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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That mutation is a sudden change in the genetic material of an organism's germ cells, resulting in offspring that possess characteristics markedly different from those of either parent. mutations generally are harmful, but occasionally may improve an organism's chances for survival [23]. see also adaptation; evolution.?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for irrigation (Keyword) returned 28 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 28
Report on the International Conference of Speleology and Karstologie at Istanbul (24 Sept.-14 Okt. 1964)., 1968, Fenelon Paul
Arranged by geologist Dr. Temucin Aygen, the International Conference of Speleology and Karstology at Istanbul, with the participation of about twenty foreign scholars, opened first at Beyazit de Stamboul University. For three days papers and discussions enlivened the sessions, broken by tours around the Bosporus. During the following two weeks the members of the Conference took a field trip across Anatolia, through Ankara, Konya, Mersin, Antalya, Burdur, Izmir, Bursa, and Istanbul. They thus had the opportunity to investigate the principal karstic phenomena of Turkey; the Konya obrouks, travertines of' Yerkpru and Antalya, caves of the Mersin region, vauclusian springs of Irviz and Manavgat, and so forth. The interest of these occurrences of Anatolian karst is unquestionable; in addition to the scientific problems they pose, they represent a great economic value either as tourist centres or as producers of electric energy and sources of water for irrigation.

Report on the International Conference of Speleology and Karstologie at Istanbul (24 Sept.-14 Okt. 1964)., 1968, Fenelon Paul
Arranged by geologist Dr. Temucin Aygen, the International Conference of Speleology and Karstology at Istanbul, with the participation of about twenty foreign scholars, opened first at Beyazit de Stamboul University. For three days papers and discussions enlivened the sessions, broken by tours around the Bosporus. During the following two weeks the members of the Conference took a field trip across Anatolia, through Ankara, Konya, Mersin, Antalya, Burdur, Izmir, Bursa, and Istanbul. They thus had the opportunity to investigate the principal karstic phenomena of Turkey; the Konya obrouks, travertines of' Yerkpru and Antalya, caves of the Mersin region, vauclusian springs of Irviz and Manavgat, and so forth. The interest of these occurrences of Anatolian karst is unquestionable; in addition to the scientific problems they pose, they represent a great economic value either as tourist centres or as producers of electric energy and sources of water for irrigation.

Quelques aspects du karst en Chine, 1985, Tricart, J.
Some characteristic features of karst in China Karst terrain is widespread in China: some 2,000,000km2, corresponding to 20-25% of the whole surface of the country. It occurs at very different altitudes and under quite different climates, from the region of Zhoukoudian, where has been found the skull of the Pekin Man, to the Tibet Plateau, where there is presently permafrost conditions, and up to southern tropical moist China, near Canton and Guilin. Recent chinese investigations have proved that most karst features are old. In Southern China a tropical karst (tower-karst or "mogotes" karst) is associated with lacustrine deposits containing the well-known Hipparion Fauna, of Miocene age. Its predates the intensive uplift of the Himalaya and of the Tibet, which has begun during the Pliocene and has continued during all the Pleistocene. The same fossils have been found in this tropical karst in present permafrost areas, above 5,000m. In the region of Guilin (Guangxi Province), this tropical karst has been described. There is evidence for the former existence of a covered karst, where limestones and dolomitic limestones were covered by a thick layer of reddish residual clays, with limonite. This mantle has been stripped during different periods of drier and probably cooler climate, has suggested by pollen spectra. In some places, these residual products have been trapped into pits, cracks, and caves. We have observed a small quantity of red clay painting limestone stalactites and sinters (Chuanshan and Leng Yin Yen Caves, in the surroundings of Guilin). They present sometimes a mining interest and some extractive industries are presently active (limonite, cassierite, etc.). Many caves have been surveyed by the Institute of Karst geology, in Guilin. Some have been equiped for tourism, around Guilin. All these caves are old. Some radiocarbon dating of speleothems yield ages of 33,000 year BP. The famous carving of the Leng Yen Cave have not been affected by calcite deposition from dripping since at least 500 years. The large caves that have been surveyed should correspond to a long evolution span. Along the Lijiang River, at least two terraces can be observed. They are built with gravels and pebbles, covered with thinner sand and loam, suggesting climatic changes, also attested by the changes of fauna and vegetation. These past cooler periods are characterised by an opened vegetation, with the striping of the old weathering cover of the former tropical karst. These karst terrains have been investigated in China for management purposes. Groundwater oscillations have frequently resulted in land subsidences damaging buildings, and in dramatic collapses destroying fields, roads. Sometimes, underground collapse plugged caves and dammed underground rivers, resulting in floodings. The caves are frequently used as reservoirs for irrigation and power plants.

