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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That subsidence doline is a closed karst depression formed due to local subsidence of the surface rocks and/or soil into cavities formed by widespread dissolution or local collapse of caves. the type of subsidence doline formed by downwashing of the soil cover is better described as a suffosion doline [9]. also known as sinkhole.?

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for inrush (Keyword) returned 5 results for the whole karstbase:
Geological barrier - a natural rock stratum for preventing confined karst water from flowing into mines in North China, 2001, Zhou W. F. , Li G. Y. ,
Coalfields in North China encompassing than ten Provinces contain six to seven coal seams in the Permo-Carboniferous strata. The lower three seams, accounting for 37% of the total reserves , are threatened with karst water from the underlain Ordovician limestone. Hundreds of water inrush incidences have occurred in which a large amount of water suddenly flows into tunnels or working faces under high potentiometric pressure 20 years. Large-scale dewatering or depressurizing of the karst aquifer was considered essential to water inrushes and keep the mines safely operational. This practice has caused sinkholes, dry gs, water supply shortage, and groundwater Keywords Geological barrier contamination in the surrounding areas, which is environmentally not permitted. One of the alternative water control measures is to make full use of the layer between the coal seam and the karst er as a geological barrier. Similar to the application in the nuclear industry where a geological barrier of this application is considered a hydraulic barrier as well with the objective to prevent or constrain water flow from the underlying aquifer into mines. Its effectiveness to constrain water flow is described by a parameter referred to as hydrofracturing pressure (P-hf) When the water pressure in the underlying aquifer exceeds P-hf, a wedging effect takes place within the fractures of the geological barrier and, as a result, water inrush occurs. In-situ hydrofracturing tests were used to determine P-hf in bauxite and silty sandstone at tunnels. The P-hf in the silty sandstone is larger than that in the bauxite but they both vary with depth (distance from the bottom of the tunnel). Based on the test results, a new safety criterion for water inrush was derived for mines and it has been successfully applied to mining practices with the minium effort of dewatering in the karst aquifer. The same criterion can also be applied to tunneling and quarrying in areas with similar geological conditions

Two phase development of the upper Cerkniščica basin, 2002, Š, Uš, Terš, Ič, Simona

The Cerkniščica catchement area covers about 46.8 km2, and most of the area is built of upper Triassic dolomite. So, the differences in the surface roughness are mostly not due to variable lithology, but to diffent degrees of tectonically injurred rock. Reconstruction of longitudinal profiles of the main river and of its tributaries revealed that there do not exist multiple terraces, as believed before. Rather, the river formed only two distinct levels. The older one is about 10-40 m higher, a wide, well equilibrated valley. It was formed by the predecessor of the present Cerkniščica, at the time when the river sank in the area of Begunje and continued its way towards Logatec underground. The younger level is controlled by the inrush of the river into Cerkniško polje. Sudden lowering of the erosion base, by the end of Würm, provoked rapid incision into the earlier surface, and the formation of canyon-like entrenchment.

The influences of coal mining on the large karst springs in North China, 2011, Wu Qiang, Xing Li Ting, Ye Chun He, Liu Yuan Zhang

Environmental damage, to a greater or lesser degree, is caused by coal mining. On the basis of analyzing the hydrogeological conditions of the mining areas, this paper provides a sum-up of the characteristics of water disasters in North China-type Coalfield. Researching into the Baimai Spring group, this paper explores the relation between karst water and groundwater of coal-measure strata, using the methods of pumping test, dynamic observation, and tracer test. After working over the impact of mine water-inrush on spring dynamics, this paper estimates the contributory level of karst water to mining drainage. This paper holds that the mine water-inrush mainly results from karst water, with the fault structures acting as channels; the keys of mine water-inrush are faulty density, intersection and endpoint fault. Finally, this paper suggests that mining below Mine-9 be forbidden, and that below Mine-7 be properly mined, which provides the scientific basis for preserving springs and preventing water disasters in the mining areas.

A Non-Linear Fluid-solid Coupling Mechanical Model Study for Paleokarst Collapse Breccia Pipes Under Erosion Effect, 2012, Yao Banghua, Mao Xianbiao, Zhang Kai, Cai Wei

In this research the seepage characteristics of Paleokarst collapse breccia pipes under particles erosion effect, and their water inrush mechanism were studied. In this paper, based on the seepage theory of pores media and the nonlinear mechanics theory, we deduced the transport equation of particles in Paleokarst collapse breccia pipes, obtained the seepage field equation for Paleokarst collapse breccia pipes, and investigated the porosity evolution equation under the effect of particles transport, building a nonlinear fluid-solid coupling model for Paleokarst collapse breccia pipes. Furthermore, we took the relationship between fluid and particle velocities as well as the effect of particle concentration on fluid property into account, and assumed the porosity in Paleokarst collapse breccia pipes obey Weibull distribution. Finally, we lead the model equations into the COMSOL Multiphysics to solve, obtaining the parameters including porosity, seepage velocity, particle concentration, water inflow evolution law as the time. The research results indicate that: (1) particles in Paleokarst collapse breccia pipes will be eroded and transport under the effect of fluid movement as the time, the concentration of particles behaved rapidly increased and then sharply decreased, and the porosity and seepage velocity grew quickly until reached the maximum value; (2) the seepage capacity for Paleokarst collapse breccia pipes initially grows slowly, while seepage velocity increases at an increasing rate with the growth and connectivity of porosity; (3) the porosity evolution under erosion effect in Paleokarst collapse breccia pipe is an important reason for Paleokarst collapse breccia pipe water inrush.


With increase in mining depth of the Carboniferous-Permian coal seams in North China, it is particularly important to study the heterogeneity of karst development in the underlying Middle Ordovician limestone and determine any impermeable strata that may prevent the pressurized karst water from bursting into coal mines. Detailed analysis of the exploratory borehole data suggests presence of a paleokarst crust at the top of Middle Ordovician Fengfeng Formation. Because of its mechanical strength and low permeability to water, the paleokarst crust can function as an additional water-resisting layer. This paper takes Sihe Mine of Shanxi Province as an example to study the geotechnical and hydrogeological characteristics of the paleokarst crust. Incorporation of this additional hydrological barrier led to more minable coal seams in the coalmine.

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