivity, demonstrates the difficulty of predicting vulnerability of individual wells to bacterial contamination in karst. The extreme temporal variability in bacterial concentrations underscores the importance of event-based monitoring of the bacterial quality of public water supplies in karst. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Particle transport in a karst aquifer: natural and artificial tracer experiments with bacteria, bacteriophages and microspheres, 2002, Auckenthaler A, Raso G, Huggenberger P,
Fast changes in spring water quality in karst areas are a major concern for production of drinking water and require detailed knowledge of the complex interaction between karst aquifer, transport behavior of microorganisms and water treatment We have conducted artificial and natural particle transport experiments at a karst spring with bacteria, bacteriophages, microspheres, and pathogens Transport of the investigated microorganisms, turbid matter and chemical pullutants as well as increase in discharge are strongly related to precipitation and the heterogeneity of the aquifer The indicator bacteria E cob revealed a significant correlation to verotoxin-producing E cob and Cryptosporidium spp We conclude that artificial particle tracers can help identify 'hot spots' for microbial recharge and that system parameters in spring water such as turbidity, UV-extinction and increase in discharge can be key parameters for efficient raw water management

Escherichia coli survival in mantled karst springs and streams, northwest Arkansas Ozarks, USA, 2005, Davis Rk, Hamilton S, Van Brahana J,
Recent studies indicate fecal coliform bacterial concentrations, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), characteristically vary by several orders of magnitude, depending on the hydrology of storm recharge and discharge. E. coli concentrations in spring water increase rapidly during the rising limb of a storm hydrograph, peak prior to or coincident with the peak of the storm pulse, and decline rapidly, well before the recession of the storm hydrograph. This suggests E. coli are associated with resuspension of sediment during the onset of turbulent flow, and indicates viable bacteria reside within the spring and stream sediments. E. coli inoculated chambers were placed in spring and stream environments within the mantled karst of northwest Arkansas to assess long term (> 75 days) E. coli viability. During the 75-day study, a 4-log die-off of E. coli was observed for chambers placed in the Illinois River, and a 5-log die-off for chambers placed in Copperhead Spring. Extrapolation of the regression line for each environment indicates E. coli concentration would reach 1 most probable number (MPN)/100 g sediment at Copperhead Spring in about 105 days, and about 135 days in the Illinois River, based on a starting inoculation of 2.5 x 107 MPN E. coli/100 g of sediment. These in situ observations indicate it is possible for E. coli to survive in these environments for at least four months with no fresh external inputs

Percolation and Particle Transport in the Unsaturated Zone of a Karst Aquifer, 2009, Pronk M. , Goldscheider N. , Zopfi J. , Zwahlen F.

Recharge and contamination of karst aquifers often occur via the unsaturated zone, but the functioning of this zone has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, irrigation and tracer experiments, along with monitoring of rainfall events, were used to examine water percolation and the transport of solutes, particles, and fecal bacteria between the land surface and a water outlet into a shallow cave. Monitored parameters included discharge, electrical conductivity, temperature, organic carbon, turbidity, particle-size distribution (PSD), fecal indicator bacteria, chloride, bromide, and uranine. Percolation following rainfall or irrigation can be subdivided into a lag phase (no response at the outlet), a piston-flow phase (release of epikarst storage water by pressure transfer), and a mixed-flow phase (increasing contribution of freshly infiltrated water), starting between 20 min and a few hours after the start of recharge event. Concerning particle and bacteria transport, results demonstrate that (1) a first turbidity signal occurs during increasing discharge due to remobilization of particles from fractures (pulse-through turbidity); (2) a second turbidity signal is caused by direct particle transfer from the soil (flow-through turbidity), often accompanied by high levels of fecal indicator bacteria, up to 17,000 Escherichia coli/100 mL; and (3) PSD allows differentiation between the two types of turbidity. A relative increase of fine particles (0.9 to 1.5 lm) coincides with microbial contamination. These findings help quantify water storage and percolation in the epikarst and better understand contaminant transport and attenuation. The use of PSD as ‘‘early-warning parameter’’ for microbial contamination in karst water is confirmed.


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