Le karst du gypse du centre de la dpression de l'Ebre (Espagne), 1990, Soriano, M. A.
THE GYPSUM KARST OF THE CENTER OF THE EBRE BASSIN (SPAIN) - The central Ebro basin was filled with evaporitic deposits (gypsum and limestones) during the Miocene. During the Quaternary, several alluvial terrace and pediment levels were developed and they overlay the gypsum deposits. A large number of karstic landforms developed on gypsum have been found. The most important reason is its high solubility. We have found different types of microlandforms. The most important are Rillenkarren, solution pits and micro etching. There are also small tumuli. They are active at present. We have differentiated three macrolandforms: paleocollapses, depressions and alluvial dolines. The paleocollapses are very narrow and deep. They are filled with quaternary materials. They are not active and were generated in the Middle or Upper Pleistocene. The depressions were developed by the gypsum dissolution, together with topographical and geomorphologic factors. They do not seem to be active nowadays. The alluvial dolines are developed on the terrace and pediment deposits, which overlay gypsum materials. There is basin, well and pan-shaped dolines and they are especially frequent in the T2 terrace level. From the study of aerial photographs of different years, the variations in the number and size of dolines and their density have been determined. Natural factors (lithology and fractures), together with human activities (irrigation) are the principal causes in their development.

Land subsidence in the AI-Dahr residential area in Kuwait: a case history study, 1990, Airifaiy Ia,
Four cylindrical sinkholes occurred between April 1988 and June 1989 in a residential area located 27 km south of Kuwait City. The physiographic and geological conditions of their development and the methods of survey followed to detect potential subsurface cavities in the area are discussed. The major sinkhole is 15 m in diameter and 31 m deep; the others are a few metres in size. A mechanism of migrating sinkholes is suggested, where the upper elastic sediments have been moved down into cavities of the underlying Dammam Limestone. Such movement could have been triggered by garden irrigation and urbanization. A conceptual model is introduced to explain the mechanism of this subsidence. Microgravity techniques were applied using a La Coste Model-D gravimeter to detect areas of subsurface weakness. Negative anomalies in the order of 80 microgals were recorded and considered to indicate underground cavities or zones of contrasted mass-deficiencies representing high risk areas. Moderate anomalies were also recorded and attributed to poor compaction of the ground prior to construction

SMALL-SCALE RETROSPECTIVE GROUND-WATER MONITORING STUDY FOR SIMAZINE IN DIFFERENT HYDROGEOLOGICAL SETTINGS, 1991, Roux P. H. , Hall R. L. , Ross R. H. ,
A ground water monitoring study was conducted for the triazine herbicide simazine at 11 sites in the United States. The study used carefully selected, small-scale sites (average size: about 33 acres) with documented product use and sensitive hydrogeological settings. The sites selected were Tulare County, California (two sites); Fresno County, California; Sussex County, Delaware; Hardee and Palm Beach counties, Florida; Winnebago County, Illinois; Jackson County, Indiana; Van Buren and Berrien counties, Michigan; and Jefferson County, West Virginia. These sites satisfied the following criteria: a history of simazine use, including the year prior to the start of the study; permeable soil and vadose zone; shallow depth to water; no restrictive soil layers above the water table; and gentle slopes not exceeding 2 percent. A variety of crop types, climates, and irrigation practices were included. Monitoring well clusters (shallow and deep) were installed at each site except in California and West Virginia, where only shallow wells were installed. Simazine was monitored at these sites at quarterly intervals for a two-year period during 1986-1988. The results of the study showed that out of 153 samples analyzed, 45 samples showed simazine detections. A substantial majority of the detections (32 out of 45) occurred in Tulare, Fresno, and Jefferson counties. The detections in these areas were attributed to mechanisms other than leaching, such as drainage wells, karst areas, surface water recharge, or point source problems. An additional 11 detections in Van Buren County were apparently due to an unknown upgradient source. Only one detection (in Palm Beach County, Florida) near the screening level of 0.1 ppb was attributed to possible leaching. The results of this investigation support the hypothesis that simazine does not leach significantly under field use conditions

