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Speleology in Kazakhstan

Shakalov on 04 Jul, 2018
Hello everyone!   I pleased to invite you to the official site of Central Asian Karstic-Speleological commission ("Kaspeko")   There, we regularly publish reports about our expeditions, articles and reports on speleotopics, lecture course for instructors, photos etc. ...

New publications on hypogene speleogenesis

Klimchouk on 26 Mar, 2012
Dear Colleagues, This is to draw your attention to several recent publications added to KarstBase, relevant to hypogenic karst/speleogenesis: Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications Galdenzi,

The deepest terrestrial animal

Klimchouk on 23 Feb, 2012
A recent publication of Spanish researchers describes the biology of Krubera Cave, including the deepest terrestrial animal ever found: Jordana, Rafael; Baquero, Enrique; Reboleira, Sofía and Sendra, Alberto. ...

Caves - landscapes without light

akop on 05 Feb, 2012
Exhibition dedicated to caves is taking place in the Vienna Natural History Museum   The exhibition at the Natural History Museum presents the surprising variety of caves and cave formations such as stalactites and various crystals. ...

Did you know?

That subsequent river is 1. a river flowing along the strike of a weak formation [16]. 2. a tributary to a consequent river [16].?

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Featured articles from Cave & Karst Science Journals
Chemistry and Karst, White, William B.
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Featured articles from other Geoscience Journals
Karst environment, Culver D.C.
Mushroom Speleothems: Stromatolites That Formed in the Absence of Phototrophs, Bontognali, Tomaso R.R.; D’Angeli Ilenia M.; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Gonzales, Esteban R. G.; De Waele, Jo
Calculating flux to predict future cave radon concentrations, Rowberry, Matt; Marti, Xavi; Frontera, Carlos; Van De Wiel, Marco; Briestensky, Milos
Microbial mediation of complex subterranean mineral structures, Tirato, Nicola; Torriano, Stefano F.F;, Monteux, Sylvain; Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Lavagna, Maria Luisa; D’Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Chailloux, Daniel; Renda, Michel; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Bontognali, Tomaso Renzo Rezio
Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), Briestensky, Milos; Rowberry, Matt; Stemberk, Josef; Stefanov, Petar; Vozar, Jozef; Sebela, Stanka; Petro, Lubomir; Bella, Pavel; Gaal, Ludovit; Ormukov, Cholponbek;
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Your search for karst landscapes (Keyword) returned 50 results for the whole karstbase:
Showing 1 to 15 of 50
Karst Landscapes of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica, 1957, Doerr Ah, Hoy Dr,

A Preliminary Survey of Water Chemistry in the Limestone of the Buchan Area Under Low Flow Conditions, 1984, Ellaway Mark, Finlayson Brian

Water samples from selected sites in the Buchan area were collected on two different occasions (survey 1 and survey 2) in an preliminary attempt to characterise the samples taken in terms of chemical composition. Chemical constituents such as Ca++, Mg++, and titration alkalinity (as mg/l CaCO3) varied considerably and ranged from 9.0 - 187.0 mg/l, 2.5 - 43.3 mg/l and 27 - 417 mg/l (survey 1) and 3.5 - 188.7 mg/l, 3.5 - 40.0 mg/l and 44 - 424 mg/l (survey 2) respectively. This range in values is attributed to the differing lithology of the sample sites chosen and reflects the geological control on water chemistry of karst landscapes. A computer program for determining equilibrium speciation of aqueous solutions was used to calculate partial pressure of carbon dioxide and saturation indices with respect to calcite and dolomite.


