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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That rebound is an upward movement of soil as a consequence of a decrease in effective stress. in fine-grained soils, rebound is usually much less than the amount of compaction since compaction is mostly irreversible [21].?

Checkout all 2699 terms in the KarstBase Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

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KarstBase a bibliography database in karst and cave science.

Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for karst area (Keyword) returned 296 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 296
Symposium on Hydrology - Tracing Percolation Waters in Karst Areas, 1968, Drew D. P.

Relief types of tropical karst areas, 1973, Balazs D.

The Hydrology and Morphology of a Karst Area in Swedish Lapland, 1974, Hellden Ulf

Geology and hydrogeology of the El Convento cave-spring system, Southwestern Puerto Rico., 1974, Beck Barry F.
Whereas the North Coast Tertiary Limestones of Puerto Rico are classic karst locales, their southern counterparts are almost devoid of karst development. The El Convento Cave-Spring System is the most prominent feature of the only large scale karst area developed on the South Coast Tertiary limestones. The karst topography is localized on the middle Juana Diaz Formation, which is a reef facies limestone, apparently because of the high density and low permeability of this zone as compared to the surrounding chalks and marls. In the El Convento System a sinking ephemeral stream combines with the flow from two perennial springs inside the cave. The surface drainage has been pirated from the Rio Tallaboa to the east into El Convento's subterranean course. The climate is generally semi-arid with 125-150 cm of rain falling principally as short, intense showers during Sept., Oct., and Nov. Sinking flood waters are absorbed by a small sinkhole and appear two to three hours later in the cave. In the dry season this input is absent. The two springs within the cave have a combined inflow to the system of 1.0 m3/min at low flow but half of this leaks back to the groundwater before it reaches the resurgence. The spring waters are saturated with CaCO3 and high in CO2 (26.4 ppm). As the water flows through the open cave it first becomes supersaturated by losing CO2 and then trends back toward saturation by precipitating CaCO3.

Distribution of Indiana cavernicolous crayfishes and their ecto-commensal Ostracods., 1975, Hobbs Iii Horton H.
Six species and subspecies of crayfishes and four species of entocytherid ostracods are known to inhabit the subterranean streams of southern Indiana. Cambarus (E.) Iaevis (troglophile) appears to be the most widely distributed crayfish and occurs in both karst areas within the State. The troglobite, Orconectes inermis (2 subspecies), is restricted to the larger karst area in solution cavities of Mississippian carbonate rocks. The remaining crayfishes, Orconectes immunis, Orconectes propinquus and Orconectes sloanii, are not common inhabitants of cave waters and are probably trogloxenes. All of the crayfishes except O. sloanii were found to host at least one species of ostracod. From data presented, Sagittocythere barri might be expected to be found commonly in association with Orconectes inermis, Donnaldsoncythere donnaldsonensis, Uncinocythere xania and Dactylocythere susanae, however, are more commonly associated with C. (E) laevis, indicating a near host-specific relationship among these taxa. Whether these are host-specific associations or ones imposed by certain ecological parameters will require additional investigations. Although a fair understanding of the distribution of these crustaceans in the larger, Mississippian limestone belt has been obtained, additional field work on the perimeter of the spelean ranges of the several species will probably prove productive. Furthermore, considerable cave exploration and biospeleological surveys are needed in the Silurian-Devonian limestones of southeast Indiana before our knowledge of these crayfishes, entocytherids and other cave-dwelling species approaches that for the Mississippian karst of the State.

Studies on the niche separation in two Carabid cave beetles., 1975, Mckinney Tom
Population, habitat and behavioural studies carried out on Pseudanophthalmus menetriesi and P. pubescens in the south central Kentucky karst area are described and discussed. Differences which exist in the timing of population recruitment, habitat preference, habitat niche breadth and in the degree of agression are all important in lessening competition between these two species.