STRESS ON TROPICAL KARST CULTIVATED WITH WET RICE - BOHOL, PHILIPPINES, 1993, Urich P. B. ,
Wet rice cultivation represents one of the most intensive uses of tropical karst. Under wet field conditions karstlands can be highly resilient, but nevertheless vulnerable to change. The karst environment in this study has been cultivated for at least five centuries. However, the post-World War II era has fostered a host of pressures that have altered the local ecology. Resulting stress in the irrigation systems and society threaten the maintenance of this viable karst-based agricultural economy

Contribution Of Spray Irrigation Of Wastewater To Groundwater Contamination In The Karst Of Southeastern Minnesota, USA, 1994, Mooers H. D. , Alexander Jr,

Geomorphology of the Tertiary gypsum formations in the Ebro Depression (Spain), 1998, Elorza Mg, Santolalla Fg,
This paper reviews the current knowledge of the mainly karstic geomorphological features developed in the evaporitic formations of the Ebro Depression (northern Spain). Special emphasis is given to the recently published and unpublished scientific advances. The gypsum formations, of Tertiary age, have an extensive outcrop area within the Ebro Depression. Here, their morphogenesis is controlled mainly by processes of surface and subsurface dissolution acting on the gypsum. Outstanding landforms in the gypsum terrain include saline lakes developed in flat bottom dolines (saladas). Other characteristic morphologies include karren and gypsum domes, which occur on a decimetre scale. Where the gypsum is covered by Quaternary alluvial deposits the karstification processes are especially intense and cause subsidence phenomena. Karstic subsidence affects stream terraces, mantled pediments and infilled valleys, which in the region are called vales. Dissolution-induced synsedimentary subsidence has produced interesting geological features, which include significant thickening and deformation of the alluvial deposits. In contrast to the rapid removal of gypsum by dissolution, the amount of gypsum removed by erosion is low. Water erosion studies carried out on gypsiferous slopes of the Ebro Depression, indicate that the sediment yield ranges from 0.59 to 7.82 t/ha/year. This low yield results from the high infiltration capacity of the soils. Subsidence caused by gypsum dissolution has important socioeconomic consequences in the Ebro Depression. The active alluvial karstification of the gypsum causes numerous sinkholes that are harmful to linear structures (roads, railway Lines, irrigation channels), buildings and agricultural land. Unforeseen catastrophic subsidence also puts human Lives at risk. The benefits of such terrains include thickened alluvial deposits which act as valuable water reservoirs and which form excellent sources of aggregates. Fluvial valleys in this gypsiferous terrain commonly show an asymmetrical geometry with prominent gypsum scarps at one side. These gypsum scarps are affected by numerous landslides. These slope movements are hazardous, may dam rivers and cause flooding of the alluvial plains. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Groundwater lowering in karstic aquifers due to agricultural activity in the Fucino plain (Abruzzi, Central Italy) , 1998, Burri Ezio, Petitta Marco