Themes in Prehistory of the Nullarbor Caves, Semi-Arid Southern Australia, 1986, Davey, Adrian

The 200,000 square kilometre Nullarbor Plain is a largely and relatively inhospitable tract of semi-arid land on the southern coast of Australia. It is also one of the world's largest and probably oldest karst landscapes. It contains a substantial number of caves, some of them very large. The sheer size of the plain together with its lack of surface water have made it a powerful ecological, physical and psychological barrier to the dispersal of evolving plants and animals and to human trade, settlement and communications. Because the plain is otherwise easily perceived as featureless, the more obvious of the caves have played an unusually prominent part in human exploration and occupation of the region. Aboriginal prehistory of cave exploration and use extends over many millenia. Two themes are especially interesting: quarrying underground as one of the earliest, and the role of water and shade in an inhospitable environment as the most persistent. The advent of European, Afghan and other cultures on this part of the southern coastline during the last four centuries has diversified the relevant historic themes. Victorian British discovery and exploration is the first stage in modern recognition of the caves, although long after the region was first discovered. The next and perhaps most remarkable phase brings together developments in Australian aviation and the adaptation of a grounded mariner to the land and air. Eventually the action moves on to the development of organised speleology. Other sub-themes in human interactions with the caves in this large waterless area include what may turn out to be either art or vandalism. They also include attempted grand solutions to the problem of water, by improbable engineering, as well as adventures of tourism, recreation and science.


Civil engineering difficulties in the karst of China, 1988, Waltham A. C. , Smart P. L. ,
Karst landscapes, developed by solutional erosion of massive limestones, are characterized by underground drainage and the development of closed depressions. In tropical areas, with high solution rates, long uninterrupted periods of erosion and a lack of glacial planation, the expansion and deepening of these closed depressions creates a rugged relief dominated by either conical hills or steeper-sided towers. The form of the cones and towers is a function of both the carbonate lithology and the erosional history; the towers develop only in massive, mechanically strong, compact limestones where erosional planation and tectonic uplift have kept pace over a long period of time (Smart et al 1986). These karst landscapes are characteristic of huge areas of southern China, largely in the provinces of Guangxi and Guizhou (Fig. 1) and the spectacular scenery of the limestone has often been represented in classical Chinese painting. They are now also becoming a major tourist attraction, with Guilin, in Guangxi, frequently visited by Westerners. These terrains do, however, pose serious difficulties to the civil engineer. Where relief is not great, or where rates of uplift have been low, corridors of flatter ground have often been created by lateral planation at the water table. These corridors may be lithologically or structurally controlled, and form obvious routes through the karst. Where the relief is higher and the regional water table is not intersected, coalescence of the depressions to form flatter ground is rare, and road and rail development is more problematic. In order to avoid excessive and ... This 250-word extract was created in the absence of an abstract

Morphometric analysis of dolines, 1992, Bondesan Aldino, Meneghel Mirco, Sauro Ugo
The doline is the most specific surface form of karst landscapes, which enables one to distinguish them from "normal" erosion landscapes shaped by surface water. From a morphodynamic point of view the doline constitutes an elementary hydrographic unit, comparable to a simple basin, which, with its system of slopes, conveys water to the absorbing points at the bottom into an underground network. The morphometric study of these karst landforms enables a quantitative analysis of karst environment. Comparisons of the various parameters may give unexpected results and lead to new hypotheses about the evolution and the dynamism of the karst "geo-ecosystem". All the main morphometric parameters of the dolines are listed and explained and a preliminary discussion about some methods of spatial analysis is developed. It is intended to give methodological suggestions about data sources, systems of measurement, and to stimulate some reflection on the choices of possible processing of morphometric variables and on the significance of statistical analysis applied to different parameters. After a brief review of some morphometric and spatial analyses made in the past by different authors, three different examples are presented, relative to karst areas of the Venetian Prealps (Cansiglio-Cavallo, Montello) and of the Carso di Trieste. From these few examples one can understand how to confront this complex subject and what kind of results the analysis of morphometric parameters may give. In interpreting the results it is evident that one must not forget the geological, geomorphological, pedological, vegetational and climatic context of the karst area.