The karst of Transvaal (South Africa)., 1976, Kavalieris I. , Martini Jacques E. J.
The Transvaal Karst is a world important example of a Karst developed on a very old dolomite. Its unique character is due to the composition of the rock and history of development. The dissolution of the dolomite is interesting and has an important effect on the character of the caves developed. The caves preserved in this area include the longest known in South Africa and are perhaps among the largest dolomite systems known in the world. They are very old and in some cases contain important palaeontological deposits (Australopithecine fauna). The caves to various degrees are in a state of de-generation, having been exposed for a very long period above the water-table. For the greater part of the Karst area, aggressive vadose waters, and long exposure has resulted in the accumulation of a thick covering of residual material. The plateau-like geomorphology and low rainfalls has prevented physical erosion and significant removal of this debris from the land surface. The caves themselves are often characterized by collapse and in general lack of formations. Massive calcite formation in the caves is usually partly or nearly completely redissolved and are relics of past colder climatic periods with winter rains. Formations active now are small, usually delicate and often due directly to evaporation. The heavy mantle of residual debris preserved under some of the more ancient of South African landsurface relics (the African Surface) poses a serious economic problem of stability, with mans' utilization of the environment. A greater understanding of the Karst, its evolution and properties is thus of considerable practical importance.

Geomorphology of the North Karst, South Nahanni River Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, PhD Thesis, 1976, Brook, George Albert,

First investigated on the ground in June 1972, the Nahanni karst of northern Canada is the most complex karst terrain yet reported from high latitudes. It is centered at 61°28' N, longitude 124°05' W and lies within the zone of discontinuous permafrost. Mean annual temperature is 24°F and mean total precipitation 22.3 inches. Principal karst forms are fracture-located karst streets and irregularly-shaped closed depression called karst platea which may be up to 600 feet in depth. Platea often contain karst towers which are residuals of wall recession. Vertical-walled pond dolines up to 120 feet deep are common in bare karst areas while subjacent karst collapse, subsidence and suffosion depressions occur on marginal shale- and drift-mantled surfaces. Three small poljes have been identified, two produced entirely by solution, the other a structural form. These are periodically inundated. There are several peripheral fluvial canyons up to 3,000 feet deep that are blocked by glacial drift and which presently drain underground. Similarity in the hydrogeological properties of Nahanni Formation limestones at a variety of scales has led to the development of morphologically-identical karst forms which range in size from inches up to hundreds of feet. Furthermore, many of these landforms are part of a developmental sequence that at one scale links vertical-walled dolines, karst streets, platea and poljes; and at another links solution pits, grikes and joint hollows on limestone pavements. The evidence suggests that poljes form by the coalescence of dolines and uvalas just as Cvijic suggested in 1918. In attempting to explain the almost "tropical" nature of the sub-arctic Nahanni karst landform assemblage, a number of facts are of importance.
(a) The Nahanni Formation limestones have been highly warped and intensively fractures during the past one million years. Open fractures have encouraged karstification by allowing easy movement of water underground. Warping has provided the relief necessary for the development of solutional forms with a distinct vertical component.
(b) The karst can not be considered relict because it was glaciated during the Pleistocene. In addition the hydrological activity in it today is comparable with that in many humid tropical karst areas.
(c) Solutional denudation rates governed by aspects of surficial and bedrock geology may in some localized areas be equivalent to rates in humid tropical carbonate regions.
(d) At present rates, the most highly developed forms could have been produced within the last 200,000 years and because there is evidence to indicate that the karst may not have been glaciated for up to 250,000 years, such a period has been available for solutional development.
Because the Nahanni region has not been glaciated for an extremely long period, it may be one of only a few high-latitude carbonate terrains that have had time to develop fully. Its very existence questions the validity of the concept that the intensity and direction of karst development is climate-controlled. In the Nahanni at least, the structural and lithological properties of the host limestone appear to have been of greater importance. The labyrinth karst type present in regions of humid-tropical to sub-arctic climate, is an outstanding example of a structurally-controlled karst landscape. It may well be that the same controls also influence the distributions of other karst types.