The alluvial-lacustrine sediments that fill the Fucino Plain (>200 km2) contain an important aquifer, mostly fed by the karstic water. The Plain displays high vulnerability by agricultural activity (potential pollution, depletion of groundwater resources). In order to find water, more than 200 wells have been drilled since the 1950s, with a seasonal delivery of about 2,000,000 m3. The possible consequences can be summarised: 1. Decreased efficiency of the operating wells because of the lowering of the piezometric levels. This kind of problem is already evident and it may determine economic losses and environmental degradation, especially if the summer water shortage causes precarious hygienic conditions in the canal network of the Plain. 2. Reduced discharge in springs. This phenomenon involves the decrease of both available drinking water supplies and regular downflow in the canals. 3. Increased vulnerability of the surrounding carbonate aquifers by the infiltration of poor-quality irrigation waters in the karst aquifers.


Land use in the tropical karst; the case of Peruau, Januria and Jaiba; SE Brazil, 1999, De Abreu Joao Francisco, Ferreira Pinto Sergio Dos Anjos, Kohler Heinz Charles
The karstic regions of the municipalities of Peruau, Januria and Jaiba present a variety of soil uses which are a function of the organization of the karstic relief. This relief system forms a rift, which received fluvial sediments deposition from the So Francisco River. The horst of the Peruau plateau is developed on limestone rocks of Late Proterozoic age with a high concentration of calcium carbonate. The South American Surface was formed on this and is today occupied by cattle ranching. In the graben, due to easy irrigation from underground karst waters and because of the nearby drainage system of the So Francisco River, a mechanized and specialized farming system has developed. The change in the management of cattle breeding and in traditional farming methods has had a substantial impact on the economic structure of the community and also on the karst itself.

Transport of free and particulate-associated bacteria in karst, 2000, Mahler B. J. , Personne J. C. , Lods G. F. , Drogue C. ,
Karst aquifers, because of their unique hydrogeologic characteristics, are extremely susceptible to contamination by pathogens. Here we present the results of an investigation of contamination of a karst aquifer by fecal indicator bacteria. Two wells intercepting zones with contrasting effective hydraulic conductivities, as determined by pump test, were monitored both during the dry season and in response to a rain event. Samples were also collected from the adjacent ephemeral surface stream, which is known to be impacted by an upstream wastewater treatment plant after rainfall. Whole water and suspended sediment samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms and enterococci. During the dry season, pumping over a 2-day period resulted in increases in concentrations of fecal coliforms to greater than 10,000 CFU/100 mi in the high-conductivity well; enterococci and total suspended solids also increased, to a lesser degree. Toward the end of the pumping period, as much as 50% of the fecal coliforms were associated with suspended sediment. Irrigation of an up-gradient pine plantation with primary-treated wastewater is the probable source of the bacterial contamination. Sampling after a rain event revealed the strong influence of water quality of the adjacent Terrieu Creek on the ground water. Bacterial concentrations in the wells showed a rapid response to increased concentrations in the surface water, with fecal coliform concentrations in ground water ultimately reaching 60,000 CFU/100 mi. Up to 100% of the bacteria in the ground water was associated with suspended sediment at Various times. The results of this investigation are evidence of the strong influence of surface water on ground water in karst terrain, including that of irrigation water. The large proportion of bacteria associated with particulates in the ground water has important implications for public health, as bacteria associated with particulates may be more persistent and more difficult to inactivate. The high bacterial concentrations found in both wells, despite the difference in hydraulic conductivity, demonstrates the difficulty of predicting vulnerability of individual wells to bacterial contamination in karst. The extreme temporal variability in bacterial concentrations underscores the importance of event-based monitoring of the bacterial quality of public water supplies in karst. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

Diversit morpho-climatique et intrt des karsts japonais, 2003, Salomon, Jeannol
Morpho-climatic features of Japanese karst areas - The Japanese karsts are practically unknown in Europe because few karstologists from this continent have visited Japan, and the studies completed there have been written in Japanese. Still, Japan has numerous karstifiable terrains of various locations and ages (from the Primary era to Holocene) that are subject to significant climatic ranges. For this reason many caves exist and many have been sheltered through the ages (archeological) up until recent times (World War II). Some are sufficiently large and well decorated to have consequently generated tourist activities, added by mystic and religious aspects. The understanding of karsts has also allowed remarkable management of underground systems for surface irrigation. Finally, due to their recording abilities, karsts developed in uplifted marine terraces offer better prospects for understanding the local tectonic patterns which concern the Japanese. These reasons make the Japanese karsts interesting.