DENUDATION CHRONOLOGY FROM CAVE AND RIVER TERRACE LEVELS - THE CASE OF THE BUCHAN KARST, SOUTHEASTERN AUSTRALIA, 1992, Webb J. A. , Fabel D. , Finlayson B. L. , Ellaway M. , Li S. , Spiertz H. P. ,
Detailed mapping of surface and underground karst features at Buchan, in eastern Victoria, has shown that the three river terraces along the Buchan River can be correlated with three levels of epiphreatic development in the nearby caves. Each level represents a stillstand in the denudational history of the area. Uranium series dating of speleothems and palaeomagnetic studies of cave sediments indicate that all three stillstands are more than 730 ka old. The periods of incision separating the stillstands were probably the result of active tectonic uplift. This contrasts with some northern parts of the Southeastern Highlands, which have been stable since the Eocene. The overall amount of incision and uplift at Buchan is small, indicating that the majority of scarp retreat in this section of the highlands must have occurred earlier. The denudation history of the Buchan area over the last 730 ka has seen only 2-3 m of incision, despite the major climatic and sea-level changes that have occurred in that time. Whereas most karst landscapes in the Northern Hemisphere have been extensively modified during the late Pleistocene, the Buchan karst was little affected, and its geomorphology has an older origin

SPELEOGENESIS IN AEOLIAN CALCARENITE - A CASE-STUDY IN WESTERN VICTORIA, 1994, White S. ,
Most studies of karst landscapes and their processes have been concerned with consolidated, often well-jointed limestones. There are particular problems involved in the study of karst procesess in softer, less-compact limestones such as chalk, coral reefs, and aeolian calcarenite. Previous studies in aeolian calcarenite indicated these problems and a scheme was developed of speleogenesis in aeolian calcarenite. A study of karst processes in aeolian calcarenite at Bats Ridge in western Victoria has developed this scheme further. The karst features and processes at Bats Ridge are an integral part of the landscape of a mid-Pleistocene calcarenite dune system. The resolution of problems of the rapid subaerial speleogenesis in the area is achieved by the synthesis of the known karst features of the ridge and the geology and geomorphology of the area. Karst development on this aeolianite ridge depends on lithological conditions as well as the availability of aggressive water capable of solution. The diagenesis of the calcarenite is occurring now and must have been occurring by the mid-Pleistocene. This simultaneous lithification of the carbonate dunes into aeolian calcarenite rock and the development of solutional karst features in the dunes is the characteristic feature of the speleogenesis in this area. It is the formation of a hardened kankar layer (cap rock) in the dunes of sufficient compressive and tensile strength to support cavities, which is the result of these interrelated factors, that has strongly determined the formation of the karst features

USING GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR TO INVESTIGATE A SUBSURFACE KARST LANDSCAPE IN NORTH-CENTRAL FLORIDA, 1994, Collins Me, Cum M, Hanninen P,
Doline formation in karst areas has been a major concern in Florida. Recently, there has been increased interest in investigating the subsurface conditions that influences preferential flow in these karst landscapes. This information is necessary to improve transport and fate models of contaminants. In addition, there is interest in knowing if the formation and expansion of dolines can be predicted by studying subsurface conditions and flow patterns. The soils on the Newberry Limestone Plain are typically sandy above a thin or absent phosphatic, clayey Hawthorne Formation. Underlying this formation is the Crystal River Limestone. A field survey with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was conducted on the Newberry Limestone Plain at a site with recently formed dolines. The objectives were (i) to investigate the subsurface materials, (ii) to ascertain subsurface landscape variability, (iii) to relate the subsurface landscapes to subsurface flow patterns, and (iv) to predict doline growth and formation in the study area. The results of this study indicated that the subsurface features; presence of clay over limestone, location of solution pipes and paleo-dolines are variable. In general, the subsurface landscape does not follow the surface topography. Subsurface solute movement can be estimated in these landscapes assuming the clay layer that drapes the limestone acts as an aquatarde. Thus, subsurface modeling of flow at the study site is improved. Locations of paleo-dolines and solution pipes were obvious in the radar data. Predictions, though, of future doline formation and growth at the study site were difficult with GPR. Fracture patterns, e.g. dips in the limestone, can be evaluated and weak zones where paleo-dolines have formed can be identified. This study would not have been possible without the use of the GPR. The radar was able to obtain continuous information on 16% of the site to a depth of 3 m. A highly detailed soil survey using conventional methods would have provided only 0.8% coverage of the site

Using ground-penetrating radar to investigate a subsurface karst landscape in north-central Florida, 1994, Collins M. E. , Cure M. , Hanninen P.