Karst development in Ordovician carbonates: Western Platform of Newfoundland, Master of Science (MS) Thesis, 1978, Karolyi, Marika Sarolta

The Appalachian fold belt system in Newfoundland is divided into three tectonic divisions: Western Platform; Central Mobile Belt; Avalon Platform Rocks of the Western Platform range in age from Precambrian to Carboniferous. Major karst areas are found there is Ordovician and Carboniferous rocks. Karst features of the study area (Goose Arm to Bonne Bay Big Pond) are in the Ordovician carbonates of the undivided St. George and Table Head Formations, covering a few hundred square kilometers. Features include karren, sinkholes, sinking streams, and karst springs, caves and other solutional and collapse features.
In the study area multiple fold and faulting episodes complicate the geology. Extensive and probably repeated glaciations have produced rugged terrane with U-shaped valleys and as much as 300m relief on the carbonates. There is variable but thick till cover. A class or classes of ice-scoured closed depressions with internal drainage are recognized. Postglacial karst forms are limited to varieties of karren (mainly littoral), small sinkholes, and cave systems that are inaccessively small in most instances. Distribution of all karst features is highly irregular.
Hydrologic patterns follow fluvial, fluviokarstic and holokarstic drainage. Large number of sinking ponds have seasonal overflow channels. The ground water drainage routes are generally short and shallow, with varied hydraulic gradients. Few instances of ground water route integration to regional springs is found.
The water chemistry of the area displays a tight normal distribution of hardness. This is attributed to the ponding effect. Seasonal trends show an overall increase in total hardness and other parameters, with some ponds showing linear increases and others cyclic variations.
Karst type and distribution is complex and irregular, but both glaciokarstic and karstiglacial development is present. The majority of karst forms point to karstiglacial development where previous karst forms have been modified by ice. Karstification is controlled by geology, rock lithology, hydraulic gradients and glacial scour and infill. Karstic processes continue to operate today, modifying the scoured basins and creating new karst forms.

Alpha-radiation in Karst areas of the Transvaal, South Africa, 1981, Gamble Frances M.

Aspects of the Geology of two contrasted South African Karst areas, 1981, Marker Margaret E.

Genetic Differentiation in Populations of the Freshwater Amphipod Gammarus minus Say in a Karst Area., 1981, Gooch James L. , Hetrick Steven W.
The genetic makeup of populations in a particular geographic area should conform, in part, to environmental structure. Three polymorphic enzyme loci in the amphipod Gammarus minus are geographically differentiated in gene frequencies in the mid-Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States, and genetic breaks usually coincide with topographical features and stream divides. Areas with well integrated drainage systems have a high degree of genetic uniformity.

Elments d'une approche nergtique du karst, application quelques exemples rels de karsts, 1983, Quinif, Y.
DATA FOR AN ENERGIZING APPROACH OF THE KARST. APPLICATIONS TO A FEW EXAMPLES OF KARST AREAS - One considers the karst like an open thermodynamic system where the located dissipation of hydrodynamical, chemical and mechanical energies gives to the karst a structurated heterogeneity. One discusses about the modalities of the energy dissipation into the karst. The study of some real examples of karstic networks allows understanding how these theoretical concepts explain their characteristics. One ends by a prospect of research: to consider the karstic system like a dissipative system in the meaning of Prigogine.

Towards the prediction of subsidence risk upon the Chalk outcrop, 1983, Edmonds Cn,
Surface karst landforms such as solution pipes, swallow holes and dolines are well developed on the Cretaceous chalk outcrop in Britain. The local frequency of these solution features on the chalk can be as high as on any of the best developed karst areas on other British limestones. However, the overall frequency of solution features for major regions of the chalk outcrop is much lower. Solution pipes, swallow holes and dolines often represent an engineering hazard because of metastable conditions, which, if disturbed, can result in ground subsidence. The research described here is aimed at producing a model to predict areas of subsidence risk upon the chalk outcrop. Considerations for the prediction of subsidence risk are outlined with preliminary analysis for two areas

Prediction of Climatic Temperature Data for Karst Areas in the Central and Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, 1983, Halbert, Erik J. M.

The use of multiple regression analysis is shown to overcome current limitations in availability of climatic temperature data for caving sites in the Central and Southern Tablelands of New South Wales. The developed equations are used to calculate climatic data for Jenolan, Wellington, and Oberon which agree well with recorded data at these sites. The equations are also used to calculate data for six major caving areas in New South Wales, including the tourist areas Wombeyan and Yarrangobilly and frequently visited areas such as Bungonia and Wee Jasper.

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