Paleosubsidence and active subsidence due to evaporite dissolution in the Zaragoza area (Huerva River valley, NE Spain): processes, spatial distribution and protection measures for transport routes, 2004, Guerrero J. , Gutierrez F. , Lucha P. ,
The lowest 17-km long reach of the Huerva River valley, down to its confluence with the Ebro River in Zaragoza city, flows across salt-bearing evaporites of the Ebro Tertiary Basin (NE Spain). Upstream, the horizontally lying Miocene evaporites are interfingered with non-soluble distal alluvial fan facies (shales and sandstones). The proportion of soluble facies in the Huerva River valley increases in a downstream direction towards the basin depocenter. On the basis of the type and magnitude of the paleosubsidence features, the valley has been divided into four reaches. Along reach I, undeformed terrace deposits less than 4 m thick rest on insoluble detrital bedrock. In reaches II and III, dissolution at the alluvium-bedrock boundary has generated local thickening, deformation and paleocollapse structures, which only affect the alluvial mantle. In reach IV, terrace deposits thicken to over 60 m resulting from a large-scale synsedimentary subsidence. In this sector, subsidence locally affects to both the alluvium and the underlying bedrock. This indicates that dissolution acts at the rockhead beneath the alluvial cover (alluvial karst) and within the evaporitic substratum (interstratal karst). The development of an intraevaporitic karst in reach IV is attributed to gypsum and salt dissolution. Irregular terrace gravel bodies (gravel pockets) embedded in a fine-grained matrix associated with paleocollapse structures have been interpreted as liquefaction-fluidization structures resulting from ground acceleration and suction induced by catastrophic collapses. Subsidence is currently active in the region affecting areas with a thin alluvial cover in reaches III and IV. The low subsidence activity in most of Zaragoza city is explained by the presence of thickened (around 50 m) and indurated alluvial deposits. In the surrounding area, numerous buildings in Cadrete and Santa Fe villages have been severely damaged by subsidence. Natural and human-induced subsidence favours the development of slope movements in the gypsum scarp overlooking Cadrete village. Several transport routes including the Imperial Canal (irrigation canal) and the recently completed Madrid-Barcelona high-speed railway are affected by human-induced sinkholes. The paleocollapse structures exposed in the trenches of this railway and a ring road under construction point to hazardous locations underlain by cavities and collapse structures where special protection measures should be applied. Rigid structures are recommended beneath the high-speed railway with sufficient strength to span the larger sinkholes with no deformation. Electronic monitoring devices linked to a warning system can detect subtle subsidence-induced deformations in carriageways or railways. This research demonstrates that the study of the paleokarst helps to understand the processes involved in the present-day subsidence phenomena and their general spatial distribution. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

Drinking water supply from karst water resources (The example of the Kras plateau, SW Slovenia), 2004, Ravbar Nataš, A

In the past the biggest economic problem on the Kras plateau used to be drinking water supply, which has also been one of the reasons for sparsely populated Kras plateau. Today the Water Supply Company provides drinking water to households and industry on the Kras plateau and the quantity is sufficient to supply the coastal region in the summer months as well. Water supply is founded on effective karst groundwater pumping near Klariči. Some water is captured from karst springs under Nanos Mountain as well. In water supply planning in future, numerous other local water resources linked to traditional ways of water supply need to be considered. Eventual rainwater usage for garden irrigation or car washing, for communal activity (street washing) or for the needs of farming and purified wastewater usage for industry (as technological water) is not excluded.


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