Doline formation in karst areas has been a major concern in Florida. Recently, there has been increased interest in investigating the subsurface conditions that influences preferential flow in these karst landscapes. This information is necessary to improve transport and fate models of contaminants. In addition, there is interest in knowing if the formation and expansion of dolines can be predicted by studying subsurface conditions and flow patterns. The soils on the Newberry Limestone Plain are typically sandy above a thin or absent phosphatic, clayey Hawthorne Formation. Underlying this formation is the Crystal River Limestone. A field survey with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) was conducted on the Newberry Limestone Plain at a site with recently formed dolines. The objectives were (i) to investigate the subsurface materials, (ii) to ascertain subsurface landscape variability, (iii) to relate the subsurface landscapes to subsurface flow patterns, and (iv) to predict doline growth and formation in the study area. The results of this study indicated that the subsurface features; presence of clay over limestone, location of solution pipes and paleo-dolines are variable. In general, the subsurface landscape does not follow the surface topography. Subsurface solute movement can be estimated in these landscapes assuming the clay layer that drapes the limestone acts as an aquatarde. Thus, subsurface modeling of flow at the study site is improved. Locations of paleo-dolines and solution pipes were obvious in the radar data. Predictions, though, of future doline formation and growth at the study site were difficult with GPR. Fracture patterns, e.g. dips in the limestone, can be evaluated and weak zones where paleo-dolines have formed can be identified. This study would not have been possible without the use of the GPR. The radar was able to obtain continuous information on 16% of the site to a depth of 3 m. A highly detailed soil survey using conventional methods would have provided only 0.8% coverage of the site


Karst Landscapes and Associated Resources: a Resource Assessment. Report PNW-GTR-383, 1996, Baichtal J. F. , Swanston D. N.

Evolution and dynamics of soil-geomorphic systems in karst landscapes of the European north, 1997, Goryachkin S. V. , Shavrina E. V. ,
Six types of soil-geomorphic systems within sulfate-karst landscapes in the north of European Russia have been investigated. The distinctions in structure and composition of these systems are conditioned by the tectonic fault pattern and jointing of the karstland. The soil data obtained allow us to gain an insight into the essence of geomorphic processes and to evaluate the dynamics of land surface in karst landscapes. Conceptual models of the origin and dynamics of soil-geomorphic systems of karst landscapes and the model of their evolution within the zone of dense jointing of gypsum rocks under the impact of denudation processes are suggested. The assessment of geomorphic functions of the soils in karst area attests to their importance as the controls of potential erosion. Only soil-biotic processes (Litter accumulation) are undoubtedly protective, while other processes may either hinder or strongly intensify the erosion. After the Quaternary sediments are removed and the erosion starts to penetrate into the hard gypsum layer, a strong positive feedback between soil-forming and karst-forming processes appears. Thus, the final stages of the evolution of soil-geomorphic systems in karst landscapes are characterized by great dynamism

Coho salmon populations in the karst landscape of north Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska, 1998, Bryant Md, Swanston Dn, Wissmar Rc, Wright Be,
Karst topography is a unique and distinct landscape and its geology may have important implications for salmon productivity in streams. The relationship between salmonid communities and water chemistry and the influence of habitat was examined in a set of streams on north Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska. Streams in karat landscapes showed higher alkalinities (1,500-2,300 mu eq/L) than streams not influenced by karst landscapes (750-770 mu eq/L). A significant, positive relationship was observed between alkalinity and density of coho salmon parr Oncorhynchus kitsutch. Backwater pools supported higher densities of coho salmon than did other habitat units. Both coho salmon fry and parr tended to be larger in most karst-influenced streams than in nonkarst streams. Although past timber harvest practices in the riparian areas of several of the streams appeared to influence stream habitat and water temperature, streams flowing through karat landscapes had a distinct water chemistry. Furthermore, these streams appeared to support more fish than nonkarst streams

An assessment of protected karst landscapes in Southeast Asia, 2000, Day M. , Urich P.

Limestone dissolution rates in karst environments, 2000, Dreybrodt W. , Eisenlohr L.
The removal of limestone from the bedrock at the surface and below ground by CO2-containing aqueous solutions sculptures karst landscapes and complex karst aquifers. To understand the evolution of such karstic features requires the knowledge of dissolution rates under various hydrogeological conditions. These rates are controlled by several complex mechanisms: 1) The rate equations of Plummer et al. (1978), from which surface reaction rates can be obtained when the concentrations of reacting species at the surface are known. 2) The slow reaction of CO2 to H+ and HCO3, which provides the H+ ion for converting carbonate to bicarbonate ions. 3) Mass transport by diffusion, either in laminar or turbulent flow. 4) Inhibition of surface reaction rates by the presence of impurities in natural carbonate minerals. 5) Open- or closed-system conditions with respect to CO2, under which dissolutional removal of limestone is active. Depending on the actual conditions each of these processes can greatly effect dissolution rates. This paper addresses these problems and provides data, which can be used to obtain realistic dissolution rates, when solutions flow laminarly in narrow fractures, but also for turbulent flow in large conduits, and a variety of other different hydrogeological conditions. These data are also necessary as input for modeling the evolution of karst.

Characteristics of karst ecosystems of Vietnam and their vulnerability to human impact, 2001, Tuyet D. ,
Karst in Vietnam covers an area of about 60,000 km(2), i.e. 18 % of the surface of the country. The country has an annual average temperature of 24 degreesC, an annual average rainfall of 2300 nun and a relative humidity of about 90%. Karst in Vietnam is typified by peak cluster-depression landscapes ranging in elevation from 200 to over 2000 m. Tower and coastal karst landscapes also exit. Because of naturally favourable conditions, karst ecosystems are diverse and very rich. Higher plants(cormophytes) are abundant. They are represented by approximately 2000 species, 908 genera, 224 families, 86 orders and 7 phyla. They form a thick vegetation cover of evergreen tropical rainforest. Knowledge about lower plants is limited. The fauna is rich and diverse. Phyla such as Protozoa, Vermes, Mollusca and Arthropoda are yet ill known. Preliminary results show that the phylum Chordata is represented by 541 species from 80 families, 40 orders and 5 classes. There exist many precious and rare mammals, in particular some endemic species such as Trachypithecus poliocephalus, T. delacouri, Rhinopithecus avanculus, Rhinolophus rouxi, Seotoma dineties and Silurus cuephuongensis. The class Insecta has about 2000 species. The fast population growth, particularly in the mountainous areas of the country, triggers an increasing demand for land and therefore threatens the ecosystem. To obtain land for farming, people have cut, burned and destroyed natural forest cover; resulting in occurrence of hazards such as soil-loss, water-loss, flash floods, mud-rock flows, rock-falls, severe drought, water logging and changes of karstic aquifers etc. Poaching precious animals and illegal logging are increasing. In contrast to other natural systems, karst ecosystems cannot be reestablished once damaged. Living karst landscapes will become rocky desert ones without life. Conservation of karstic environmental systems in general and karstic ecosystems in particular should not be the sole vocation of scientists but also a duty and responsibility of authorities and people from all levels. A good example of a multidisciplinary approach to karst-related problems is the implementation of the Vietnamese-Belgian Karst Project (VBEKAP): 'Rural development in the mountain karst area of NW Vietnam by sustainable water and land management and social learning: its conditions and facilitation'. The aim of this project is to improve living conditions of local people and sustained protection and management of the karst environment and ecosystem

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